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Diagnostics, Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 279 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Childhood obesity is a substantial health concern in the United States and worldwide. Obesity is associated with higher metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Early detection of obesity-related biomarkers in children is vital to reducing adulthood health complications. Bead-based multiplex immunoassay is a high-throughput method for analyzing multiple-target systems in one sample. In this study, we performed non-invasive measurement of neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). We identified increased expression of BDNF, β-NGF, and blood pressure in obese compared to healthy children. Both neurotrophins are positively associated with anthropometric measurements and blood pressure. This suggests that salivary neurotrophins can serve as non-invasive obesity biomarkers in children. View this paper
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Article
NDCN-Brain: An Extensible Dynamic Functional Brain Network Model
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051298 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 422
Abstract
As an extension of the static network, the dynamic functional brain network can show continuous changes in the brain’s connections. Then, limited by the length of the fMRI signal, it is difficult to show every instantaneous moment in the construction of a dynamic [...] Read more.
As an extension of the static network, the dynamic functional brain network can show continuous changes in the brain’s connections. Then, limited by the length of the fMRI signal, it is difficult to show every instantaneous moment in the construction of a dynamic network and there is a lack of effective prediction of the dynamic changes of the network after the signal ends. In this paper, an extensible dynamic brain function network model is proposed. The model utilizes the ability of extracting and predicting the instantaneous state of the dynamic network of neural dynamics on complex networks (NDCN) and constructs a dynamic network model structure that can provide more than the original signal range. Experimental results show that every snapshot in the network obtained by the proposed method has a usable network structure and that it also has a good classification result in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Extractable Knowledge from the Shape of Anatomical Structures)
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Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Companion Diagnostic Tests by Immunohistochemistry for the Screening of Alectinib-Treated Patients in ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051297 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Companion diagnostic tests and targeted therapy changed the management of non-small cell lung cancer by diagnosing genetic modifications and enabling individualized treatment. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the clinical applicability of companion diagnostic tests (IHC method) by comparing the [...] Read more.
Companion diagnostic tests and targeted therapy changed the management of non-small cell lung cancer by diagnosing genetic modifications and enabling individualized treatment. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the clinical applicability of companion diagnostic tests (IHC method) by comparing the effects of alectinib and crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. We searched for literature up to March 2022 in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of alectinib and crizotinib using an IHC-based companion diagnostic test. The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary outcomes were objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), and overall survival (OS). PFS was longer in alectinib (68.4 [61.0, 75.9]) than crizotinib (48.7 [40.4, 56.9]). This indicated that alectinib had a superior efficacy to that of crizotinib (HR range 0.15–0.47). In all secondary outcomes, alectinib was better than crizotinib. Particularly for the ORR, the odds ratio (OR) confirmed that alectinib had a lower risk rate (OR: 2.21, [1.46–3.36], p = 0.0002, I2 = 39%). Therefore, the companion diagnostic test (immunohistochemistry) is an effective test to determine whether to administer alectinib to ALK-positive NSCLC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
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Article
Modeling and Simulating an Orthodontic System Using Virtual Methods
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051296 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a modern imaging technique that uses X-rays to investigate the structures of the dento-maxillary apparatus and obtain detailed images of those structures. The aim of this study was to determine a functional mathematical model able to evaluate [...] Read more.
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a modern imaging technique that uses X-rays to investigate the structures of the dento-maxillary apparatus and obtain detailed images of those structures. The aim of this study was to determine a functional mathematical model able to evaluate the elastic force intensity on each bracket and tube type element and the ways in which those components act on the orthodontic system being used. To analyze a real orthodontic system, we studied the case of a 13-year-old female patient. To transfer geometric information from tomographic images, we used the InVesalius software. This software can generate three-dimensional reconstructions based on sequences and files in the DICOM format and was purchased from CBCT equipment. We analyzed and processed the geometries of the converted tissues in InVesalius using the Geomagic software. After using the Geomagic software, we exported the resulting model to the SolidWorks software used in computer-aided design. In this software, the model is transformed into a virtual solid. After making the geometric model, we analyzed the model using the Ansys Workbench software, which incorporates finite element analysis techniques. Following the simulations, we obtained result maps, which showed the complete mechanical behavior of the analyzed structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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Review
Endoscopic Diagnosis and Management of Barrett’s Esophagus with Low-Grade Dysplasia
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051295 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Barrett’s Esophagus is a common condition associated with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is well known that it has an association with a higher incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but this neoplastic transformation is first preceded by the onset of low and high-grade dysplasia. [...] Read more.
Barrett’s Esophagus is a common condition associated with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is well known that it has an association with a higher incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but this neoplastic transformation is first preceded by the onset of low and high-grade dysplasia. The evaluation of low grade dysplastic esophageal mucosa is still controversial; although endoscopic surveillance is preferred, several minimally invasive endoscopic therapeutic approaches are available. Endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation are the most used endoscopic treatments for the eradication of low-grade dysplasia, respectively, for nodular and flat dysplasia. Novel endoscopic treatments are cryotherapy ablation and argon plasma coagulation, that have good rates of eradication with less complications and post-procedural pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Leading Diagnostics Tool: Endoscopy 2022)
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Article
Comparison Study of Myocardial Radiomics Feature Properties on Energy-Integrating and Photon-Counting Detector CT
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051294 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 393
Abstract
The implementation of radiomics-based, quantitative imaging parameters is hampered by a lack of stability and standardization. Photon-counting computed tomography (PCCT), compared to energy-integrating computed tomography (EICT), does rely on a novel detector technology, promising better spatial resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio. However, its effect [...] Read more.
The implementation of radiomics-based, quantitative imaging parameters is hampered by a lack of stability and standardization. Photon-counting computed tomography (PCCT), compared to energy-integrating computed tomography (EICT), does rely on a novel detector technology, promising better spatial resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio. However, its effect on radiomics feature properties is unknown. This work investigates this topic in myocardial imaging. In this retrospective, single-center IRB-approved study, the left ventricular myocardium was segmented on CT, and the radiomics features were extracted using pyradiomics. To compare features between scanners, a t-test for non-paired samples and F-test was performed, with a threshold of 0.05 set as a benchmark for significance. Feature correlations were calculated by the Pearson correlation coefficient, and visualization was performed with heatmaps. A total of 50 patients (56% male, mean age 56) were enrolled in this study, with equal proportions of PCCT and EICT. First-order features were, nearly, comparable between both groups. However, higher-order features showed a partially significant difference between PCCT and EICT. While first-order radiomics features of left ventricular myocardium show comparability between PCCT and EICT, detected differences of higher-order features may indicate a possible impact of improved spatial resolution, better detection of lower-energy photons, and a better signal-to-noise ratio on texture analysis on PCCT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Medical Image Analysis)
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Article
Repeatability of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound to Determine Renal Cortical Perfusion
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051293 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Alterations in renal perfusion play a major role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. Renal contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is increasingly applied to quantify renal cortical perfusion and to assess its change over time, but comprehensive assessment of the technique’s repeatability is lacking. Ten [...] Read more.
Alterations in renal perfusion play a major role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. Renal contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is increasingly applied to quantify renal cortical perfusion and to assess its change over time, but comprehensive assessment of the technique’s repeatability is lacking. Ten adults attended two renal CEUS scans within 14 days. In each session, five destruction/reperfusion sequences were captured. One-phase association was performed to derive the following parameters: acoustic index (AI), mean transit time (mTT), perfusion index (PI), and wash-in rate (WiR). Intra-individual and inter-operator (image analysis) repeatability for the perfusion variables were assessed using intra-class correlation (ICC), with the agreement assessed using a Bland–Altman analysis. The 10 adults had a median (IQR) age of 39 years (30–46). Good intra-individual repeatability was found for mTT (ICC: 0.71) and PI (ICC: 0.65). Lower repeatability was found for AI (ICC: 0.50) and WiR (ICC: 0.56). The correlation between the two operators was excellent for all variables: the ICCs were 0.99 for PI, 0.98 for AI, 0.87 for mTT, and 0.83 for WiR. The Bland–Altman analysis showed that the mean biases (± SD) between the two operators were 0.03 ± 0.16 for mTT, 0.005 ± 0.09 for PI, 0.04 ± 0.19 for AI, and −0.02 ± 0.11 for WiR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Medical Image Analysis)
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Article
Tissue Fraction Correction and Visual Analysis Increase Diagnostic Sensitivity in Predicting Malignancy of Ground-Glass Nodules on [18F]FDG PET/CT: A Bicenter Retrospective Study
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051292 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 359
Abstract
We investigated the role of [18F]FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in evaluating ground-glass nodules (GGNs) by visual analysis and tissue fraction correction. A total of 40 pathologically confirmed ≥1 cm GGNs were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively. [18F]FDG uptake [...] Read more.
We investigated the role of [18F]FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in evaluating ground-glass nodules (GGNs) by visual analysis and tissue fraction correction. A total of 40 pathologically confirmed ≥1 cm GGNs were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively. [18F]FDG uptake of GGN distinct from background lung activity was considered positive in visual analysis. In semiquantitative analysis, we performed tissue fraction correction for the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of GGN. Of the 40 GGNs, 25 (63%) were adenocarcinomas, 9 (23%) were minimally invasive adenocarcinomas (MIAs), and 6 (15%) were adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS). On visual analysis, adenocarcinoma showed the highest positivity rate among the three pathological groups (88%, 44%, and 17%, respectively). Both SUVmax and tissue-fraction–corrected SUVmax (SUVmaxTF) were in the order of adenocarcinoma > MIA > AIS (p = 0.033 and 0.018, respectively). SUVmaxTF was significantly higher than SUVmax before correction (2.4 [1.9–3.0] vs. 1.3 [0.8–1.8], p < 0.001). When using a cutoff value of 2.5, the positivity rate of GGNs was significantly higher in SUVmaxTF than in SUVmax (50% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity of [18F]FDG PET/CT in predicting the malignancy of lung GGN was improved by tissue fraction correction and visual analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image-Guided Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Comprehensive Development and Implementation of Good Laboratory Practice for NGS Based Targeted Panel on Solid Tumor FFPE Tissues in Diagnostics
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051291 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 642
Abstract
The speed, accuracy, and increasing affordability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) have revolutionized the advent of precision medicine. To date, standardized validation criteria for diagnostic accreditation do not exist due to variability across the multitude of NGS platforms and within NGS processes. In molecular [...] Read more.
The speed, accuracy, and increasing affordability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) have revolutionized the advent of precision medicine. To date, standardized validation criteria for diagnostic accreditation do not exist due to variability across the multitude of NGS platforms and within NGS processes. In molecular diagnostics, it is necessary to ensure that the primary material of the FFPE sample has good quality and optimum quantity for the analysis, otherwise the laborious and expensive NGS test may result in unreliable information. Therefore, stringent quality control of DNA and RNA before, during, and after library preparation is an essential parameter. Considering the various challenges with the FFPE samples, we aimed to set a benchmark in QC metrics that can be utilized by molecular diagnostic laboratories for successful library preparation and high-quality NGS data output. In total, 144 DNA and 103 RNA samples of various cancer types with a maximum storage of 2 years were processed for 52 gene focus panels. During the making of DNA and RNA libraries, extensive QC check parameters were imposed at different checkpoints. The decision tree approach can be set as a benchmark for FFPE samples and as a guide to establishing a good clinical laboratory practice for targeted NGS panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Sequencing in Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment II)
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Article
Choroidal Vascular Impairment in Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051290 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease, whose complete pathogenesis is still unclear. Local hemodynamics may play a crucial role in its manifestation and progression. To evaluate choroidal and retinal vascular parameters, a total of 134 eyes were analyzed, 100 with intermediate [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease, whose complete pathogenesis is still unclear. Local hemodynamics may play a crucial role in its manifestation and progression. To evaluate choroidal and retinal vascular parameters, a total of 134 eyes were analyzed, 100 with intermediate AMD and 34 age matched healthy controls. 131 eyes of 104 patients were eligible for complete image assessment and 3 eyes were excluded for insufficient image quality: Group 1: intermediate AMD (n = 97) and Group 2: healthy controls (n = 34). Spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with enhanced depth imaging (EDI) and optic coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) were acquired using Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering). Choroid and retinal capillary plexus were evaluated and image binarization was used to obtain quantitative data. Mean age was 77.67 years old (YO) and 67.2% were women. Total subfoveal choroidal area and luminal area were significantly reduced in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (0.88 mm2 and 0.40 mm2 vs. 1.24 mm2 and 0.55 mm2, respectively) (p < 0.05). Regarding choriocapillary flow density, AMD eyes recorded reduced values (34.83%) compared with controls (36.25%) (p < 0.05). Chorioretinal vasculature is impaired in intermediate AMD patients and vascular parameters could be attractive new prognostic biomarkers. Future therapeutic approaches may target this vascular dysfunction and delay disease progression. Full article
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Article
Fracture Related Infections and Their Risk Factors for Treatment Failure—A Major Trauma Centre Perspective
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051289 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Fracture related infections (FRI) are debilitating and costly complications of musculoskeletal trauma surgery that can result in permanent functional loss or amputation. Surgical treatment can be unsuccessful, and it is necessary to determine the predictive variables associated with FRI treatment failure, allowing one [...] Read more.
Fracture related infections (FRI) are debilitating and costly complications of musculoskeletal trauma surgery that can result in permanent functional loss or amputation. Surgical treatment can be unsuccessful, and it is necessary to determine the predictive variables associated with FRI treatment failure, allowing one to optimise them prior to treatment and identify patients at higher risk. The clinical database at a major trauma centre was retrospectively reviewed between January 2015 and January 2021. FRI treatment failure was defined by infection recurrence or amputation. A univariable logistic regression analysis was performed, followed by a multivariable regression analysis for significant outcomes between groups on univariable analysis, to determine risk factors for treatment failure. In total, 102 patients were identified with a FRI (35 open, 67 closed fractures). FRI treatment failure occurred in 24 patients (23.5%). Risk factors determined by our multivariate logistic regression model were obesity (OR 2.522; 95% CI, 0.259–4.816; p = 0.006), Gustilo Anderson type 3c (OR 4.683; 95% CI, 2.037–9.784; p = 0.004), and implant retention (OR 2.818; 95% CI, 1.588–7.928; p = 0.041). Given that FRI treatment in 24 patients (23.5%) ended up in failure, future management need to take into account the predictive variables analysed in this study, redirect efforts to improve management and incorporate adjuvant technologies for patients at higher risk of failure, and implement a multidisciplinary team approach to optimise risk factors such as diabetes and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Management in Trauma Surgery)
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Case Report
Sclerosing Microcystic Adenocarcinoma Arising from the Tongue: A Case Report and Literature Review
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051288 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Sclerosing microcystic adenocarcinoma is a rare and recently characterized cancer that affects the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck without adnexal involvement. Histologically, microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin resembles it. It does, however, contain unique characteristics that merit our attention for [...] Read more.
Sclerosing microcystic adenocarcinoma is a rare and recently characterized cancer that affects the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck without adnexal involvement. Histologically, microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin resembles it. It does, however, contain unique characteristics that merit our attention for potential diagnostic errors. Therefore, we present a 48-year-old male with sclerosing microcystic adenocarcinoma of the tongue, along with a full discussion and a brief review of pertinent literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Pathological Approach of Head and Neck Tumor)
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Article
Deep Learning-Based Reconstruction vs. Iterative Reconstruction for Quality of Low-Dose Head-and-Neck CT Angiography with Different Tube-Voltage Protocols in Emergency-Department Patients
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051287 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Objective: To compare the image quality of computed tomography angiography of the supra-aortic arteries (CTSA) at different tube voltages in low doses settings with deep learning-based image reconstruction (DLR) vs. hybrid iterative reconstruction (H-IR). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 102 patients who underwent CTSA [...] Read more.
Objective: To compare the image quality of computed tomography angiography of the supra-aortic arteries (CTSA) at different tube voltages in low doses settings with deep learning-based image reconstruction (DLR) vs. hybrid iterative reconstruction (H-IR). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 102 patients who underwent CTSA systematically reconstructed with both DLR and H-IR. We assessed the image quality both quantitatively and qualitatively at 11 arterial segmental levels and 3 regional levels. Radiation-dose parameters were recorded and the effective dose was calculated. Eighty-six patients were eligible for analysis Of these patients, 27 were imaged with 120 kVp, 30 with 100 kVp, and 29 with 80 kVp. Results: The effective dose in 120 kVp, 100 kVp and 80 kVp was 1.5 ± 0.4 mSv, 1.1 ± 0.3 mSv and 0.68 ± 0.1 mSv, respectively (p < 0.01). Comparing 80 kVp + DLR vs. 120 and 100 kVp + H-IR CT scans, the mean overall arterial attenuation was about 64% and 34% higher (625.9 ± 118.5 HU vs. 382.3 ± 98.6 HU and 468 ± 118.5 HU; p < 0.01) without a significant difference in terms of image noise (17.7 ± 4.9 HU vs. 17.5 ± 5.2; p = 0.7 and 18.1 ± 5.4; p = 0.3) and signal-to-ratio increased by 59% and 33%, respectively (37.9 ± 12.3 vs. 23.8 ± 9.7 and 28.4 ± 12.5). This protocol also provided superior image quality in terms of qualitative parameters, compared to standard-kVp protocols with H-IR. Highest subjective image-quality grades for vascular segments close to the aorta were obtained with the 100 kVp + DLR protocol. Conclusions: DLR significantly reduced image noise and improved the overall image quality of CTSA with both low and standard tube voltages and at all vascular segments. CT that was acquired with 80 kVp and reconstructed with DLR yielded better overall image quality compared to higher kVp values with H-IR, while reducing the radiation dose by half, but it has limitations for arteries that are close to the aortic arch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Medical Imaging Analysis)
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Review
Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Tests for Identifying Protozoan and Bacterial Pathogens in Infectious Diseases
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051286 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Diagnosing and treating many infectious diseases depends on correctly identifying the causative pathogen. Characterization of pathogen-specific nucleic acid sequences by PCR is the most sensitive and specific method available for this purpose, although it is restricted to laboratories that have the necessary infrastructure [...] Read more.
Diagnosing and treating many infectious diseases depends on correctly identifying the causative pathogen. Characterization of pathogen-specific nucleic acid sequences by PCR is the most sensitive and specific method available for this purpose, although it is restricted to laboratories that have the necessary infrastructure and finance. Microscopy, rapid immunochromatographic tests for antigens, and immunoassays for detecting pathogen-specific antibodies are alternative and useful diagnostic methods with different advantages and disadvantages. Detection of ribosomal RNA molecules in the cytoplasm of bacterial and protozoan pathogens by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) using sequence-specific fluorescently labelled DNA probes, is cheaper than PCR and requires minimal equipment and infrastructure. A LED light source attached to most laboratory light microscopes can be used in place of a fluorescence microscope with a UV lamp for FISH. A FISH test hybridization can be completed in 30 min at 37 °C and the whole test in less than two hours. FISH tests can therefore be rapidly performed in both well-equipped and poorly-resourced laboratories. Highly sensitive and specific FISH tests for identifying many bacterial and protozoan pathogens that cause disease in humans, livestock and pets are reviewed, with particular reference to parasites causing malaria and babesiosis, and mycobacteria responsible for tuberculosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
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Article
Diagnosis of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis of Colorectal Origin Based on an Innovative Fuzzy Logic Approach
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051285 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Colorectal cancer represents one of the most important causes worldwide of cancer related morbidity and mortality. One of the complications which can occur during cancer progression, is peritoneal carcinomatosis. In the majority of cases, it is diagnosed in late stages due to the [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer represents one of the most important causes worldwide of cancer related morbidity and mortality. One of the complications which can occur during cancer progression, is peritoneal carcinomatosis. In the majority of cases, it is diagnosed in late stages due to the lack of diagnostic tools capable of revealing the early-stage peritoneal burden. Therefore, still associates with poor prognosis and quality of life, despite recent therapeutic advances. The aim of the study was to develop a fuzzy logic approach to assess the probability of peritoneal carcinomatosis presence using routine blood test parameters as input data. The patient data was acquired retrospective from patients diagnosed between 2010–2021. The developed model focuses on the specific quantitative alteration of these parameters in the presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis, which is an innovative approach as regards the literature in the field and validates the feasibility of using a fuzzy logic approach in the noninvasive diagnosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer-Assisted Functional Diagnostics)
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Article
Isolated Sphenoid Sinusitis: Anatomical Features for Choosing a Method of Treatment, a Case-Control Study
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051284 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Isolated sphenoid sinusitis (ISS) is a group of pathologies characterized by inflammation in one or both sphenoid sinuses. The gold standard for analyzing and diagnosing ISS is computer tomography. Many researchers have discussed the treatment of patients with ISS variants such as fully [...] Read more.
Isolated sphenoid sinusitis (ISS) is a group of pathologies characterized by inflammation in one or both sphenoid sinuses. The gold standard for analyzing and diagnosing ISS is computer tomography. Many researchers have discussed the treatment of patients with ISS variants such as fully opacified sinus, mostly with surgery. A retrospective analysis of clinical data of 59 patients (21 male (35%), 38 female (65%)) with ISS, who were treated in the Otorhinolaryngological Department of Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University between January 2017 and January 2020, was conducted. All patients were in the first stage of the same medical therapy. In cases where there was no recovery, these patients were referred to surgery. For the control group, we analyzed patients without any disorders according to CT-scan examination. After analyzing the obtained clinical and radiological data, we found indicators that were common in patients who did not recover after medical therapy. According to the reverse regression method statistical model, in male patients with a diffuse headache and nasal discharge it was shown that medical therapy was highly effective (more than 78%). The presence of nasal septum deviation and adenoids in male and female patients leads to the highest risk of surgical treatment (83% probability of the logistic model). The detailed analysis of CT-scans and the complaints of patients with ISS can be the key to determining the preferred therapy choice. Not all cases need to have an endoscopic opening of the sphenoid sinus, according to our research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of ENT Diseases)
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Article
COVLIAS 1.0Lesion vs. MedSeg: An Artificial Intelligence Framework for Automated Lesion Segmentation in COVID-19 Lung Computed Tomography Scans
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051283 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Background: COVID-19 is a disease with multiple variants, and is quickly spreading throughout the world. It is crucial to identify patients who are suspected of having COVID-19 early, because the vaccine is not readily available in certain parts of the world. Methodology: Lung [...] Read more.
Background: COVID-19 is a disease with multiple variants, and is quickly spreading throughout the world. It is crucial to identify patients who are suspected of having COVID-19 early, because the vaccine is not readily available in certain parts of the world. Methodology: Lung computed tomography (CT) imaging can be used to diagnose COVID-19 as an alternative to the RT-PCR test in some cases. The occurrence of ground-glass opacities in the lung region is a characteristic of COVID-19 in chest CT scans, and these are daunting to locate and segment manually. The proposed study consists of a combination of solo deep learning (DL) and hybrid DL (HDL) models to tackle the lesion location and segmentation more quickly. One DL and four HDL models—namely, PSPNet, VGG-SegNet, ResNet-SegNet, VGG-UNet, and ResNet-UNet—were trained by an expert radiologist. The training scheme adopted a fivefold cross-validation strategy on a cohort of 3000 images selected from a set of 40 COVID-19-positive individuals. Results: The proposed variability study uses tracings from two trained radiologists as part of the validation. Five artificial intelligence (AI) models were benchmarked against MedSeg. The best AI model, ResNet-UNet, was superior to MedSeg by 9% and 15% for Dice and Jaccard, respectively, when compared against MD 1, and by 4% and 8%, respectively, when compared against MD 2. Statistical tests—namely, the Mann–Whitney test, paired t-test, and Wilcoxon test—demonstrated its stability and reliability, with p < 0.0001. The online system for each slice was <1 s. Conclusions: The AI models reliably located and segmented COVID-19 lesions in CT scans. The COVLIAS 1.0Lesion lesion locator passed the intervariability test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lesion Detection and Analysis Using Artificial Intelligence)
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Case Report
Reanimation of the Smile with Neuro-Vascular Anastomosed Gracilis Muscle: A Case Series
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051282 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Background: The aim of our manuscript was to evaluate the time course of clinical and electromyographical (EMG) reinnervation after the reanimation of the smile using a gracilis muscle transplant which is reinnervated with the masseteric nerve. Methods: We present a case series of [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of our manuscript was to evaluate the time course of clinical and electromyographical (EMG) reinnervation after the reanimation of the smile using a gracilis muscle transplant which is reinnervated with the masseteric nerve. Methods: We present a case series of five patients with a longstanding peripheral facial palsy, who underwent a reanimation of the lower face using a gracilis muscle transplant with masseteric nerve reinnervation from June 2019 to October 2020. Trial-specific follow-up examinations were carried out every three months using clinical assessment and EMG, up to 12 months after the surgery. The grading was carried out using the House–Brackmann scale (HB), the Stennert Index, and a self-designed Likert-like scale for graft reinnervation and smile excursion. Results: The surgery was feasible in all of the patients. The reanimation was performed under general anesthesia in an inpatient setting. Postoperative complications which resulted in prolonged hospitalization occurred in two of the five patients. All of the patients showed a preoperative flaccid facial palsy. The first single reinnervation potentials were detected 3.1 ± 0.1 months after surgery. After 5.6 (±1.4) months, in three (3/5) patients, clear reinnervation patterns were present. Clinically, the patients obtained symmetry of the face at rest after 5.6 (±1.4) months, and could spontaneously smile without the co-activation of the jaw after an average time of 10.8 (±1.8) months. All of the patients were able to express a spontaneous emotion-stimulated smile after one year. Conclusion: Micro-neurovascular gracilis muscle transfer reinnervated with a masseteric nerve is a sufficient and reliable rehabilitation technique for the lower face, and is performed as a single-stage surgery. The nerve supply via the masseteric nerve allows the very rapid and strong reinnervation of the graft, and results in a spontaneous smile within 10 months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evidence-Based Diagnosis and Management of Facial Nerve Disorders)
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Article
Lipomatous Tumors: A Comparison of MRI-Reported Diagnosis with Histological Diagnosis
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051281 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Lipomatous tumors are among the most common soft tissue tumors (STTs). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a state-of-the-art diagnostic tool used to differentiate and characterize STTs. Radiological misjudgment can lead to incorrect treatment. This was a single-center retrospective study. Two hundred and forty [...] Read more.
Lipomatous tumors are among the most common soft tissue tumors (STTs). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a state-of-the-art diagnostic tool used to differentiate and characterize STTs. Radiological misjudgment can lead to incorrect treatment. This was a single-center retrospective study. Two hundred and forty lipomatous tumors were included. MRI diagnoses were categorized as benign, intermediate, or malignant and were compared with histological diagnoses. Tumor volumes were measured by MRI and from surgical specimens. The tumor was correctly categorized 73.3% of the time. A total of 21.7% of tumors were categorized as more malignant in MRI reports than they were by histology, and vice versa for 5.0% of tumors. Volume measured by MRI was not different from actual tumor size in pathology. Atypical lipomatous tumors (ALTs) and liposarcomas (LPSs) were larger when compared with lipomata and occurred in older patients. Based on the MRI-suspected tumor entity, surgical treatment can be planned. Large lipomatous tumors in elderly patients are more likely to be ALTs. However, a safe threshold size or volume for ALTs cannot be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Orthopedic Imaging)
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Article
Pneumonia Classification from X-ray Images with Inception-V3 and Convolutional Neural Network
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051280 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in both infants and elderly people, with approximately 4 million deaths each year. It may be a virus, bacterial, or fungal, depending on the contagious pathogen that damages the lung’s tiny air sacs (alveoli). [...] Read more.
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in both infants and elderly people, with approximately 4 million deaths each year. It may be a virus, bacterial, or fungal, depending on the contagious pathogen that damages the lung’s tiny air sacs (alveoli). Patients with underlying disorders such as asthma, a weakened immune system, hospitalized babies, and older persons on ventilators are all at risk, particularly if pneumonia is not detected early. Despite the existing approaches for its diagnosis, low accuracy and efficiency require further research for more accurate systems. This study is a similar endeavor for the detection of pneumonia by the use of X-ray images. The dataset is preprocessed to make it suitable for transfer learning tasks. Different pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN) variants are utilized, including VGG16, Inception-v3, and ResNet50. Ensembles are made by incorporating CNN with Inception-V3, VGG-16, and ResNet50. Besides the common evaluation metrics, the performance of the pre-trained and ensemble deep learning models is measured with Cohen’s kappa as well as the area under the curve (AUC). Experimental results show that Inception-V3 with CNN attained the highest accuracy and recall score of 99.29% and 99.73%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis of Pneumonia)
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Article
Assessment of the Diagnostic Performance of a Novel SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Sealing Tube Test Strip (Colloidal Gold) as Point-of-Care Surveillance Test
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051279 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant outbreaks have highlighted the need of antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) that can be used at the point-of-care (POC). Although many Ag-RDTs have been approved for SARS-CoV-2 detection, studies demonstrating the clinical performance of Ag-RDTs [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant outbreaks have highlighted the need of antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) that can be used at the point-of-care (POC). Although many Ag-RDTs have been approved for SARS-CoV-2 detection, studies demonstrating the clinical performance of Ag-RDTs against variants of concern, especially the new Omicron variant, are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AMAZING COVID-19 Antigen Sealing Tube Test Strip (Colloidal Gold) in 584 early symptomatic and asymptomatic participants (age range 0–90 years). The performance of this Ag-RDT was assessed by comparing its results with reverse transcription RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). One hundred twenty positive samples were also analyzed with rRT-PCR to discriminate Omicron and Delta/Kappa variants (72.50% Omicron; 27.50% Delta/Kappa). Overall, the Ag-RDT showed high positive and negative percent values of 92.52% (95% CI, 86.61–95.95%) and 98.05% (95% CI, 96.41–98.95%), respectively, as well as an overall diagnostic accuracy of 96.92% (95% CI, 95.17–98.16%). Taken together, these data indicate that this inexpensive and simple-to-use Ag-RDT presents excellent analytical performance and can reliably detect Omicron and Delta/Kappa variants. Full article
Review
Artificial Intelligence for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: A Roadmap from Technology Development to Clinical Practice
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051278 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Stomach cancer is the third deadliest type of cancer in the world (0.86 million deaths in 2017). In 2035, a 20% increase will be observed both in incidence and mortality due to demographic effects if no interventions are foreseen. Upper GI endoscopy (UGIE) [...] Read more.
Stomach cancer is the third deadliest type of cancer in the world (0.86 million deaths in 2017). In 2035, a 20% increase will be observed both in incidence and mortality due to demographic effects if no interventions are foreseen. Upper GI endoscopy (UGIE) plays a paramount role in early diagnosis and, therefore, improved survival rates. On the other hand, human and technical factors can contribute to misdiagnosis while performing UGIE. In this scenario, artificial intelligence (AI) has recently shown its potential in compensating for the pitfalls of UGIE, by leveraging deep learning architectures able to efficiently recognize endoscopic patterns from UGIE video data. This work presents a review of the current state-of-the-art algorithms in the application of AI to gastroscopy. It focuses specifically on the threefold tasks of assuring exam completeness (i.e., detecting the presence of blind spots) and assisting in the detection and characterization of clinical findings, both gastric precancerous conditions and neoplastic lesion changes. Early and promising results have already been obtained using well-known deep learning architectures for computer vision, but many algorithmic challenges remain in achieving the vision of AI-assisted UGIE. Future challenges in the roadmap for the effective integration of AI tools within the UGIE clinical practice are discussed, namely the adoption of more robust deep learning architectures and methods able to embed domain knowledge into image/video classifiers as well as the availability of large, annotated datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Detection and Screening of Gastric Cancer)
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Article
Effects of Different Scan Duration on Brain Effective Connectivity among Default Mode Network Nodes
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051277 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Background: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) can evaluate brain functional connectivity without requiring subjects to perform a specific task. This rs-fMRI is very useful in patients with cognitive decline or unable to respond to tasks. However, long scan durations have been suggested [...] Read more.
Background: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) can evaluate brain functional connectivity without requiring subjects to perform a specific task. This rs-fMRI is very useful in patients with cognitive decline or unable to respond to tasks. However, long scan durations have been suggested to measure connectivity between brain areas to produce more reliable results, which are not clinically optimal. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate a shorter scan duration and compare the scan duration of 10 and 15 min using the rs-fMRI approach. Methods: Twenty-one healthy male and female participants (seventeen right-handed and four left-handed), with ages ranging between 21 and 60 years, were recruited. All participants underwent both 10 and 15 min of rs-fMRI scans. The present study evaluated the default mode network (DMN) areas for both scan durations. The areas involved were the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), left inferior parietal cortex (LIPC), and right inferior parietal cortex (RIPC). Fifteen causal models were constructed and inverted using spectral dynamic causal modelling (spDCM). The models were compared using Bayesian Model Selection (BMS) for group studies. Result: The BMS results indicated that the fully connected model was the winning model among 15 competing models for both 10 and 15 min scan durations. However, there was no significant difference in effective connectivity among the regions of interest between the 10 and 15 min scans. Conclusion: Scan duration in the range of 10 to 15 min is sufficient to evaluate the effective connectivity within the DMN region. In frail subjects, a shorter scan duration is more favourable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Medical Image Analysis)
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Case Report
A Case of Multinucleate Cell Angiohistiocytoma with New Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Findings
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051276 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Multinucleate cell angiohistiocytoma (MCAH) is a rare, benign, vascular or fibrohistiocytic tumor usually presenting as single or multiple, reddish-brown papules mostly affecting the limbs and dorsum of the hands of middle-aged females. Since 1985, relatively few MCAH cases have been reported. In vivo [...] Read more.
Multinucleate cell angiohistiocytoma (MCAH) is a rare, benign, vascular or fibrohistiocytic tumor usually presenting as single or multiple, reddish-brown papules mostly affecting the limbs and dorsum of the hands of middle-aged females. Since 1985, relatively few MCAH cases have been reported. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) findings of MCAH have never been described. We report a case of MCAH with new non-invasive imaging findings through RCM in correlation with dermoscopy and histopathology. A 66-year-old woman with an unremarkable family and personal history of an atypical nevus presented with a lesion on her right breast. It had appeared 12 months earlier and progressively enlarged. Physical examination revealed a 20 × 11.6 mm, non-tender, reddish-brown maculo-papular lesion with blurred margins. Dermoscopy showed diffusely arranged reddish areas, coalescing whitish patches, truncated and dotted vessels, and a peripheral brown reticulated pattern. RCM revealed a poorly outlined lesion with a normal honeycomb pattern, numerous vessels at the dermal–epidermal junction, and isolated, large, mildly reflective, bizarre structures with angulated edges. These findings correlated well with histological features, which established the diagnosis of MCAH. Even though histopathology remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of MCAH, non-invasive tools such as RCM can help rule out other entities, therefore reducing surgery-associated morbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Diagnosis of Skin Diseases)
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Article
Evaluation of CD44s, CD44v6, CXCR2, CXCL1, and IL-1β in Benign and Malignant Tumors of Salivary Glands
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051275 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Background: Several studies have reported an association between high expression of CD44 in different types of cancer. However, no study has reported a link among CD44 expression, other biomarkers, and the aggressiveness of salivary gland tumors. Methods: A total of 38 specimens were [...] Read more.
Background: Several studies have reported an association between high expression of CD44 in different types of cancer. However, no study has reported a link among CD44 expression, other biomarkers, and the aggressiveness of salivary gland tumors. Methods: A total of 38 specimens were obtained from non-tumorous salivary glands, benign and malignant tumors in salivary glands. Immunohistochemical analyses of CD44s, CD44v6, IL-1β, CXCL1, and CXCR2 were performed, and the area of positive cells was assessed. Results: We found that both CD44s and CXCR2 expression were increased in the benign and malignant groups. CD44v6 was also increased in both groups, but it had the highest level in the malignant group. IL-1β was the only biomarker that increased significantly in the malignant group in comparison to the other two groups. Conclusions: CD44s, CD44v6, CXCR2, and IL-1β expressions were found to be higher in salivary gland tumors. However, IL-1β alone may play a crucial role in the aggressiveness of salivary gland tumors as this cytokine was expressed only in the malignant group with high expression associated with high-grade malignancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
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Article
Feasibility of 18F-Fluorocholine PET for Evaluating Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in a Starved Rat Model
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051274 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Imaging techniques for diagnosing muscle atrophy and sarcopenia remain insufficient, although various advanced diagnostic methods have been established. We explored the feasibility of 18F-fluorocholine (18F-FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluating skeletal muscle atrophy, as an imaging technique that [...] Read more.
Imaging techniques for diagnosing muscle atrophy and sarcopenia remain insufficient, although various advanced diagnostic methods have been established. We explored the feasibility of 18F-fluorocholine (18F-FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluating skeletal muscle atrophy, as an imaging technique that tracks choline level changes in muscles. Cell uptake in L6 cells by 18F-FCH was performed in a complete medium containing serum (untreated group, UN) and a serum-free medium (starved group, ST). Small-animal-dedicated PET/CT imaging with 18F-FCH was examined in in-vivo models with rats that were starved for 2 days to cause muscle atrophy. After the hind limbs were dissected, starvation-induced in-vivo models were anatomically confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the expression levels of the atrophy markers muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) and atrogin-1. 18F-FCH uptake was lower in the starvation-induced cells than in the untreated group, and in-vivo PET uptake also revealed a similar tendency (the average standardized uptake value (SUVmean) = 0.26 ± 0.06 versus 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively). Furthermore, the expression levels of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 mRNA were significantly increased in the starvation-induced muscle atrophy of rats compared to the untreated group. 18F-FCH PET/CT may be a promising tool for diagnosing skeletal muscle atrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in the Diagnostics and Management of Musculoskeletal Diseases)
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Systematic Review
Oral Warty Dyskeratoma—A Systematic Review of the Literature
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051273 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Objective: To systematically review the clinicopathological features of oral warty keratoma based on published literature. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for reports of oral warty dyskeratoma. Of the 52 identified articles, only 25 articles (43 cases) satisfied the selection [...] Read more.
Objective: To systematically review the clinicopathological features of oral warty keratoma based on published literature. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for reports of oral warty dyskeratoma. Of the 52 identified articles, only 25 articles (43 cases) satisfied the selection criteria (case report/series in the English language reporting clinicopathologically diagnosed oral warty dyskeratoma/oral focal acantholytic keratosis/oral isolated dyskeratosis follicularis in humans). Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs institute critical appraisal checklist for case reports and case series. Results: Most cases had well-circumscribed, white, nodular verruco-papillary lesions with a central depressed/crater-like area. Alveolar ridges were the most frequent sites of occurrence and tobacco was the most commonly associated risk factor. Histopathologically, the most pathognomonic feature was the supra-basal clefting. The cleft had dyskeratotic acantholytic cells (corps ronds, and grains). Below the cleft were projections of the connective tissue villi lined by basal cells. The basal cells in a few cases exhibited hyperplasia in the form of budding into the stroma, but epithelial dysplasia was not reported. The surface epithelium had crypts filled with keratin debris. Conclusion: Oral warty dyskeratoma is a rare solitary self-limiting benign entity, which due to its clinical and histopathological resemblance and associated habit history could be misdiagnosed as leukoplakia or carcinoma. None of the assessed articles provided molecular data, which in turn could be the reason for the lack of insight into the etiopathogenesis of this enigmatic lesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts and Prospects of Diagnostics in Oral Diseases)
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Article
General Roadmap and Core Steps for the Development of AI Tools in Digital Pathology
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051272 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) tools in the tissue diagnostic workflow will benefit the pathologist and, ultimately, the patient. The generation of such AI tools has two parallel and yet interconnected processes, namely the definition of the pathologist’s task to be delivered in silico [...] Read more.
Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) tools in the tissue diagnostic workflow will benefit the pathologist and, ultimately, the patient. The generation of such AI tools has two parallel and yet interconnected processes, namely the definition of the pathologist’s task to be delivered in silico, and the software development requirements. In this review paper, we demystify this process, from a viewpoint that joins experienced pathologists and data scientists, by proposing a general pathway and describing the core steps to build an AI digital pathology tool. In doing so, we highlight the importance of the collaboration between AI scientists and pathologists, from the initial formulation of the hypothesis to the final, ready-to-use product. Full article
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Article
Diagnostic Age, Age at Death and Stage Migration in Men Dying with or from Prostate Cancer in Denmark
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051271 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 418
Abstract
The impact of changes in diagnostic activity and treatment options on prostate cancer epidemiology remains a subject of debate. Newly published long-term survival outcomes may not represent contemporary patients and new perspectives are in demand. All men dying in Denmark with prostate cancer [...] Read more.
The impact of changes in diagnostic activity and treatment options on prostate cancer epidemiology remains a subject of debate. Newly published long-term survival outcomes may not represent contemporary patients and new perspectives are in demand. All men dying in Denmark with prostate cancer diagnosis during a 10-year period were analyzed to address the stage migration of and time lived with prostate cancer diagnosis. All male deaths in Denmark between 2007 and 2016 (n = 261,657) were obtained and crosslinked with The Danish Prostate Cancer Registry (DaPCaR) and the Danish Cancer Registry. Correlation in diagnostic age and stage (localized, locally advanced, metastatic), age at death and cause of death were investigated by Kruskal-Wallis test and linear regression in 15,692 men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer mortality remained stable during the study period. Among the men who died of prostate cancer, 65% had locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis. Age at diagnosis declined in men diagnosed with localized disease and remained constant in men with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Age at death increased in all men. Despite increased efforts to detect prostate cancer early, two-thirds of men who die from prostate cancer still have advanced prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis. Our data show increased life-expectancy in men diagnosed with prostate cancer, however, this benefit must be weighed against increased time of living with the disease and overdiagnosis. The intensified treatment of elderly men and men with advanced disease may be the key to lower prostate cancer mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
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Systematic Review
Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Gastrointestinal Involvement: A Systematic Review
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051270 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 472
Abstract
In this paper, we aimed to evaluate clinical and imagistic features, and also to provide a diagnostic algorithm for patients presenting with gastrointestinal involvement from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We conducted a systematic search on the PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases to [...] Read more.
In this paper, we aimed to evaluate clinical and imagistic features, and also to provide a diagnostic algorithm for patients presenting with gastrointestinal involvement from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We conducted a systematic search on the PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases to identify and collect papers oncases of HCC with gastrointestinal involvement. This search was last updated on 29 April 2022. One hundred and twenty-three articles were included, corresponding to 197 patients. The majority of the patients were male (87.30%), with a mean age of 61.21 years old. The analysis showed large HCCs located mainly in the right hepatic lobe, and highly elevated alfa-fetoprotein (mean = 15,366.18 ng/mL). The most frequent etiological factor was hepatitis B virus (38.57%). Portal vein thrombosis was present in 27.91% of cases. HCC was previously treated in most cases by transarterial chemoembolization (32.99%) and surgical resection (28.93%). Gastrointestinal lesions, developed mainly through direct invasion and hematogenous routes, were predominantly detected in the stomach and duodenum in equal measure—27.91%. Gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common presentation (49.74%). The main diagnostic tools were esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and computed tomography. The mean survival time was 7.30 months. Gastrointestinal involvement in HCC should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with underlying HCC and gastrointestinal manifestations or pathological findings in EGD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Leading Diagnostics Tool: Endoscopy 2022)
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Article
Faster Time to Treatment Decision of Viscoelastic Coagulation Test Results through Improved Perception with the Animated Visual Clot: A Multicenter Comparative Eye-Tracking Study
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051269 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 335
Abstract
As the interpretation of viscoelastic coagulation test results remains challenging, we created Visual Clot, an animated blood clot aiming to facilitate raw rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters. This study investigated anesthesia personnel’s cognitive processing in managing simulated bleeding scenarios using eye-tracking technology. This multicenter, [...] Read more.
As the interpretation of viscoelastic coagulation test results remains challenging, we created Visual Clot, an animated blood clot aiming to facilitate raw rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) parameters. This study investigated anesthesia personnel’s cognitive processing in managing simulated bleeding scenarios using eye-tracking technology. This multicenter, international, computer-based study across five large, central European hospitals included 35 participants with minimal to no prior experience interpreting viscoelastic test results. Using eye-tracking technology and an iPad tagged with quick response codes, we defined the time to treatment decision and the time on screen surface in seconds of correctly solved scenarios as our outcomes. The median time to treatment decision was 52 s for Visual Clot and 205 s for ROTEM (p < 0.0001). The probability of solving the scenario correctly was more than 8 times higher when using Visual Clot than when using ROTEM (Hazard ratio [HR] 8.54, 95% CI from 6.5 to 11.21; p < 0.0001). Out of 194 correctly answered scenarios of participants with the eye-tracker, 154 (79.4%) were solved with Visual Clot and 40 (20.6%) with ROTEM. Participants spent on average 30 s less looking at the screen surface with Visual Clot compared to ROTEM (Coefficient −30.74 s, 95% CI from −39.27 to −22.27; p < 0.0001). For a comparison of the two modalities in terms of information transfer, we calculated the percentage of time on the screen surface of the overall time to treatment decision, which with Visual Clot was 14 percentage points shorter than with ROTEM (Coefficient −14.55, 95% CI from −20.05 to −9.12; p < 0.0001). Visual Clot seems to improve perception and detection of coagulopathies and leads to earlier initiation of the appropriate treatment. In a high-pressure working environment such as the operating and the resuscitation room, correct and timely decisions regarding bleeding management may have a relevant impact on patients’ outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Point-of-Care Diagnostics and Devices)
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