Topic Editors

Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
College of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, South Jordan, UT 84095, USA

Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 July 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
Viewed by
49540

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is with great pleasure that I propose this Topic entitled "Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases". Significant technological improvements in medical equipment have made it possible to achieve great results in the diagnostic process in recent years. X-ray imaging, with increasingly smaller radiation doses, is being used more frequently and becoming widespread. In addition, radiation-free examinations are increasingly adapting to the maxillofacial area, allowing results to be achieved that are comparable to traditional diagnostics, but with less myological damage. Treatment plans are increasingly oriented toward completely digital 3D planning, from the diagnostic phase and the planning of treatment, to the clinical execution. Furthermore, the numerous tests that recently, with specific software, have allowed great evolutions in the diagnostic processes are leading to the discovery of a real "new anatomy", which warrants thorough study. I am hoping to receive articles regarding conventional imaging, 3D imaging and its technological developments, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and other possible diagnostic exams, applied to every branch of dentistry. Original articles, case reports, and reviews in the field of imaging, which aim to enrich scientific knowledge and help not only clinicians but also researchers involved in the development of new dedicated software, diagnostic instruments, and technological improvements, are encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Luca Testarelli
Dr. Shankargouda Patil
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • CBCT
  • cone beam computed tomography
  • CT
  • MRI
  • ultrasound imaging
  • 3D imaging
  • dentistry
  • artificial intelligence

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Dentistry Journal
dentistry
2.6 4.0 2013 27.8 Days CHF 2000
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.6 3.6 2011 20.7 Days CHF 2600
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine
ohbm
- - 2018 15.0 days * CHF 1000
Oral
oral
- - 2021 27.7 Days CHF 1000

* Median value for all MDPI journals in the second half of 2023.


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Published Papers (14 papers)

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15 pages, 5151 KiB  
Article
Midpalatal Suture Maturation Stage in 10- to 25-Year-Olds Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography—A Cross-Sectional Study
by Anis Shayani, Marco Andrés Merino-Gerlach, Ivonne Angélica Garay-Carrasco, Pablo Eliseo Navarro-Cáceres and Héctor Paulo Sandoval-Vidal
Diagnostics 2023, 13(8), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13081449 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2300
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of midpalatal maturational stages in a Chilean urban sample of adolescents, post-adolescents and young adults, associated with chronological age and sex, by assessing CBCT scan images. Tomographic images in axial sections of the midpalatal [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of midpalatal maturational stages in a Chilean urban sample of adolescents, post-adolescents and young adults, associated with chronological age and sex, by assessing CBCT scan images. Tomographic images in axial sections of the midpalatal sutures from 116 adolescents and young adults (61 females and 55 males, 10–25 years old) were classified according to their morphologic characteristics in five maturational stages (A, B, C, D and E), as proposed by Angelieri et al. The sample was divided into three groups: adolescents, post-adolescents and young adults. Three previously calibrated examiners (radiologist, orthodontist and general dentist) analyzed and classified the images. Stages A, B and C were considered to be an open midpalatal suture, and D and E were considered to be a partially or totally closed midpalatal suture. The most frequent stage of maturation was D (37.9%), followed by C (24%) and E (19.6%). The possibility of finding closed midpalatal sutures in individuals of 10 to 15 years was 58.4%, and in subjects aged 16 to 20 and 21 to 25 years, it was 51.7% and 61.7%, respectively. In males, Stages D and E were present in 45.4%; for females, this prevalence was 68.8%. Individual assessment of the midpalatal suture in each patient is of crucial importance before making the clinical decision of which is the best maxillary expansion method. Due to the extensive calibration and training required, it is advisable to always request a report from a radiologist. Individual evaluation with 3D imaging is recommended because of the great variability observed in the ossification of midpalatal sutures in adolescents, post-adolescents and young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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11 pages, 3177 KiB  
Case Report
Enigmatic Formations Found in Routine Orthopantomography (OPG) Examinations: A Case Report
by Riccardo Nocini, Luca Sacchetto, Morris Zarantonello, Alessia Pardo, Michele Bonioli and Daniele De Santis
Diagnostics 2023, 13(5), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13050840 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2659
Abstract
We describe two clinical cases of occasional radiographic findings on orthopantomography (OPG) that were performed routinely, for which the definitive diagnosis may be uncertain. After an accurate remote and recent anamnesis, for reasons of exclusion, we hypothesize a rare case of the retention [...] Read more.
We describe two clinical cases of occasional radiographic findings on orthopantomography (OPG) that were performed routinely, for which the definitive diagnosis may be uncertain. After an accurate remote and recent anamnesis, for reasons of exclusion, we hypothesize a rare case of the retention of a contrast medium in the parenchyma of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) and their excretory ducts as a consequence of sialography examination. In the first case we analyzed, we found it difficult to classify the radiographic signs on the sublingual glands, left parotid, and submandibular, while in the second case, only the right parotid was involved. Using CBCT, the spherical findings were highlighted, with multiple having different dimensions, as well as radiopaque in their peripheral portion and more radiolucent inside them. We could immediately exclude salivary calculi, which usually have a more elongated/ovoid shape and appear homogeneously radiopaque without radiolucency areas. These two cases (of hypothetic medium contrast retention with unusual and atypical clinical-radiographic presentation) have very rarely been comprehensively and correctly documented in the literature. No papers have a follow-up longer than 5 years. We conducted a review of the literature on the PubMed database, finding only six articles reporting similar cases. Most of them were old articles, demonstrating the low frequency of this phenomenon. The research was performed using the following keywords: “sialography”, “contrast medium”, “retention” (six papers) and “sialography”, and “retention” (13 papers). Some articles were present in both searches, and the really significant ones (defined after a careful reading of the entire article and not only of the abstract) resulted only in six occurrences in a time span from 1976 to 2022. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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15 pages, 1808 KiB  
Article
The Effect of General Bone Mineral Density on the Quantity and Quality of the Edentulous Mandible: A Cross-Sectional Clinical Study
by Anda Slaidina, Baiba Springe, Andris Abeltins, Sergio E. Uribe and Aivars Lejnieks
Dent. J. 2023, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11010017 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Background: Osteoporosis is a disease which is characterized by a decrease in general bone mineral density (BMD), resulting in decreased bone strength and an increased risk of bone fractures. The effect of reduced BMD on the jawbones is still not fully understood. The [...] Read more.
Background: Osteoporosis is a disease which is characterized by a decrease in general bone mineral density (BMD), resulting in decreased bone strength and an increased risk of bone fractures. The effect of reduced BMD on the jawbones is still not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of BMD on the quality and quantity of the edentulous mandible. Methods: The present study included 127 edentulous postmenopausal women who underwent cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) examinations. BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femoral necks were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the cross-sectional CBCT images, three different areas of the mandible (lateral incisor, first premolar, and first molar) were selected. The complete mandibular, trabecular, and cortical bone volumes were measured. All measurements were performed on the total mandibular area, and the basal and alveolar parts of the mandible. Results: The volume of the cortical bone was reduced for females with reduced BMD in the lateral incisor and first premolar regions, both in the total mandibular area and in the basal part of the mandible. The trabecular bone volume statistically significantly increased when the BMD decreased in the complete mandibular area and the basal part of the mandible (linear regression). The total bone volume significantly decreased with a decrease in BMD in the basal part of the mandible. Conclusions: Reduced BMD has a negative effect on the quantity and quality of bone in the basal part of the edentulous mandible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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11 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Low Arousal Threshold Estimation Predicts Failure of Mandibular Advancement Devices in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
by Caterina Antonaglia, Gabriele Vidoni, Luca Contardo, Fabiola Giudici, Francesco Salton, Barbara Ruaro, Marco Confalonieri and Martina Caneva
Diagnostics 2022, 12(10), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12102548 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Introduction: The treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). However, CPAP is usually poorly tolerated and mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are an alternative innovative therapeutic approach. Uncertainty still remains as to the most suitable candidates [...] Read more.
Introduction: The treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). However, CPAP is usually poorly tolerated and mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are an alternative innovative therapeutic approach. Uncertainty still remains as to the most suitable candidates for MAD. Herein, it is hypothesized that the presence of low arousal threshold (low ArTH) could be predictive of MAD treatment failure. Methods: A total of 32 consecutive patients, with OSAS of any severity, who preferred an alternate therapy to CPAP, were treated with a tailored MAD aimed at obtaining 50% of their maximal mandibular advancement. Treatment response after 6 months of therapy was defined as AHI < 5 events per hour or a reduction of AHI ≥ 50% from baseline. Low ArTH was predicted based on the following polysomnography features, as previously shown by Edwards et al.: an AHI of 82.5% and a hypopnea fraction of total respiratory events of >58.3%. Results: There were 25 (78.1%) responders (p-value < 0.01) at 6 months. Thirteen patients (40.6%) in the non-severe group reached AHI lower than 5 events per hour. MAD treatment significantly reduced the median AHI in all patients from a median value of 22.5 to 6.5 (74.7% of reduction, p-value < 0.001). The mandibular advancement device reduced AHI, whatever the disease severity. A significant higher reduction of Delta AHI, after 6 months of treatment, was found for patients without low ArTH. Conclusions: Low ArTH at baseline was associated with a poorer response to MAD treatment and a lower AHI reduction at 6 months. A non-invasive assessment of Low ArTH can be performed through the Edwards’ score, which could help to identify an endotype with a lower predicted response to oral appliances in a clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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14 pages, 16835 KiB  
Case Report
Dentigerous Cysts with Diverse Radiological Presentation Highlighting Diagnostic Challenges
by Alexandre Perez, Vincent Lenoir and Tommaso Lombardi
Diagnostics 2022, 12(8), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12082006 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 10669
Abstract
Dentigerous cyst is an odontogenic developmental cyst arising from the pericoronal tissue of an impacted tooth, and that may exhibit various radiological aspects. The aim of this article is to present four cases of histologically confirmed mandibular dentigerous cysts to highlight diverse radiological [...] Read more.
Dentigerous cyst is an odontogenic developmental cyst arising from the pericoronal tissue of an impacted tooth, and that may exhibit various radiological aspects. The aim of this article is to present four cases of histologically confirmed mandibular dentigerous cysts to highlight diverse radiological presentations: one of classical appearance (well-limited unilocular radiolucent lesion surrounding the crown) and three which have shown radiological peculiarities (one cyst displacing the adjacent tooth, with bone but no root resorption, one cyst presenting hallmarks of infection and one multilocular cyst with thin septa). Such radiologic diversity may, on occasion, suggest a clinical aggressive lesion such as an odontogenic keratocyst or ameloblastoma. The diagnosis of dentigerous cyst requires a thorough evaluation of the clinical presentation and accurate radiological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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13 pages, 1350 KiB  
Article
A Combined Approach for Accurate and Accelerated Teeth Detection on Cone Beam CT Images
by Mingjun Du, Xueying Wu, Ye Ye, Shuobo Fang, Hengwei Zhang and Ming Chen
Diagnostics 2022, 12(7), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12071679 - 10 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
Teeth detection and tooth segmentation are essential for processing Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. The accuracy decides the credibility of the subsequent applications, such as diagnosis, treatment plans in clinical practice or other research that is dependent on automatic dental identification. The [...] Read more.
Teeth detection and tooth segmentation are essential for processing Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. The accuracy decides the credibility of the subsequent applications, such as diagnosis, treatment plans in clinical practice or other research that is dependent on automatic dental identification. The main problems are complex noises and metal artefacts which would affect the accuracy of teeth detection and segmentation with traditional algorithms. In this study, we proposed a teeth-detection method to avoid the problems above and to accelerate the operation speed. In our method, (1) a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was employed to classify layer classes; (2) images were chosen to perform Region of Interest (ROI) cropping; (3) in ROI regions, we used a YOLO v3 and multi-level combined teeth detection method to locate each tooth bounding box; (4) we obtained tooth bounding boxes on all layers. We compared our method with a Faster R-CNN method which was commonly used in previous studies. The training and prediction time were shortened by 80% and 62% in our method, respectively. The Object Inclusion Ratio (OIR) metric of our method was 96.27%, while for the Faster R-CNN method, it was 91.40%. When testing images with severe noise or with different missing teeth, our method promises a stable result. In conclusion, our method of teeth detection on dental CBCT is practical and reliable for its high prediction speed and robust detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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12 pages, 781 KiB  
Article
First Molars–Incisors Rate and Pattern of Bone Loss: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of CBCT Images
by Faraedon Mostafa Zardawi
Diagnostics 2022, 12(7), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12071536 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Background: Periodontitis causes attachment and alveolar bone loss; hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, frequency, and pattern of bone loss at first molar–incisor areas using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 250 randomly [...] Read more.
Background: Periodontitis causes attachment and alveolar bone loss; hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, frequency, and pattern of bone loss at first molar–incisor areas using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 250 randomly selected CBCT images of clearly defined full arches of patients aged from 18 to 70 years who were divided into six age groups and into male and female groups. Four sites around each tooth were scanned at several accesses for bone loss detection. Distance beyond 2 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction to the level of the remaining bone was considered to indicate bone loss. The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to test the normality of the data, and statistical tests were applied for data analysis at the 0.05 p-value level. Results: The rate and amount of bone loss within the examined sample were relatively high. The examined images generally revealed a higher rate of bone loss on proximal than on labial/buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of the first upper and lower molars. The highest amount of bone loss among all the teeth scanned in this study was seen on the mesial and distal bone of mandibular incisors, 4.36 mm and 4.31 mm, respectively, exceeding that in the labial and lingual bone, 3.23 mm and 1.89 mm, respectively, and it was highly horizontal rather than vertical in pattern. Conclusions: Based on 250 randomly selected CBCT images of clearly defined, full upper and lower arches scanned for this study, it was concluded that the rate and amount of horizontal bone loss were less than vertical bone loss and was focused mainly in the interproximal areas of the first molars. However, the highest recorded amount of bone loss was at the proximal and labial aspects of the mandibular incisors. Furthermore, younger age groups displayed significantly higher rates and amounts of bone loss than older groups, with a slight predilection for males. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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11 pages, 3007 KiB  
Article
Automatic Classification for Sagittal Craniofacial Patterns Based on Different Convolutional Neural Networks
by Haizhen Li, Ying Xu, Yi Lei, Qing Wang and Xuemei Gao
Diagnostics 2022, 12(6), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12061359 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
(1) Background: The present study aims to evaluate and compare the model performances of different convolutional neural networks (CNNs) used for classifying sagittal skeletal patterns. (2) Methods: A total of 2432 lateral cephalometric radiographs were collected. They were labeled as Class I, Class [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The present study aims to evaluate and compare the model performances of different convolutional neural networks (CNNs) used for classifying sagittal skeletal patterns. (2) Methods: A total of 2432 lateral cephalometric radiographs were collected. They were labeled as Class I, Class II, and Class III patterns, according to their ANB angles and Wits values. The radiographs were randomly divided into the training, validation, and test sets in the ratio of 70%:15%:15%. Four different CNNs, namely VGG16, GoogLeNet, ResNet152, and DenseNet161, were trained, and their model performances were compared. (3) Results: The accuracy of the four CNNs was ranked as follows: DenseNet161 > ResNet152 > VGG16 > GoogLeNet. DenseNet161 had the highest accuracy, while GoogLeNet possessed the smallest model size and fastest inference speed. The CNNs showed better capabilities for identifying Class III patterns, followed by Classes II and I. Most of the samples that were misclassified by the CNNs were boundary cases. The activation area confirmed the CNNs without overfitting and indicated that artificial intelligence could recognize the compensatory dental features in the anterior region of the jaws and lips. (4) Conclusions: CNNs can quickly and effectively assist orthodontists in the diagnosis of sagittal skeletal classification patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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21 pages, 7672 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Simulating an Orthodontic System Using Virtual Methods
by Stelian-Mihai-Sever Petrescu, Mihaela Jana Țuculină, Dragoș Laurențiu Popa, Alina Duță, Alex Ioan Sălan, Ruxandra Voinea Georgescu, Oana Andreea Diaconu, Adina Andreea Turcu, Horia Mocanu, Andreea Gabriela Nicola and Ionela Teodora Dascălu
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051296 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2466
Abstract
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a modern imaging technique that uses X-rays to investigate the structures of the dento-maxillary apparatus and obtain detailed images of those structures. The aim of this study was to determine a functional mathematical model able to evaluate [...] Read more.
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a modern imaging technique that uses X-rays to investigate the structures of the dento-maxillary apparatus and obtain detailed images of those structures. The aim of this study was to determine a functional mathematical model able to evaluate the elastic force intensity on each bracket and tube type element and the ways in which those components act on the orthodontic system being used. To analyze a real orthodontic system, we studied the case of a 13-year-old female patient. To transfer geometric information from tomographic images, we used the InVesalius software. This software can generate three-dimensional reconstructions based on sequences and files in the DICOM format and was purchased from CBCT equipment. We analyzed and processed the geometries of the converted tissues in InVesalius using the Geomagic software. After using the Geomagic software, we exported the resulting model to the SolidWorks software used in computer-aided design. In this software, the model is transformed into a virtual solid. After making the geometric model, we analyzed the model using the Ansys Workbench software, which incorporates finite element analysis techniques. Following the simulations, we obtained result maps, which showed the complete mechanical behavior of the analyzed structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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11 pages, 2887 KiB  
Article
Dental and Maxillofacial Cone Beam CT—High Number of Incidental Findings and Their Impact on Follow-Up and Therapy Management
by Michael J. Braun, Thaddaeus Rauneker, Jens Dreyhaupt, Thomas K. Hoffmann, Ralph G. Luthardt, Bernd Schmitz, Florian Dammann and Meinrad Beer
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051036 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2800
Abstract
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is increasingly used for dental and maxillofacial imaging. The occurrence of incidental findings has been reported, but clinical implications of these findings remain unclear. The study’s aim was to identify the frequency and clinical impact of incidental findings [...] Read more.
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is increasingly used for dental and maxillofacial imaging. The occurrence of incidental findings has been reported, but clinical implications of these findings remain unclear. The study’s aim was to identify the frequency and clinical impact of incidental findings in CBCT. A total of 374 consecutive CBCT examinations of a 3 year period were retrospectively evaluated for the presence, kind, and clinical relevance of incidental findings. In a subgroup of 54 patients, therapeutic consequences of CBCT incidental findings were queried from the referring physicians. A total of 974 incidental findings were detected, involving 78.6% of all CBCT, hence 2.6 incidental findings per CBCT. Of these, 38.6% were classified to require treatment, with an additional 25.2% requiring follow-up. Incidental findings included dental pathologies in 55.3%, pathologies of the paranasal sinuses and airways in 29.2%, osseous pathologies in 14.9% of all CBCT, and findings in the soft tissue or TMJ in few cases. Clinically relevant dental incidental findings were detected significantly more frequently in CBCT for implant planning compared to other indications (60.7% vs. 43.2%, p < 0.01), and in CBCT with an FOV ≥ 100 mm compared to an FOV < 100 mm (54.7% vs. 40.0%, p < 0.01). Similar results were obtained for paranasal incidental findings. In a subgroup analysis, 29 of 54 patients showed incidental findings which were previously unknown, and the findings changed therapeutical management in 19 patients (35%). The results of our study highlighted the importance of a meticulous analysis of the entire FOV of CBCT for incidental findings, which showed clinical relevance in more than one in three patients. Due to a high number of clinically relevant incidental findings especially in CBCT for implant planning, an FOV of 100 × 100 mm covering both the mandible and the maxilla was concluded to be recommendable for this indication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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8 pages, 2176 KiB  
Case Report
Temporary Denosumab Discontinuation Promotes Bone Healing of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw and Minimizes the Invasiveness of Surgery: A Case Presentation
by Giordana Bettini, Giorgia Saia, Federica Benetello and Alberto Bedogni
Oral 2022, 2(1), 41-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/oral2010006 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2861
Abstract
Denosumab has proved effective at low doses in increasing bone mineral density in osteoporosis patients. In contrast to high-doses antiresorptive therapy, denosumab has a transient effect on the inhibition of the bone remodeling process, suggesting that denosumab-related osteonecrosis is a self-limiting disease, with [...] Read more.
Denosumab has proved effective at low doses in increasing bone mineral density in osteoporosis patients. In contrast to high-doses antiresorptive therapy, denosumab has a transient effect on the inhibition of the bone remodeling process, suggesting that denosumab-related osteonecrosis is a self-limiting disease, with a high curative potential of surgery when performed after a proper duration of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) inhibitor suspension. We report the long-term clinical and radiological (Computed Tomography—CT scan) data of a patient affected by secondary osteoporosis (cancer treatment-induced bone loss—CTIBL for metastatic breast cancer) who underwent surgical treatment for stage II denosumab-related osteonecrosis of the upper maxilla 7 months after denosumab suspension. A minimally invasive approach was performed with the extraction of the first right upper molar and debridement of the surrounding alveolar bone. After surgery, the patient was followed up at three-month intervals up to 1 year, and clinical and radiological data (CT scan) were recorded at each follow-up for the early detection of signs of recurrent disease. The mucosal healing remained stable in the long term, with radiological signs of bone remodeling in the post-operative site since the 6-month follow-up. The presented case strengthens the hypothesis that denosumab induces temporary alterations of bone turnover with a predictable curative effect of minimal surgical procedures in cases of denosumab-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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7 pages, 1737 KiB  
Article
Roles of Proliferation and Angiogenesis in Locally Aggressive Biologic Behavior of Ameloblastoma versus Ameloblastic Fibroma
by Amr Ibrahim, Emad Alqalshy, Ahmed Abdel-Shakour Abdel-Hafiz, Kamal Abd El-Rahman and Magdy Alazzazi
Diagnostics 2022, 12(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12020392 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
(1) Background: The present study was carried out to evaluate the roles of proliferation and angiogenesis in locally aggressive biologic behavior of ameloblastoma versus ameloblastic fibroma; (2) Methods: 30 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded blocks (15 cases of ameloblastoma and 15 cases of ameloblastic fibroma) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The present study was carried out to evaluate the roles of proliferation and angiogenesis in locally aggressive biologic behavior of ameloblastoma versus ameloblastic fibroma; (2) Methods: 30 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded blocks (15 cases of ameloblastoma and 15 cases of ameloblastic fibroma) were used. To evaluate the proliferation, the tissue sections were stained with an AgNORs stain. CD105 was used as an immunohistochemical marker of angiogenesis. Quantitative evaluations of AgNORs were performed. The mean vascular density was evaluated as a measure for CD105 protein expression by using image analyzer computer system; (3) Results: The mean number of AgNORs dots per nucleus was significantly higher in ameloblastoma as compared to ameloblastic fibroma. Additionally, the protein level of CD105 showed positive expression and wide distribution that the mean vascular density was significantly higher in ameloblastoma as compared to ameloblastic fibroma; (4) Conclusion: Quantitative evaluation of the AgNORs stain and the mean vascular density utilizing CD105 protein expression may reflect a higher proliferative activity and a more locally aggressive biologic behavior of ameloblastoma when compared to ameloblastic fibroma, indicating that other factors may be involved in biologic behavior of ameloblastic fibroma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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13 pages, 2628 KiB  
Article
Clinical, Radiological, and Pathological Diagnosis of Fibro-Osseous Lesions of the Oral and Maxillofacial Region: A Retrospective Study
by Ellen Pick, Tobias Schäfer, Adib Al-Haj Husain, Niels J. Rupp, Lukas Hingsammer and Silvio Valdec
Diagnostics 2022, 12(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12020238 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7025
Abstract
Background: Fibro-osseous lesions (FOL) of the jaw represent a rare, benign group of lesions that share similar clinical, radiological, and histopathological features and are characterized by progressive, variable replacement of healthy bone tissue by fibrous connective tissue. Methods: This retrospective study aimed to [...] Read more.
Background: Fibro-osseous lesions (FOL) of the jaw represent a rare, benign group of lesions that share similar clinical, radiological, and histopathological features and are characterized by progressive, variable replacement of healthy bone tissue by fibrous connective tissue. Methods: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of fibro-osseous lesions and to reassess the efficacy of case-specific treatment management from a clinical, radiological, and histopathological perspective based on 14 years of data. Results: Forty-four patients with a radiological and/or histopathological diagnosis of benign FOLs were identified and re-evaluated. Cemento-osseous dysplasia was the most common group of FOLs present in our patient cohort (45%), followed by ossifying fibroma (39%) and fibrous dysplasia (16%). The diagnostic imaging technique of choice was CBCT (68%), followed by PAN (18%), with most patients (95 %) additionally undergoing biopsy. The mean age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 40.54 ± 13.7 years, with most lesions being located in the mandible (86%), with females being predominantly affected (73%). Conclusion: An interdisciplinary approach that analyzes all case-specific factors, including demographic data, medical history, intraoperative findings, and, most importantly, histopathological and radiological features, is essential for an accurate diagnosis and key to avoiding inappropriate treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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13 pages, 4730 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Digital OPG and CBCT in Assessment of Risk Factors Associated with Inferior Nerve Injury during Mandibular Third Molar Surgery
by Rakhi Issrani, Namdeo Prabhu, Mohammed Sghaireen, Hasna Rasheed Alshubrmi, Amal Mohamed Alanazi, Zainab Ali Alkhalaf, Mohammed Odhayd Alnusayri, Fahad Muqbil Aljohani and Zafar A. Khan
Diagnostics 2021, 11(12), 2282; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122282 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4138
Abstract
Background: Pre-operative radiographic assessment of the anatomical relationship between the roots of the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is a must to minimize the risk of IAN injury during surgery. Objectives: To compare the radiographic signs of digital orthopantomogram [...] Read more.
Background: Pre-operative radiographic assessment of the anatomical relationship between the roots of the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is a must to minimize the risk of IAN injury during surgery. Objectives: To compare the radiographic signs of digital orthopantomogram (OPG) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). An additional objective was to assess the cortex status between the mandibular canal and third molar on CBCT images in relation to the demographic characteristics, region (right or left side), and angulation of mandibular molar. Methodology: In this retrospective study, a total of 350 impacted mandibular third molars with a close relationship between the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) and impacted mandibular third molars on digital OPG were further referred for CBCT imaging for assessment of the position of the mandibular canal. The study was conducted between August 2018 and February 2020. Digital OPGs were evaluated for radiographic signs like interruption of the mandibular canal wall, darkening of the roots, diversion of the mandibular canal, and narrowing of the mandibular canal. The age and sex of patients, site of impacted third molar, Winter’s classification of mandibular third molar, position of IAC relative to impacted molar, and the radiographic markers of OPG were assessed for cortical integrity using CBCT. Chi square testing was applied to study the values of difference and binomial logistic regression was done to assess the factors associated with cortication. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Among 350 patients, 207 (59.1%) were male and 143 (40.9%) were female with a mean age of 36.8 years. The most common OPG sign was interruption of white line, seen in 179 (51.1%) cases. In total, 246 cases (70.3%) showed an absence of canal cortication between the mandibular canal and the impacted third molar on CBCT images. Cortication was observed in all cases with a combination of panoramic signs which was statistically significant (p = 0.047). Cortication was observed in 85 (50.6%) cases where IAC was positioned on the buccal side, 11 (16.9%) in cases of inferiorly positioned IAC, and just 8 (7.6%) for cases of lingually positioned IAC which was statistically significant (p = 0.003). Statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) results were noted for cortex status in CBCT images with regards to the age, sex, site, and angulation of impacted third molars. Conclusion: CBCT imaging is highly recommended for those cases where diversion of the mandibular canal is observed on OPG and when the roots are present between canals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diagnostic Imaging in Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases)
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