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Machines, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): WheTLHLoc is a novel Hybrid Leg-Wheel-Track ground mobile robot for surveillance and inspection. The aim of the project is the development of a general-purpose locomotion platform fulfilling several different requirements: the capability of facing irregular and yielding terrains by tracks, the possibility of purely wheeled locomotion with high energy efficiency on flat and compact grounds, and the ability to climb steps, stairs, and obstacles using legs, wheels, and tracks in combination. The architecture of the hybrid locomotion system is outlined, then the feasibility of the stair climbing maneuver is verified by means of multibody simulation. The embodiment design and the internal mechanical layout are discussed. View this paper
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Machines in 2020
Machines 2021, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010021 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Machines maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Voltage Profile Enhancement and Loss Minimization Using Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Reconfigured Network
Machines 2021, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010020 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Power loss and voltage instability are major problems in distribution systems. However, these problems are typically mitigated by efficient network reconfiguration, including the integration of distributed generation (DG) units in the distribution network. In this regard, the optimal placement and sizing of DGs [...] Read more.
Power loss and voltage instability are major problems in distribution systems. However, these problems are typically mitigated by efficient network reconfiguration, including the integration of distributed generation (DG) units in the distribution network. In this regard, the optimal placement and sizing of DGs are crucial. Otherwise, the network performance will be degraded. This study is conducted to optimally locate and sizing of DGs into a radial distribution network before and after reconfiguration. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm is utilized to determine the optimal placement and sizing of the DGs before and after reconfiguration of the radial network. An optimal network configuration with DG coordination in an active distribution network overcomes power losses, uplifts voltage profiles, and improves the system stability, reliability, and efficiency. For considering the actual power system scenarios, a penalty factor is also considered, this penalty factor plays a crucial role in the minimization of total power loss and voltage profile enhancement. The simulation results showed a significant improvement in the percentage power loss reduction (32% and 68.05% before and after reconfiguration, respectively) with the inclusion of DG units in the test system. Similarly, the minimum bus voltage of the system is improved by 4.9% and 6.53% before and after reconfiguration, respectively. The comparative study is performed, and the results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method in reducing the voltage deviation and power loss of the distribution system. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IEEE-33 bus radial distribution system, using MATLAB software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Power Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Clamping Mechanism of Internal and External Variable Diameter Lifting Tool for Offshore Foundation Pile
Machines 2021, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010019 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Large marine foundation piles are an important part of offshore structural pile foundations, and their lifting operations have always been a major problem in the construction and construction of marine structures. Based on IHC’s bilateral marine foundation pile spreader, this paper proposes a [...] Read more.
Large marine foundation piles are an important part of offshore structural pile foundations, and their lifting operations have always been a major problem in the construction and construction of marine structures. Based on IHC’s bilateral marine foundation pile spreader, this paper proposes a structural scheme of “internal and external clamping type variable diameter marine foundation pile spreader”. It solves the problem of poor adaptability of spreaders to foundation piles of the same specification and different pipe diameters. At the same time, this article has conducted in-depth research on the two clamping methods of friction clamping and wedge tooth embedded clamping. Through experiments, it is found that under the same lateral load, the load capacity of the wedge teeth tightening is three times that of the friction clamping. Aiming at the embedding and clamping method of the wedge teeth of the spreader, first of all, the influence of the tooth profile angle of the wedge teeth on their embedding performance was studied by the plastic mechanics slip line field theory and Abaqus simulation analysis. Subsequently, the elastic mechanics theory and Abaqus simulation analysis were used to study the stress characteristics of the wedge teeth during the lifting process, and the internal stress distribution was obtained. The article aims to provide a reference for the design of spreaders in actual projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machines Testing and Maintenance)
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Open AccessCommunication
Optimal Design of Double-Pole Magnetization BLDC Motor and Comparison with Single-Pole Magnetization BLDC Motor in Terms of Electromagnetic Performance
Machines 2021, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010018 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 275
Abstract
This study presents an optimal double-pole magnetization brushless DC (BLDC) motor design, compared to a single-pole magnetization BLDC motor in terms of electromagnetic performance. Initially, a double-pole model is selected based on the permanent magnet (PM) of the single-pole model. The pole separation [...] Read more.
This study presents an optimal double-pole magnetization brushless DC (BLDC) motor design, compared to a single-pole magnetization BLDC motor in terms of electromagnetic performance. Initially, a double-pole model is selected based on the permanent magnet (PM) of the single-pole model. The pole separation space, which is generated in the magnetization process of the double-pole PM, is selected based on the pole space of the single-pole model. Moreover, the PM offset is selected considering the PM volume of the single-pole model. Further, an optimal model is selected using the multiple response optimal method, which is a type of response surface methodology (RSM). The objective of the optimal design is to maintain the back EMF and decrease the cogging torque; the design variables include the pole separation space and PM offset. The experimental points of the initial model are designed using the central composite method (CCD). Finally, the optimization is verified by comparing the experimental and analysis results of the single-pole model with the analysis results of the optimal model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cooling Performance Analysis of Outside Fins of the Closed Circuit Axial Piston Transmission
Machines 2021, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010017 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Realizing conversion between fluid power and mechanical energy, the closed circuit axial piston transmission (CCAPT) plays a vital and indispensable role in miscellaneous industries. The frictional loss and leakage loss inside the system give rise to the inevitable temperature rise. In order to [...] Read more.
Realizing conversion between fluid power and mechanical energy, the closed circuit axial piston transmission (CCAPT) plays a vital and indispensable role in miscellaneous industries. The frictional loss and leakage loss inside the system give rise to the inevitable temperature rise. In order to prolong the life of the device, a cooling structure on the outside of the CCAPT is designed for promoting heat dissipation. Based on the relevant heat transfer law and the temperature distribution of internal machinery elements, a spiral fin structure is designed at the shell side. With the help of numerical simulation, the effects of fin height, fin pitch, and fin thickness on the thermal performance are studied. The flow field and temperature field on the outside of the fin structure are obtained as a guidance for enhancing heat dissipation effect. Results indicate that the area of rotating elements tend to accumulate heat, where more attention should be paid for a better cooling effect. In addition to this, a moderate increase of fin height, fin pitch and fin thickness has a positive effect on heat transfer enhancement. The peak value of Nusselt number is obtained with a fin height of 7.5 mm, which is about 2.09 times that of the condition without the fin structure. An increase in fin pitch improves both heat transfer performance and comprehensive performance at the same. When fin pitch is 30 mm, Nusselt numberincreases 104% over the original condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machines Testing and Maintenance)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation into the Effect of Cutting Conditions in Turning on the Surface Properties of Filament Winding GFRP Pipe Rings
Machines 2021, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010016 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
There are numerous engineering applications where Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite tubes are utilized, such as desalination plants, power transmission systems, and paper mill, as well as marine, industries. Some type of machining is required for those various applications either for joining [...] Read more.
There are numerous engineering applications where Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite tubes are utilized, such as desalination plants, power transmission systems, and paper mill, as well as marine, industries. Some type of machining is required for those various applications either for joining or fitting procedures. Machining of GFRP has certain difficulties that may damage the tube itself because of fiber delamination and pull out, as well as matrix deboning. Additionally, short machining tool life may be encountered while the formation of powder like chips maybe relatively hazardous. The present paper investigates the effect of process parameters for surface roughness of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite pipes manufactured using the filament winding process. Experiments were conducted based on the high-speed turning Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine using Poly-Crystalline Diamond (PCD) tool. The process parameters considered were cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. Mathematical models for the surface roughness were developed based on the experimental results, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been performed with a confidence level of 95% for validation of the models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of the Leaf Type Bearing Structure with Undersprings Under Dynamic Excitation
Machines 2021, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010015 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
With foil bearings, rotors achieve high rotational speeds with less friction and wear. In addition, here the required space is small and no peripheral components like liquid tanks or pumps are needed. The drawback is a more complex prediction of the real behavior [...] Read more.
With foil bearings, rotors achieve high rotational speeds with less friction and wear. In addition, here the required space is small and no peripheral components like liquid tanks or pumps are needed. The drawback is a more complex prediction of the real behavior in rotordynamic systems. Impedance test rigs are suitable for investigating the structural-dynamic bearing properties and for validating the theoretical models. This article presents and discusses the measurement of dynamic behavior, i.e., stiffness and damping coefficients, of the structure of a leaf type bearing with undersprings. These measurements include variations in static load due to the relative displacement of the bearing and shaft as well as an attempt to explain the noticed anisotropic behavior of the bearing. This article also shows how much a controlled excitation improves the comparability across the frequency band. For this purpose, a test rig is presented that has been further developed in comparison to known literature approaches. The results show, that the loss factors of the examined bearing structure are up to 4 times bigger below lift-off compared to the operation at 60,000 rpm. Furthermore, the movement amplitudes and the static loads have a great influence on the stiffness and the damping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Automation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Scalable Output Linear Actuators, a Novel Design Concept Using Shape Memory Alloy Wires Driven by Fluid Temperature
Machines 2021, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010014 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 551
Abstract
In this paper, the concept of scalability for actuators is introduced and explored, which is the capability to freely change the output characteristics on demand: displacement and force for a linear actuator, angular position and torque for a rotational actuator. This change can [...] Read more.
In this paper, the concept of scalability for actuators is introduced and explored, which is the capability to freely change the output characteristics on demand: displacement and force for a linear actuator, angular position and torque for a rotational actuator. This change can either be used to obtain power improvement (with a constant scale factor), or to improve the usability of a robotic system according to variable conditions (with a variable scale factor). Some advantages of a scalable design include the ability to adapt to changing environments, variable resolution of step size, ability to produce designs that are adequate for restricted spaces or that require strict energy efficiency, and intrinsically safe systems. Current approaches for scalability in actuators have shortcomings: the method to achieve scalability is complex, so obtaining a variable scaling factor is challenging, or they cannot scale both output characteristics simultaneously. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire-based actuators can overcome these limitations, because its two output characteristics, displacement and force, are physically independent from each other. In this paper we present a novel design concept for linear scalable actuators that overcome SMA design and scalability limitations by using a variable number of SMA wires mechanically in parallel, immersed in a liquid that transmits heat from a separate heat source (wet activation). In this concept, more wires increase the maximum attainable force, and longer wires increase the maximum displacement. Prototypes with different number of SMA wires were constructed and tested in isometric experiments to determine force vs. temperature behavior and time response. The heat-transmitting liquid was either static or flowing using pumps. Scalability was achieved with a simple method in all tested prototypes with a linear correlation of maximum force to number of SMA wires. Flowing heat transmission achieved higher actuation bandwidth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Advances on MMS)
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Open AccessReview
Data-Driven Intelligent 3D Surface Measurement in Smart Manufacturing: Review and Outlook
Machines 2021, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010013 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 361
Abstract
High-fidelity characterization and effective monitoring of spatial and spatiotemporal processes are crucial for high-performance quality control of many manufacturing processes and systems in the era of smart manufacturing. Although the recent development in measurement technologies has made it possible to acquire high-resolution three-dimensional [...] Read more.
High-fidelity characterization and effective monitoring of spatial and spatiotemporal processes are crucial for high-performance quality control of many manufacturing processes and systems in the era of smart manufacturing. Although the recent development in measurement technologies has made it possible to acquire high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) surface measurement data, it is generally expensive and time-consuming to use such technologies in real-world production settings. Data-driven approaches that stem from statistics and machine learning can potentially enable intelligent, cost-effective surface measurement and thus allow manufacturers to use high-resolution surface data for better decision-making without introducing substantial production cost induced by data acquisition. Among these methods, spatial and spatiotemporal interpolation techniques can draw inferences about unmeasured locations on a surface using the measurement of other locations, thus decreasing the measurement cost and time. However, interpolation methods are very sensitive to the availability of measurement data, and their performances largely depend on the measurement scheme or the sampling design, i.e., how to allocate measurement efforts. As such, sampling design is considered to be another important field that enables intelligent surface measurement. This paper reviews and summarizes the state-of-the-art research in interpolation and sampling design for surface measurement in varied manufacturing applications. Research gaps and future research directions are also identified and can serve as a fundamental guideline to industrial practitioners and researchers for future studies in these areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Definition of Damage Indices for Railway Axle Bearings: Results of Long-Lasting Tests
Machines 2021, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010012 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 314
Abstract
The European Rail Transport System has set goals of improving the reliability, availability, durability, high-speed capacity, and maintenance. In this context, the condition monitoring approach is of fundamental importance for all components of the “train” system. The authors have long been in the [...] Read more.
The European Rail Transport System has set goals of improving the reliability, availability, durability, high-speed capacity, and maintenance. In this context, the condition monitoring approach is of fundamental importance for all components of the “train” system. The authors have long been in the diagnostics of the railway traction system, with a focus on rolling element bearings. In this paper, signal processing techniques, already developed in the past and experimentally validated in the railway field, are applied to vibration data for the definition of damage indices for railway axle bearings. This allows to evaluate the “status” of the bearing and the monitoring of the evolution of any damage that may occur. The experimental data were obtained by means of a test-rig built according to EN 12082:2017 and following the test specifications of the same standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Advances on MMS)
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Open AccessLetter
Surface Texture after Turning for Various Workpiece Rigidities
Machines 2021, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010009 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 347
Abstract
In the paper, we present an analysis of the surface texture of turned parts with L/D (length/diameter) ratios of 6 and 12 and various rigidity values. The studies were carried out on samples made of S355JR steel and AISI 304 stainless steel. A [...] Read more.
In the paper, we present an analysis of the surface texture of turned parts with L/D (length/diameter) ratios of 6 and 12 and various rigidity values. The studies were carried out on samples made of S355JR steel and AISI 304 stainless steel. A detailed analysis of 2D surface profiles was carried out by using a large number of parameters that allowed us to distinguish significant differences in the surface microgeometry, which confirmed that determining surface characteristics from one height parameter (Ra—arithmetical mean height) is far from sufficient. The obtained results indicate significantly better roughness and waviness values of the AISI 304 steel surfaces in terms of its size, periodicity, and regularity. Therefore, the turning process of AISI 304 shafts with low rigidity allows one to be able to achieve better quality texture and have a positive effect on the general properties of a workpiece. In all tested samples, surface irregularities decreased along with the distance from the tailstock. The shafts with an L/D ratio of 12 had worse surfaces in the first two sections due to lower rigidity. The results received close to the three-jaw chuck, regardless of the L/D ratio and material type, demonstrated similar waviness and roughness parameters and profiles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation Method for the Transport System of a Small-Sized Reconfigurable Mobile Robot
Machines 2021, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010008 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
This study focuses on the features of transport (locomotion) systems of mobile mini-robots (MMR), i.e., small unmanned ground vehicles of a portable type measuring several tens of centimeters and weighing no more than 15 kg. A distinctive feature of the considered MMR is [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the features of transport (locomotion) systems of mobile mini-robots (MMR), i.e., small unmanned ground vehicles of a portable type measuring several tens of centimeters and weighing no more than 15 kg. A distinctive feature of the considered MMR is the possibility of its both structural reconfiguration (i.e., the ability to function in two options—tracked and wheeled) and geometric reconfiguration in the tracked option (i.e., chassis geometry variation). Thus, the transport system of such a mobile robot is divided into two components: a locomotion subsystem and a chassis geometry variation subsystem. The article examines the factors that are necessary for the correct mathematical description of such a small-sized and relatively high-speed transport system. A method for constructing a computer model of the transport system as an electromechanical device only is proposed. Such a computer model of the MMR transport system is developed for two types of chassis configurations: tracked and wheeled. The experimental studies performed and the comparison of the experimental and simulated data obtained showed their close convergence, within 5 to 7%. Thus, it is shown that the revealed features of the MMR transport systems along with the proposed method for their computer model development considering these features make it possible to increase the accuracy and adequacy of the MMR motion simulation in comparison with previously known approaches used in the computation of larger vehicles. The results obtained make it possible to consider the proposed computer model of the transport system as an electromechanical component of the complete model of a mobile robot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the ICIEAM 2020 Conference)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Testing of a High-Frequency Dynamometer for High-Speed Milling Process
Machines 2021, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010011 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Cutting forces are strongly associated with the mechanics of the cutting process. Hence, machining forces measurements are very important to investigate the machining process, and numerous methods of cutting forces measurements have been applied. Nowadays, a dynamometer is the most popular tool for [...] Read more.
Cutting forces are strongly associated with the mechanics of the cutting process. Hence, machining forces measurements are very important to investigate the machining process, and numerous methods of cutting forces measurements have been applied. Nowadays, a dynamometer is the most popular tool for cutting forces measurements. However, the natural frequency of a dynamometer has a direct impact on the accuracy of measured cutting forces in the machining process. Therefore, few dynamometers are appropriate and reliable to measure the cutting forces at high frequencies. In this work, a new strain-gauge-based dynamometer (SGBD) with a special structure was designed, manufactured, and put to the test to ensure the measurement of high-frequency dynamic forces in the milling process. The main structure of the SGBD is symmetrical and mainly consists of a center quadrangular prism surrounded by four force sensing elastic elements, an upper support plate, and a lower support plate. The dynamic identification test was conducted and indicated that the SGBD′s natural frequency could be stabilized at a high value of 9.15 kHz. To automatically obtain the milling force data with a computer during high rotational speed milling, a data acquisition system was devised for the dynamometer. To reduce the effects of cross-sensitivity and acting point of force, an innovative model based on a conversion matrix was established for the dynamometer. Furthermore, the cutting tests were conducted at high rotational speeds (10,000–18,000 rpm), and it was found that the difference of cutting forces between the SGBD and a Kistler dynamometer are 2.3–5.8% in the X direction and 3.5–8.8% in the Y direction. The experimental findings disclosed that the new kind of dynamometer is reliably for the measurement of high-frequency dynamic forces in milling at high rotational speeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Analysis of Multibody Mechanical Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Design of a Hybrid Leg-Wheel-Track Ground Mobile Robot
Machines 2021, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010010 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
This paper presents the conceptual and functional design of a novel hybrid leg-wheel-track ground mobile robot for surveillance and inspection, named WheTLHLoc (Wheel-Track-Leg Hybrid Locomotion). The aim of the work is the development of a general-purpose platform capable of combining tracked locomotion on [...] Read more.
This paper presents the conceptual and functional design of a novel hybrid leg-wheel-track ground mobile robot for surveillance and inspection, named WheTLHLoc (Wheel-Track-Leg Hybrid Locomotion). The aim of the work is the development of a general-purpose platform capable of combining tracked locomotion on irregular and yielding terrains, wheeled locomotion with high energy efficiency on flat and compact grounds, and stair climbing/descent ability. The architecture of the hybrid locomotion system is firstly outlined, then the validation of its stair climbing maneuver capabilities by means of multibody simulation is presented. The embodiment design and the internal mechanical layout are then discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Position and Singularity Analysis of a Class of Planar Parallel Manipulators with a Reconfigurable End-Effector
Machines 2021, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010007 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Parallel robots with configurable platforms are a class of robots in which the end-effector has an inner mobility, so that its overall shape can be reconfigured: in most cases, the end-effector is thus a closed-loop kinematic chain composed of rigid links. These robots [...] Read more.
Parallel robots with configurable platforms are a class of robots in which the end-effector has an inner mobility, so that its overall shape can be reconfigured: in most cases, the end-effector is thus a closed-loop kinematic chain composed of rigid links. These robots have a greater flexibility in their motion and control with respect to rigid-platform parallel architectures, but their kinematics is more challenging to analyze. In our work, we consider n-RRR planar configurable robots, in which the end-effector is a chain composed of n links and revolute joints, and is controlled by n rotary actuators located on the base of the mechanism. In particular, we study the geometrical design of such robots and their direct and inverse kinematics for n=4, n=5 and n=6; we employ the bilateration method, which can simplify the kinematic analysis and allows us to generalize the approach and the results obtained for the 3-RRR mechanism to n-RRR robots (with n>3). Then, we study the singularity configurations of these robot architectures. Finally, we present the results from experimental tests that have been performed on a 5–RRR robot prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Advances on MMS)
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Open AccessArticle
Working Speed Analysis of the Gear-Driven Dibbling Mechanism of a 2.6 kW Walking-Type Automatic Pepper Transplanter
Machines 2021, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010006 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The development of an automatic walking-type pepper transplanter could be effective in improving the mechanization rate in pepper cultivation, where the dibbling mechanism plays a vital role and determines planting performance and efficiency. The objective of this research was to determine a suitable [...] Read more.
The development of an automatic walking-type pepper transplanter could be effective in improving the mechanization rate in pepper cultivation, where the dibbling mechanism plays a vital role and determines planting performance and efficiency. The objective of this research was to determine a suitable working speed for a gear-driven dibbling mechanism appropriate for a pepper transplanter, while considering agronomic transplanting requirements. The proposed dibbling mechanism consisted of two dibbling hoppers that simultaneously collected free-falling seedlings from the supply mechanism and dibbled them into soil. To enable the smooth collection and plantation of pepper seedlings, analysis was carried out via a mathematical working trajectory model of the dibbling mechanism, virtual prototype simulation, and validation tests, using a physical prototype. In the mathematical model analysis and simulation, a 300 mm/s forward speed of the transplanter and a 60 rpm rotational speed of the dibbling mechanism were preferable in terms of seedling uprightness and low mulch film damage. During the field test, transplanting was conducted at a 40 mm planting depth, using different forward speed levels. Seedlings were freely supplied to the hopper from a distance of 80 mm, and the success rate for deposition was 96.79%. A forward speed of 300 mm/s with transplanting speed of 120 seedlings/min was preferable in terms of achieving a high degree of seedling uprightness (90 ± 3.26), a low rate of misplanting (8.19%), a low damage area on mulch film (2341.95 ± 2.89 mm2), high uniformity of planting depth (39.74 ± 0.48 mm), and low power consumption (40.91 ± 0.97 W). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machines Testing and Maintenance)
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Open AccessArticle
A Decoupled 6-DOF Compliant Parallel Mechanism with Optimized Dynamic Characteristics Using Cellular Structure
Machines 2021, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010005 - 10 Jan 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
This paper presents a novel six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) compliant parallel mechanism (CPM) with decoupled output motions, large workspace of ≥6 mm for translations and ≥12° for rotations, optimized stiffness, and dynamic properties. The working range and the motion decoupling capability of the six-DOF [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) compliant parallel mechanism (CPM) with decoupled output motions, large workspace of ≥6 mm for translations and ≥12° for rotations, optimized stiffness, and dynamic properties. The working range and the motion decoupling capability of the six-DOF CPM are experimentally verified, and the mechanical properties are shown to be predictable. The proposed CPM is synthesized by applying the beam-based structural optimization method together with the criteria for achieving motion decoupling capability. In order to improve the dynamic behaviors for the CPM, cellular structure is used to design its end effector. The obtained results show that the dynamic performance of the CPM with cellular end effector is significantly enhanced with the increase of 33% of the first resonance frequency as compared to the initial design. Performances of the three-dimensional (3D)-printed prototype are experimentally evaluated in terms of mechanical characteristics and decoupled motions. The obtained results show that the actual stiffness and dynamic properties agree with the predictions with the highest deviation of ~10.5%. The motion decoupling capability of the CPM is also demonstrated since almost input energy (>99.5%) generates the desired output motions while the energy causes parasitic motions is only minor (<0.5%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
CAD-Based 3D-FE Modelling of AISI-D3 Turning with Ceramic Tooling
Machines 2021, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010004 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
In this study, the development of a 3D Finite Element (FE) model for the turning of AISI-D3 with ceramic tooling is presented, with respect to four levels of cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. The Taguchi method was employed in order to [...] Read more.
In this study, the development of a 3D Finite Element (FE) model for the turning of AISI-D3 with ceramic tooling is presented, with respect to four levels of cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. The Taguchi method was employed in order to create the orthogonal array according to the variables involved in the study, reducing this way the number of the required simulation runs. Moreover, the possibility of developing a prediction model based on well-established statistical tools such as the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was examined, in order to further investigate the relationship between the cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut, as well as their influence on the produced force components. The findings of this study point out an increased correlation between the experimental results and the simulated ones, with a relative error below 10% for most tests. Similarly, the values derived from the developed statistical model indicate a strong agreement with the equivalent numerical values due to the verified adequacy of the statistical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical System Control by RGB-D Device
Machines 2021, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010003 - 27 Dec 2020
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Computer vision for control is a growing domain of research and it is widespread in industry and the autonomous vehicle field. A further step is the employment of low-cost cameras to perform these applications. To apply such an approach, the development of proper [...] Read more.
Computer vision for control is a growing domain of research and it is widespread in industry and the autonomous vehicle field. A further step is the employment of low-cost cameras to perform these applications. To apply such an approach, the development of proper algorithms to interpret vision data is mandatory. Here, we firstly propose the development of an algorithm to measure the displacement of a mechanical system in contactless mode. Afterwards, we show two procedures that use a 3D camera as a feedback in control strategies. The first one aims to track a moving object. In the second one, the information gained from vision data acquisition allows the mechanical system control to ensure the equilibrium of a ball placed on a moving slide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Advances on MMS)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Analysis of Low-Power Three-Phase Induction Motors Operating under Voltage Unbalance and Inter-Turn Short Circuit Faults
Machines 2021, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010002 - 26 Dec 2020
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Three-phase induction motors are considered to be the workhorse of industry. Therefore, induction motor faults are not only the cause of users’ frustrations but they also drive up the costs related to unexpected breakdowns, repair actions, and safety issues. One of the most [...] Read more.
Three-phase induction motors are considered to be the workhorse of industry. Therefore, induction motor faults are not only the cause of users’ frustrations but they also drive up the costs related to unexpected breakdowns, repair actions, and safety issues. One of the most critical faults in three-phase induction motors is related to the occurrence of inter-turn short circuits, due to its devastating consequences. The topic of inter-turn short-circuit faults in three-phase induction motors has been discussed over recent decades by several researchers. These studies have mainly dealt with early fault detection to avoid dramatic consequences. However, they fall short of addressing the potential burnout of the induction motor before the detection step. Furthermore, the cumulative action played by an inevitable degree of unbalanced supply voltages may exacerbate such consequences. For that reason, in deep detail, this paper delves into the thermal analysis of the induction motor when operating under these two harsh conditions: unbalanced supply voltages and the presence of the most incipient type of inter-turn short-circuit condition—a short-circuit between two turns only. In this work, the finite element method has been applied to create the faulty scenarios, and a commercial software (Flux2D) has been used in order to simulate the electromagnetic and thermal behavior of the machine for various degrees of severity of the aforementioned faulty modes. The obtained results confirm that the diagnostic tools reported in the literature might not be effective, failing to warrant the required lead time so that suitable actions can be taken to prevent permanent damage to the machine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Analysis of Electric Machine Drives)
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Open AccessCommunication
Research on Performance Test System of Space Harmonic Reducer in High Vacuum and Low Temperature Environment
Machines 2021, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9010001 - 23 Dec 2020
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Abstract
The harmonic reducer, with its advantages of high precision, low noise, light weight, and high speed ratio, has been widely used in aerospace solar wing deployment mechanisms, antenna pointing mechanisms, robot joints, and other precision transmission fields. Accurately predicting the performance of the [...] Read more.
The harmonic reducer, with its advantages of high precision, low noise, light weight, and high speed ratio, has been widely used in aerospace solar wing deployment mechanisms, antenna pointing mechanisms, robot joints, and other precision transmission fields. Accurately predicting the performance of the harmonic reducer under various application conditions is of great significance to the high reliability and long life of the harmonic reducer. In this paper, a set of automatic harmonic reducer performance test systems is designed. By using the CANOpen bus interface to control the servo motor as the drive motor, through accurately controlling the motor speed and rotation angle, collecting the angle, torque, and current in real time, the life cycle test of space harmonic reducer was carried out in high vacuum and low temperature environment on the ground. Then, the collected data were automatically analyzed and calculated. The test data of the transmission accuracy, backlash, and transmission efficiency of the space harmonic reducer were obtained. It is proven by experiments that the performance data of the harmonic reducer in space work can be more accurately obtained by using the test system mentioned in this paper, which is convenient for further research on related lubricating materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machines Testing and Maintenance)
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