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Machines, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 123 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In high-speed and high-frequency electric machines, one of the major issues that impacts the performance and capability of a machine is the high-frequency eddy current losses in the windings. This work deals with AC winding losses in flat rectangular conductors. Aiming for eddy current loss mitigation, two different materials are investigated and compared for the same winding design, namely, copper and aluminum. Using the finite element method (FEM), the conductor loss and current density behavior are simulated at the strand level. Further, in order to verify the simulated losses, the AC losses are measured and compared over a wide range of frequencies. Finally, recommendations are provided based on the obtained measurements to identify the best winding topology that is most suitable for automotive applications. View this paper
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Article
Prediction of the Comprehensive Error Field in the Machining Space of the Five-Axis Machine Tool Based on the “S”-Shaped Specimen Family
Machines 2022, 10(5), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050408 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 364
Abstract
In order to quickly and accurately predict the spatial geometric error field of the five-axis machine tool processing, a method for predicting the comprehensive error field of the five-axis machine tool processing space based on the “S”-shaped specimen family is studied. Firstly, for [...] Read more.
In order to quickly and accurately predict the spatial geometric error field of the five-axis machine tool processing, a method for predicting the comprehensive error field of the five-axis machine tool processing space based on the “S”-shaped specimen family is studied. Firstly, for the five-axis CNC machine tool in the form of A-C dual turntable, the geometric error model of the rotating axis is established based on the multi-body dynamics theory; the error mapping relationship between the processing technology system and the workpiece is analyzed based on the “S”-shaped specimen family, and the identification of 12 geometric errors of the two rotating shafts. Then, the error value of the sampling point is measured based on the “S”-shaped test piece in machine contact, and the double-circle center coordinate value is determined according to the curvature of the measured wire of the test piece, in order to identify the geometric errors of the two rotation axes of the five-axis machine tool. Finally, based on the prediction method, the comprehensive error field of the five-axis CNC machine tool processing space is analyzed. Compared with other geometric error identification methods, the measurement accuracy of this method meets the processing requirements and can further evaluate the comprehensive performance of the machine tool. Full article
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Article
A Wind Turbine Fault Classification Model Using Broad Learning System Optimized by Improved Pelican Optimization Algorithm
Machines 2022, 10(5), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050407 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 389
Abstract
As a classification model, a broad learning system is widely used in wind turbine fault diagnosis. However, the setting of hyperparameters for the models directly affects the classification accuracy of the models and it generally relies on practical experience and prior knowledge. In [...] Read more.
As a classification model, a broad learning system is widely used in wind turbine fault diagnosis. However, the setting of hyperparameters for the models directly affects the classification accuracy of the models and it generally relies on practical experience and prior knowledge. In order to effectively solve the problem, the parameters of the broad learning system such as the number of feature nodes, the number of enhancement nodes, and the number of mapped features layer were optimized by the improved pelican optimization algorithm, and a classification model was built based on the broad learning system optimized by the improved pelican optimization algorithm. The classification accuracy of the proposed model was the highest and reached 98.75%. It is further shown that compared with the support vector machine, deep belief networks, and broad learning system models optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm, the proposed model effectively improves the accuracy of wind turbine fault diagnosing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Turbomachinery)
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Article
Modelling Particle Motion during High-Voltage Electrostatic Abrasive Implantation Based on Multi-Physics Field Coupling
Machines 2022, 10(5), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050406 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Electrostatic abrasive implantation technology is a classical process based on electrostatic field to implant abrasive particles into base material. However, there is still not a quantitative model to ensure the implantation performance due to the fact that the electrostatic abrasive implantation is a [...] Read more.
Electrostatic abrasive implantation technology is a classical process based on electrostatic field to implant abrasive particles into base material. However, there is still not a quantitative model to ensure the implantation performance due to the fact that the electrostatic abrasive implantation is a complex multi-physics coupled process. To ensure the quality of sandpaper and elucidate the complex motion mechanism of Al2O3 based abrasive particles in a high voltage electrostatic field, a multi-physical field coupling simulation model is proposed. First, the mechanical model is constructed for the complex problem of the electrostatic abrasive implantation process. Then, the field model is established for the problem that the superposition of multi-physical fields leads to complicated environmental conditions. Finally, the evaluation model is established for the problems that the abrasive planting effect is difficult to evaluate and the planting parameters are difficult to adjust. Besides, a tailored electrostatic abrasive planting testing equipment is designed for the implantation performance analysis purpose. Single-parameter electrostatic abrasive planting experiments were conducted to analyze and verify the effect of different pole plate voltage and pole plate spacing on the abrasive implantation rate. To ensure the implantation performance, the applicable pole plate spacing ranges from 30 mm to 50 mm and the suitable voltage is 20–40 kV according to the simulation result in the proposed two models. Meanwhile, the implantation rate experimentation shows the coupling field model coincides with the experiments better. The key factors affecting the electrostatic abrasive planting process are identified, and a feasible multi-physical field coupled abrasive particle motion simulation model is proposed. Full article
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Article
Composite Ski-Resort Registration Method Based on Laser Point Cloud Information
Machines 2022, 10(5), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050405 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The environment of ski resorts is usually complex and changeable, and there are few characteristic objects in the background, which creates many difficulties for the registration of ski-resort point cloud datasets. However, in the traditional iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, two points need [...] Read more.
The environment of ski resorts is usually complex and changeable, and there are few characteristic objects in the background, which creates many difficulties for the registration of ski-resort point cloud datasets. However, in the traditional iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, two points need to have good initial positions, otherwise it is easy to get caught up in local optimizations in registration. Aiming at this problem, according to the topographic features of ski resorts, this paper put forward a ski-resort coarse registration method based on extraction, and matching between feature points is proposed to adjust the initial position of two point clouds. Firstly, the feature points of the common part of the point cloud datasets are extracted based on the SIFT algorithm; secondly, the Euclidean distance between the feature normal vectors is used as the pairing condition to complete the pairing between the feature points in the point cloud datasets; then, the feature point pair is purified by using the included angle of the normal vector; finally, in the process of coarse registration, the rotation matrix and translation vector between point clouds are solved by the unit quaternion method. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed coarse registration method based on the normal vector of feature points is helpful to the smooth completion of the subsequent fine registration process, avoids the phenomenon of falling into local optimization, and effectively completes the ski-resort point cloud registration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechatronic and Intelligent Machines)
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Article
Analysis of 3-DOF Cutting Stability of Titanium Alloy Helical Milling Based on PKM and Machining Quality Optimization
Machines 2022, 10(5), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050404 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Aiming at the requirements of titanium alloy holes in aircraft industry, the 3-DOF cutting stability and surface quality optimization of parallel kinematic manipulator (PKM) are studied. The variation of natural frequencies with the end-effector position of the PKM is analyzed. The cutting force [...] Read more.
Aiming at the requirements of titanium alloy holes in aircraft industry, the 3-DOF cutting stability and surface quality optimization of parallel kinematic manipulator (PKM) are studied. The variation of natural frequencies with the end-effector position of the PKM is analyzed. The cutting force model of titanium alloy helical milling based PKM is developed, and the cutting force coefficients are identified. The prediction model for 3-DOF the stability of helical milling based on the PKM is established through a Semi-Discrete method, and the stability lobes are obtained. The correctness of the stability lobes is verified by subjecting the cutting force signal to time-frequency transformation and roughness detection. The step-cutter is used for machining process improvement to enhance the stability domain. The method proposed in this paper can provide a reference for further optimization of the prediction and optimization of the milling process of difficult-to-process materials based on PKM in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Parallel Robots)
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Article
Automatic Shift Control of an Electric Motor Direct Drive for an Electric Loader
Machines 2022, 10(5), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050403 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Traditional loaders with engines present the drawbacks of high energy consumption and poor emissions performance. The usage of an electric motor instead of an engine in an electric loader can effectively improve energy efficiency and emissions. The loader is mainly used in the [...] Read more.
Traditional loaders with engines present the drawbacks of high energy consumption and poor emissions performance. The usage of an electric motor instead of an engine in an electric loader can effectively improve energy efficiency and emissions. The loader is mainly used in the earthwork construction of unstructured roads. Compared to the automobile, during the working process of the loader, the load fluctuates violently, and the vibration is serious. A large torque range during operation, a wide speed range during transfer, and frequently switching gears to ensure power are required by the loader. Therefore, the automatic shift control strategy for an automobile cannot be well applied to the loader directly. In this paper, a novel distributed electric motor-driven loader in which the walking drive system and the hydraulic system is decoupled is studied. The shift rule of the electric loader is also studied. A comprehensive automatic shift control strategy considering power and economy is proposed. Simulations are carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed control strategy. The results show that under the “V” cycle operation condition of the loader, the shift rule meets the control requirements and the shift effect is obvious and reasonable. In terms of transfer conditions, the proposed control strategy yields ideal power performance and energy savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control of Industrial Electro-Hydraulic Systems)
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Review
Object Detection and Distance Measurement in Teleoperation
Machines 2022, 10(5), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050402 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
In recent years, teleoperation has experienced rapid development. Numerous teleoperation applications in diverse areas have been reported. Among all teleoperation-related components, computer vision (CV) is treated as one of the must-have technologies, because it allows users to observe remote scenarios. In addition, CV [...] Read more.
In recent years, teleoperation has experienced rapid development. Numerous teleoperation applications in diverse areas have been reported. Among all teleoperation-related components, computer vision (CV) is treated as one of the must-have technologies, because it allows users to observe remote scenarios. In addition, CV can further help the user to identify and track the desired targets from complex scenes. It has been proven that efficient CV methods can significantly improve the operation accuracy and relieve user’s physical and mental fatigue. Therefore, furthering understanding about CV techniques and reviewing the latest research outcomes is necessary for teleoperation designers. In this context, this review article was composed. Full article
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Article
Calculation of Rotor Harmonic Losses in Multiphase Induction Machines
Machines 2022, 10(5), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050401 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 415
Abstract
The topic of this paper is the determination of rotor harmonic losses in multiphase machines. Specifically, harmonic losses occur in the rotor winding and core due to higher-order spatial harmonics of the flux density. This phenomenon influences machine parameters and overall performance and [...] Read more.
The topic of this paper is the determination of rotor harmonic losses in multiphase machines. Specifically, harmonic losses occur in the rotor winding and core due to higher-order spatial harmonics of the flux density. This phenomenon influences machine parameters and overall performance and increases temperature rise in parts of the rotor. The flux density distribution is determined by the stator magnetomotive force harmonic content, which is directly related to the winding distribution. A cage-rotor asymmetrical six-phase induction machine is selected for this case study. An analysis of different stator winding topologies and their influence on harmonic losses is presented. A finite element-based method for calculating the contribution of individual stator magnetomotive force harmonics to the rotor losses is developed and described in the paper. The analysis includes scenarios with different phase current waveforms to emphasize the issues specific to the asymmetrical six-phase machine. It is found that the magnetomotive force components generated by non-torque-producing current components contribute significantly to harmonic losses. The obtained results can represent a foundation for optimal stator winding topology selection. This work is intended to motivate the development of new and the modification of existing models to properly include rotor harmonic losses during the design, performance prediction, and control of multiphase machines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Applications of Multiphase Machines)
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Article
Surface Roughness Improvement by Sliding Friction Burnishing of Parts Produced by Selective Laser Melting of Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy
Machines 2022, 10(5), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050400 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Selective laser melting is a frequently used, powder bed fusion additive manufacturing technology for producing metallic parts. However, appropriate surface quality cannot be achieved, so post-processing is often necessary. Subsequent machining of surfaces serves multiple objectives such as improvement of dimensional accuracy, changing [...] Read more.
Selective laser melting is a frequently used, powder bed fusion additive manufacturing technology for producing metallic parts. However, appropriate surface quality cannot be achieved, so post-processing is often necessary. Subsequent machining of surfaces serves multiple objectives such as improvement of dimensional accuracy, changing surface roughness and modification of the residual stress state for higher surface hardness. Beyond its several advantageous properties, Ti6Al4V material has, as its weaknesses, low tribological behavior and wear resistance. Sliding friction burnishing is a conventional chipless and coolant-free environmentally conscious technology for surface modification that is appropriate for simultaneously decreasing surface roughness and increasing surface hardness. Until now, there has been a research gap regarding the diamond burnishing of selective laser melted Ti6Al4V parts. In this study, we investigated how the surface roughness of selective laser melted parts can be modified via sliding friction burnishing. 2D and 3D characteristics of surface roughness were measured by a chromatic roughness measuring device. Indices of surface roughness improvement were defined and studied as a function of selective laser melting parameters. Optimal manufacturing parameters of laser power—P = 280 W and scanning speed u = 1200 mm/s—for effective surface improvement via burnishing are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cutting Tools: Materials, Development and Performance)
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Article
Selective Harmonic Elimination in a Cascaded Multilevel Inverter of Distributed Power Generators Using Water Cycle Algorithm
Machines 2022, 10(5), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050399 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 445
Abstract
This research paper proposes the application of a meta-heuristic algorithm, namely the water cycle algorithm (WCA), for optimizing the performance of a multi-level inverter for a distributed energy resources-based smart grid system. The aim is to find the optimal switching angles to achieve [...] Read more.
This research paper proposes the application of a meta-heuristic algorithm, namely the water cycle algorithm (WCA), for optimizing the performance of a multi-level inverter for a distributed energy resources-based smart grid system. The aim is to find the optimal switching angles to achieve selective harmonic elimination. To exhibit the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and evaluate the results, a three-phase seven-level cascaded multilevel inverter (CHBMLI) is used. This paper demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed algorithm by performing a rigorous comparison with existing meta-heuristic algorithms. Independent sample t-tests for different population sizes are demonstrated, which reflect the better performance of the proposed algorithm’s results. For the comparison, crucial parameters for optimization, including population size and number of iterations, are kept the same for the proposed WCA and other algorithms. Since we are solving a minimization problem, a lower fitness value is focused. In our research paper, we show how the proposed algorithm attains a lower fitness value and fast rate of convergence. For different values of the modulation index, WCA performs better than particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the firefly algorithm (FA). For a particular case of a modulation index value of 0.8, the minimum value found by WCA over 50 samples is 0.0001, whereas that of PSO and FA are 0.0223 and 0.0433, respectively, which shows that WCA has better accuracy. The results clearly present that the proposed algorithm provides a competitive percentage of elimination of selected harmonics when compared with other meta-heuristic algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Power Engineering)
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Article
A Mathematical Modeling and Analysis Method for the Kinematics of a Maglev Train
Machines 2022, 10(5), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050398 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
In recent years, more and more countries are paying attention to maglev transportation because of its outstanding advantages. However, because the structure of a maglev train is more complex than a wheel-rail train, there is no systematic theory method for kinematic modeling of [...] Read more.
In recent years, more and more countries are paying attention to maglev transportation because of its outstanding advantages. However, because the structure of a maglev train is more complex than a wheel-rail train, there is no systematic theory method for kinematic modeling of a maglev vehicle. Based on the screw theory and the product of exponentials (PoE) formula in the field of open-chain robotics, this paper presents a method of kinematic mathematical modeling and analysis for a maglev train and track. By analyzing the characteristics of the closed chain running mechanism of a maglev train, the kinematic mathematical model of a maglev train and track is established, and the motion state of each moving part of the vehicle on a typical track is calculated and analyzed. At last, compared with the results of experiment, the correctness of modeling method proposed in this paper is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vehicle Engineering)
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Article
Fracture Mechanism Analysis and Design Optimization of a Wheelset Lifting Mechanism Based on Experiments and Simulations
Machines 2022, 10(5), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050397 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 390
Abstract
In this study, material and dynamic stress experiments are combined with finite element (FE) simulations to reveal the fracture mechanism of the wheelset lifting apparatus, and a structural design optimization scheme based on the double-layer Kriging surrogate model is proposed. The fracture mechanism [...] Read more.
In this study, material and dynamic stress experiments are combined with finite element (FE) simulations to reveal the fracture mechanism of the wheelset lifting apparatus, and a structural design optimization scheme based on the double-layer Kriging surrogate model is proposed. The fracture mechanism of the wheelset lifting apparatus is first clarified through the material analysis of macro/micro and dynamic stress tests. Static strength and modal analyses are then performed to perfect the mechanism analysis in terms of structural performance. An efficient, robust, fatigue design optimization method based on the double-layer Kriging surrogate model and improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is finally proposed to improve the original design scheme. For the wheelset lifting mechanism’s fracture, the crack source is found on the transition fillet surface of the lifting lug and lifting ring, where the fracture has the characteristics of two-way, multisource, high-cycle, low-stress fatigue. It is further revealed that the vibration fatigue occurring at the point of maximum stress is the main cause of the fracture. The effectiveness of the proposed design optimization method is validated via comparative analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability Evaluation for Industrial Systems: State of the Art)
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Article
Monocular Depth and Velocity Estimation Based on Multi-Cue Fusion
Machines 2022, 10(5), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050396 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Many consumers and scholars currently focus on driving assistance systems (DAS) and intelligent transportation technologies. The distance and speed measurement technology of the vehicle ahead is an important part of the DAS. Existing vehicle distance and speed estimation algorithms based on monocular cameras [...] Read more.
Many consumers and scholars currently focus on driving assistance systems (DAS) and intelligent transportation technologies. The distance and speed measurement technology of the vehicle ahead is an important part of the DAS. Existing vehicle distance and speed estimation algorithms based on monocular cameras still have limitations, such as ignoring the relationship between the underlying features of vehicle speed and distance. A multi-cue fusion monocular velocity and ranging framework is proposed to improve the accuracy of monocular ranging and velocity measurement. We use the attention mechanism to fuse different feature information. The training method is used to jointly train the network through the distance velocity regression loss function and the depth loss as an auxiliary loss function. Finally, experimental validation is performed on the Tusimple dataset and the KITTI dataset. On the Tusimple dataset, the average speed mean square error of the proposed method is less than 0.496 m2/s2, and the average mean square error of the distance is 5.695 m2. On the KITTI dataset, the average velocity mean square error of our method is less than 0.40 m2/s2. In addition, we test in different scenarios and confirm the effectiveness of the network. Full article
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Article
Conjugate Heat Transfer Simulation of Overall Cooling Performance for Cratered Film Cooling Holes
Machines 2022, 10(5), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050395 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Film cooling is widely applied as an effective way to maintain the turbine blade temperature at an acceptable level. The present paper investigates the overall cooling effectiveness and flow structure by performing conjugate heat transfer simulations for the flat-plate baseline cylindrical and three [...] Read more.
Film cooling is widely applied as an effective way to maintain the turbine blade temperature at an acceptable level. The present paper investigates the overall cooling effectiveness and flow structure by performing conjugate heat transfer simulations for the flat-plate baseline cylindrical and three cratered film-cooling holes. The flow and heat transfer in the fluid domain is obtained using the Shear Stress Transport turbulence model, and the solid conductivity is considered by solving the Laplace equation. Four blowing ratios ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 are studied. The numerical results show that the concentric elliptic cratered hole yields a slightly higher overall cooling effectiveness than the baseline cylindrical hole, but the two contoured cratered holes exhibit great improvements due to the generation of the anti-kidney-shaped vortex pair. The area-averaged overall cooling effectiveness has improved by 5.58–65.30% for the contoured cratered hole. The variation of Biot number results in small change in the area-averaged overall cooling effectiveness. However, the area-averaged overall cooling effectiveness uniformity coefficient depends on the Biot number. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Power Engineering)
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Article
Experimental Validation in a Controlled Environment of a Methodology for Assessing the Dynamic Behavior of Railway Track Components
Machines 2022, 10(5), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050394 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 385
Abstract
This article presents a novel methodology conducted under controlled laboratory conditions to assess the dynamic behavior of the components of railway tracks by applying an unbalanced mass excitation force. The methodology for obtaining accurate measurements, which uses different excitation parameters, is based on [...] Read more.
This article presents a novel methodology conducted under controlled laboratory conditions to assess the dynamic behavior of the components of railway tracks by applying an unbalanced mass excitation force. The methodology for obtaining accurate measurements, which uses different excitation parameters, is based on an unbalanced mass device, and from these data, the transmissibility of the mass-elastomer system is estimated. For assessment of the dynamic behavior, different sine sweep rate excitations, the unbalanced mass, and background noise are considered. The experimental measurements of transmissibility with a shaker and an unbalanced mass device are performed to validate the methodology. For this, frequency-by-frequency transmissibility measurements and the swept sine were performed by the shaker, with a sine sweep from 1 to 51 Hz, using the unbalanced mass device with different sine sweep rates and unbalanced mass. The results obtained allow comparison of the transmissibility by excitation at specific frequencies and the sine sweep to validate the excitation parameters of the unbalanced mass device. Thus, a transmissibility estimation error with the sweep rate, the unbalanced mass, and the background noise is developed. By using the proposed methodology, it is possible to lower the error of the estimated transmissibility of the system with background noise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vehicle Engineering)
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Article
Vision-Aided Brush Alignment Assembly System for Precision Conductive Slip Rings
Machines 2022, 10(5), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050393 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The alignment precision of manual brush assembly for a precision conductive slip ring is critical to its performance of reliability and service lifetime. Currently, the alignment precision cannot be guaranteed since it largely depends on the operator’s experiences and skill level. In this [...] Read more.
The alignment precision of manual brush assembly for a precision conductive slip ring is critical to its performance of reliability and service lifetime. Currently, the alignment precision cannot be guaranteed since it largely depends on the operator’s experiences and skill level. In this paper, a machine vision-aided method is proposed to measure the ring groove positions as the brush alignment objective, and track the relative brush position deviation during the manual brush alignment assembly. A vision-aided brush alignment assembly system is also developed to provide quantitative position deviation for the precise alignment of the brush and the ring groove, ensuring higher alignment accuracy and efficiency. The experimental results indicate that, with the developed system, the brush alignment assembly accuracy can be controlled within ±0.02 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Informatics and Digital Twin)
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Article
Parameter Estimation for Robotic Manipulator Systems
Machines 2022, 10(5), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050392 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 482
Abstract
In this paper, a novel methodology for estimating the parameters of robotic manipulator systems is proposed. It can be seen that, for the purpose of parameter estimation, the input torque to each joint motor is designed as a linear combination of sinusoids. After [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel methodology for estimating the parameters of robotic manipulator systems is proposed. It can be seen that, for the purpose of parameter estimation, the input torque to each joint motor is designed as a linear combination of sinusoids. After the transient responses of joint angles exponentially converge to zero, the steady states of joint angle outputs can be extracted. Since the steady states of joint angles are the equivalent finite Fourier series, the coefficients of the steady state components of joint angles can be further extracted in a fundamental period. With the amazing finding that the steady states contain all dynamic information of manipulator systems, all unknown parameters of the system model can be accurately estimated with the extracted coefficients in finite frequency bands. The simulation results for a two-link manipulator are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness against measurement noise of the proposed method. Full article
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Article
Repairing Damaged Screen Pipes with Tube Hydroforming: Experiments and Feasibility Analysis
Machines 2022, 10(5), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050391 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 418
Abstract
During oil-well production, there are often cracks, breaks, and perforation corrosion on the screen pipe that can significantly deteriorate sand control and pipe strength. To repair damaged screen pipes, we developed a technique originating from the tube hydroforming, and the feasibility of the [...] Read more.
During oil-well production, there are often cracks, breaks, and perforation corrosion on the screen pipe that can significantly deteriorate sand control and pipe strength. To repair damaged screen pipes, we developed a technique originating from the tube hydroforming, and the feasibility of the technique was systematically investigated. First, the elastoplastic mechanics of patch tubes during the hydroforming process was analyzed to investigate the forming mechanism. Second, tensile experiments showed that AISI 321 after cold drawn and solution had good mechanical properties. A numerical simulation model of a hydroforming patch composed of AISI 321 steel was built to investigate the effect of structural parameters such as the length, initial outer diameter, and thickness of a patch tube on hydroforming patch performance. Forming pressure did not significantly change with length, but it decreased with initial outer diameter and increased with thickness. In addition to the simulation, a hydroforming test bench was constructed to experimentally test the patch method. Test results showed that the patch tube could fit closely with the screen base pipe, and residual contact stress could be more than 139.78 kN/m2. Deformation strengthening due to the deformed martensite was conducive to improving the strength of the patch tube after hydroforming. The combination of the simulation and experiment indicates that the application of hydroforming patch technology can effectively repair damaged screen pipes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machines Testing and Maintenance)
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Article
Windage Loss Characteristics of Aviation Spiral Bevel Gear and Windage Reduction Mechanism of Shroud
Machines 2022, 10(5), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050390 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
With the increasing speed of aviation gear, windage loss has been the main component of power loss. Reducing windage is of great significance to improving the transmission efficiency of aviation spiral bevel gear. Firstly, the calculation model of enclosed spiral bevel gear was [...] Read more.
With the increasing speed of aviation gear, windage loss has been the main component of power loss. Reducing windage is of great significance to improving the transmission efficiency of aviation spiral bevel gear. Firstly, the calculation model of enclosed spiral bevel gear was established, and the basic physical mechanism of windage power loss was illustrated by numerical simulation, so as to obtain the mechanical and energy characteristics of windage loss. Then, the influence of the geometry and clearance parameters of the shroud on the windage loss was studied by orthogonal test, variance analysis and optimization design. The mechanism of the shroud to reduce the windage loss under the multi-factors was also studied, and their interaction was obtained. The results show that the tooth surface clearance, heel clearance and meshing opening are significant factors, and the most significant factor is the heel clearance. The non-significant factor is the interaction of each factor. The least significant factor is the toe clearance. In other words, the windage power loss can be reduced to the greatest extent by simultaneously reducing the meshing opening of the shroud and the clearance value between shroud and the surface of the gear. Finally, based on the mechanism of reducing windage loss of shroud, the optimization design principle affecting the structural performance of shroud is put forward, which provides theoretical guidance for the practical application of shroud in windage reduction engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machine Design and Theory)
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Article
Stiffness-Oriented Placement Optimization of Machining Robots for Large Component Flexible Manufacturing System
Machines 2022, 10(5), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050389 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 377
Abstract
A large component flexible manufacturing system provides more application scenarios for industrial robots, and, in turn, these robots exhibit competitive advantages in machining applications. However, the structural characteristic of low stiffness is the main obstacle for the industrial robot. Aiming at obtaining sufficient [...] Read more.
A large component flexible manufacturing system provides more application scenarios for industrial robots, and, in turn, these robots exhibit competitive advantages in machining applications. However, the structural characteristic of low stiffness is the main obstacle for the industrial robot. Aiming at obtaining sufficient stiffness in the whole machining process, this paper focuses on robot placement optimization in the flexible manufacturing of large components. The geometric center of the machined feature is selected as, firstly, the base point, and the center-reachable placement space of the robot base is obtained by establishing the kinematic model considering a variety of motion constraints. Then, according to the reachability of the machining feature contour, the global placement space meeting all machining boundaries is further extracted. The mapping relationship between joint force and posture is established, and the most suitable robot placement is selected based on the criterion of global stiffness optimization. A series of numerical and finite element simulations verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed optimization strategy. The developed stiffness-oriented placement planning algorithm can provide beneficial references for robotic machining applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Robotics and Automation in Smart Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Digital-Twins-Driven Semi-Physical Simulation for Testing and Evaluation of Industrial Software in a Smart Manufacturing System
Machines 2022, 10(5), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050388 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 463
Abstract
To satisfy the needs of the individualized manufacturing of products, the smart manufacturing system (SMS) is frequently reconfigured. To quickly verify the reliability and adaptability of industrial software in reconfiguring the SMS for new or upgraded product orders, a semi-physical simulation method for [...] Read more.
To satisfy the needs of the individualized manufacturing of products, the smart manufacturing system (SMS) is frequently reconfigured. To quickly verify the reliability and adaptability of industrial software in reconfiguring the SMS for new or upgraded product orders, a semi-physical simulation method for testing and evaluation of industrial software is proposed based on digital-twins-driven technology. By establishing a semi-physical simulation model of SMS, the reliability and robustness of the software system are quickly verified by running industrial software in various manufacturing scenarios. In this paper, the key technologies to carry out semi-physical simulation testing and evaluation of industrial software for SMSs are expounded in detail, including how to synchronize cyber and physical systems, how to conduct semi-physical accelerated simulation testing, and how to identify defects quickly in industrial software used in actual production environments. By establishing a semi-physical simulation production line model for stepper motors, the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed approach are verified, and the testing verification time of industrial software is significantly reduced. Finally, the robustness of the industrial software for SMS is further verified by conducting fault injection testing, so as to provide implications for fault prognostics or fault-prevention research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Twin Applications in Smart Manufacturing)
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Article
Prediction Method of Aeroengine Rotor Assembly Errors Based on a Novel Multi-Axis Measuring and Connecting Mechanism
Machines 2022, 10(5), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050387 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 349
Abstract
The aeroengine industry has set strict upper limits for assembly errors in rotor-connecting processes, because assembly errors significantly affect aeroengine stability. Applications of multi-axis mechanisms have the potential to solve the low efficiency of traditional manual connection processes. However, multiple error sources are [...] Read more.
The aeroengine industry has set strict upper limits for assembly errors in rotor-connecting processes, because assembly errors significantly affect aeroengine stability. Applications of multi-axis mechanisms have the potential to solve the low efficiency of traditional manual connection processes. However, multiple error sources are simultaneously introduced. Thus, an accurate prediction method of rotor assembly error considering multiple error sources is of vital importance, by which the applicability of the new mechanism to rotors can be tested. In this study, a new prediction method for rotor assembly errors is proposed based on the use of a novel multi-axis measuring and connecting mechanism. First, the error propagation among the rotor errors, measurement errors, mechanism errors, and mounting errors is analyzed. Second, reasonable characterization models for these error sources are established using homogeneous transformation matrices. Third, based on the abovementioned error models, a new rotor assembly error prediction algorithm is constructed. It is highly consistent with the actual connection processes. Finally, verification experiments are conducted. The experimental results show that deviation rates of the average values of six types of assembly errors relative to the predictions are all lower than 14%. The proposed prediction method has acceptable accuracy and practical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machines Testing and Maintenance)
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Article
Stability of Zeros for Sampled-Data Models with Triangle Sample and Hold Implemented by Zero-Order Hold
Machines 2022, 10(5), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050386 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
This paper deals with the stability characteristics of zeros for sampled-data models with a class of triangle sample and hold realized by a traditional zero-order hold. For any controlled models in the modern industrial system, using a digital control strategy has been shown [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the stability characteristics of zeros for sampled-data models with a class of triangle sample and hold realized by a traditional zero-order hold. For any controlled models in the modern industrial system, using a digital control strategy has been shown to provide the means to achieve the assigned objectives. In this process, one must utilize the sample and hold device to obtain the sampled-data models. Previous studies have shown that the triangle sample and hold can improve the stability properties of zeros of a sampled-data control system compared with zero-order hold. However, it is difficult to use triangle sample and hold in practice. In this paper, an approximated method of using triangle sample and hold is proposed. More importantly, on the basis of that method, we explicitly derive the corresponding accurate sampled-data model of controlled models. In addition, we also provide the expression for sampling zeros and the theorem for the stability of a linear control system in the fast sampling process. The results of this paper show that the proposed method has the same advantages as the accurate one. Finally, theoretical findings are validated through numerical simulations with different considerations. Full article
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Article
Analysis of the Influence of Component Type and Operating Condition on the Selection of Preventive Maintenance Strategy in Multistage Industrial Machines: A Case Study
Machines 2022, 10(5), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050385 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 405
Abstract
The study of industrial multistage component’s reliability, availability and efficiency poses a constant challenge for the manufacturing industry. Components that suffer wear and tear must be replaced according to the times recommended by the manufacturers and users of the machines. This paper studies [...] Read more.
The study of industrial multistage component’s reliability, availability and efficiency poses a constant challenge for the manufacturing industry. Components that suffer wear and tear must be replaced according to the times recommended by the manufacturers and users of the machines. This paper studies the influence of the individual maintenance values of Main Time To Repair (MTTR), Time To Provisioning (TTPR) and Time Lost Production (TLP) of each component, including the type of component and operation conditions as variables that can influence deciding on the best preventive maintenance strategy for each component. The comparison between different preventive maintenance strategies, Preventive Programming Maintenance (PPM) and Improve Preventive Programming Maintenance (IPPM) provide very interesting efficiency and availability results in the components. A case study is evaluated using PPM and IPPM strategies checking the improvement in availability and efficiency of the components. However, the improvement of stock cost of components by adopting IPPM strategy supposes the search of another more optimal solution. This paper concludes with the creation of a multidimensional matrix, for that purpose, to select the best preventive maintenance strategy (PPM, IPPM or interval between PPM and IPPM) for each component of the multistage machine based on its operating conditions, type of component and individual maintenance times. The authors consider this matrix can be used by other industrial manufacturing multistage machines to decide on the best maintenance strategy for their components. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Different Contact Assumptions in the Analysis of Friction-Induced Vibrations Using Dynamic Substructuring
Machines 2022, 10(5), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050384 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Dynamic substructuring methods are initially developed for time-invariant systems to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a complex structure by coupling the component substructures. Sometimes, the component substructures change their position over time, affecting the dynamics of the entire structure. This family of problems [...] Read more.
Dynamic substructuring methods are initially developed for time-invariant systems to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a complex structure by coupling the component substructures. Sometimes, the component substructures change their position over time, affecting the dynamics of the entire structure. This family of problems can be tackled using substructuring techniques by isolating the time dependency in the coupling conditions among the time-invariant substructures. Mechanical systems, composed of subsystems in relative motion with a sliding interface, can be analyzed using this approach. In previous work, the authors proposed a solution method in the time and frequency domain using this approach under the assumption that the relative sliding motion at the contact interfaces is a-priori known, at least approximately. This assumption implies that the perturbation generated by the friction-induced vibration is neglected. In subsequent work, a more realistic contact assumption was considered to account also for the local vibration of the contact point and the geometric nonlinearity due to the elastic deformation. In this paper, a simplification with respect to the realistic contact assumption is introduced, which neglects the angular variation of the direction normal to the contact interface. The simplified approach is advantageous because it is equally able to highlight the occurrence of friction-induced instabilities, and it reduces the computational burden. The results of the substructuring methods using different contact assumptions are compared with those of a reference numerical method to show how the choice of the contact algorithm allows for tackling a wide range of operating conditions, from simple position-dependent problems up to complex friction-induced vibration phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Friction and Tribology)
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Article
Distributed Fixed-Time Attitude Consensus Tracking Control for Multiple Rigid-Bodies Subject to Unknown Uncertainties
Machines 2022, 10(5), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050383 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 380
Abstract
This paper investigates the problem of fixed-time attitude consensus tracking control for a team of multiple rigid-bodies in the presence of unknown uncertainties. A robust exact distributed fixed-time observer is presented to estimate velocity state of the virtual-leader for the followers that could [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the problem of fixed-time attitude consensus tracking control for a team of multiple rigid-bodies in the presence of unknown uncertainties. A robust exact distributed fixed-time observer is presented to estimate velocity state of the virtual-leader for the followers that could not directly access information of the virtual-leader. Subsequently, a novel distributed fixed-time consensus tracking control law is proposed, by which consensus tracking for a team of multiple rigid-bodies could be achieved in a fixed-time regardless of any initial system state. When the proposed control scheme is applied, effects of time-varying disturbances acting on each follower could drastically be attenuated. Analysis on stability of the closed-loop system is rigorously given and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by numerical simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Automation Systems)
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Article
Shear Failure Mechanism and Numerical Simulation Analysis of Rock-like Materials with an Embedded Flaw
Machines 2022, 10(5), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050382 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
In this study, the failure characteristics of self-made rock with internal flaws under shear were studied and a numerical simulation analysis was carried out. Firstly, based on basic physical and mechanical tests, the shear strength characteristics of rocks with built-in 3D defects were [...] Read more.
In this study, the failure characteristics of self-made rock with internal flaws under shear were studied and a numerical simulation analysis was carried out. Firstly, based on basic physical and mechanical tests, the shear strength characteristics of rocks with built-in 3D defects were summarized. PFC3D simulation software was used to model the samples with flaws, and the microscopic parameters were calibrated according to the test results. From the simulation results, it was found that the generation mode of microcracks from the flaw tip was different. The microcracks of forward shear and reverse shear were mainly generated from the horizontal direction, while the microcracks of lateral shear gradually increased from the upper and lower ends of the flaw in the opposite direction. When the peak shear strength was reached, the total number of cracks was the largest in lateral shear and the smallest in forward shear. When studying the particle velocity vector field, it was found that when reaching the peak shear strength, the particles on both sides of the prefabricated flaw appeared to be in vortex motion. When α = 45° and σn = 2 MPa, the failure mode of forward shear and lateral shear was shear-tensile-shear (S-T-S), and that of reverse shear and the intact specimen was shear-shear-shear (S-S-S). The lateral shear tensile effect was the most obvious and was mainly concentrated in the middle part of the sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fracture Mechanics for Structural Integrity Assessment)
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Article
An Underwater Glider with Muscle—Actuated Buoyancy Control and Caudal Fin Turning
Machines 2022, 10(5), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050381 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Underwater robotic gliders exploit gravity and buoyancy for long-distance cruising with ultra-low energy consumptions, making them ideal for open ocean surveying operations. However, the gliding-based motion generation principle also prevents their maneuverability, limiting their use in the short distances that are usually encountered [...] Read more.
Underwater robotic gliders exploit gravity and buoyancy for long-distance cruising with ultra-low energy consumptions, making them ideal for open ocean surveying operations. However, the gliding-based motion generation principle also prevents their maneuverability, limiting their use in the short distances that are usually encountered in harbors or coastal scenarios. In this work, an innovative underwater glider robot is developed, enabling maneuverability through the introduction of an efficiently actuated caudal fin with bidirectional turning capabilities. In addition, modular actuator units, based on soft actuated materials, are integrated to control pitch angle by dynamically shifting the center of mass from the center of buoyancy. As a result, the high energy efficiency feature of the gliders is maintained, while high maneuverability is also achieved. The design concept, modeling of key components, and framework for control are presented, with the prototyped glider tested in a series of bench and field trials for validation of its motion performance. Full article
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Article
Cascading Failure Analysis of Hierarchical Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks under the Impact of Data Overload
Machines 2022, 10(5), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050380 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 371
Abstract
As industrialization accelerates, the industrial sensor network environment becomes more complex. Hierarchical multi-cluster wireless sensing network topology is generally used due to large-scale industrial environments, harsh environments, and data overload impact. In industrial wireless sensor networks, the overload of some nodes may lead [...] Read more.
As industrialization accelerates, the industrial sensor network environment becomes more complex. Hierarchical multi-cluster wireless sensing network topology is generally used due to large-scale industrial environments, harsh environments, and data overload impact. In industrial wireless sensor networks, the overload of some nodes may lead to the failure of the whole network, which is called cascading failure. This phenomenon has incalculable impact on industrial production. However, cascading failure models have mainly been studied for planar structures, and there is no cascading failure model for hierarchical topologies in industrial environments. Therefore, this paper built a cascading failure model for hierarchical industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) for realistic industrial network topologies. By establishing an evaluation mechanism considering the efficiency of the network and the viability of nodes, the network communication efficiency that is not considered in the traditional evaluation mechanism is solved. In addition, aiming at the problem of network topology changes caused by node failure, dynamic load distribution methods (ADD, SLD) are used to improve network invulnerability. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the traditional allocation method (SMLD) does not apply in hierarchical topologies; when the general cluster head node capacity is moderate, increasing the capacity of single-hop cluster head nodes can prevent cascading failures more effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Systems)
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Article
Comprehensive and Simplified Fault Diagnosis for Three-Phase Induction Motor Using Parity Equation Approach in Stator Current Reference Frame
Machines 2022, 10(5), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050379 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
In this paper, a complementary and simplified scheme to diagnose electrical faults in a three-phase induction motor using the parity equations approach during steady state operation bases on the stator current reference frame is presented. The proposed scheme allows us to identify the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a complementary and simplified scheme to diagnose electrical faults in a three-phase induction motor using the parity equations approach during steady state operation bases on the stator current reference frame is presented. The proposed scheme allows us to identify the motor phase affected due to faults related to the stator side, such as current sensors, voltage sensors, and resistance. The results obtained in this work complement a detection system that uses the DQ model of the three-phase induction motor and parity equations focused on the synchronous reference frame, which can detect stator-side faults but cannot locate the affected phase. In addition, considering practical and operational aspects, the residual detection set obtained is simplified to three simple algebraic equations that are easy to implement. The simulation results using the PSIM simulation software and the experimental test allow us to validate the proposed scheme. Full article
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