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Land, Volume 12, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 209 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Climate and land-use change impact catchment hydrology and water quality; however, research has not clearly identified the land-use change required to achieve specific water quality targets under future climate conditions. Our study investigated the effects of land use and climate change scenarios on the streamflow and nutrient loads of a New Zealand lake catchment. Our findings showed that increasing forest coverage resulted in reduced streamflow and nutrient loads, and land-use change strategies combined with climate change mitigation based on RCP8.5 would lead to the largest reduction in flow and nutrient loads. This research offers valuable insights into land-use change strategies for mitigating nutrient loads in lake catchments, providing a blueprint for similar regions experiencing land-use transformations. View this paper
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21 pages, 8227 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Vulnerability of the Coast of Lake Alakol to Modern Geomorphological Processes of Relief Formation
Land 2023, 12(7), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071475 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Over the last few decades, increasing water levels of Lake Alakol have led to the activation of processes of modern relief formation of the coastal territory. This study will make it possible to assess the vulnerability of the lake shore to modern relief-forming [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, increasing water levels of Lake Alakol have led to the activation of processes of modern relief formation of the coastal territory. This study will make it possible to assess the vulnerability of the lake shore to modern relief-forming processes, which pose a threat to the economic and infrastructural development of the coast. Through a combination of field research methods, analysis of the archival materials and satellite images, GIS mapping, as well as the application of the Coastal Vulnerability Index, developed by Gornitz, a map of the modern relief of the coast of Lake Alakol was created, where 13 geomorphological types of relief were identified, and a map of relief-forming processes and leading exogenous processes were identified. The values of the assessment of the degree of vulnerability of the coast to dangerous processes by the Gornitz method were obtained, where a high vulnerability covers 67.4% of the coast, an average vulnerability covers 2.9%, a weak vulnerability covers 13.3%, and low vulnerability occupies 16.4% of the coast. The degree of vulnerability of types of relief in the study area, the coast of Lake Alakol, was determined. High degree occupies 42.8% of the study area, medium—30.7%, weak—25.4%, and low 1.1%. A map of the complex assessment of the degree of vulnerability of the coast of Lake Alakol was created. It was revealed that low accumulative types of relief of the northwest and northeast coasts and alluvial-proluvial types of relief are highly vulnerable due to waterlogging and the intensity of abrasion processes. Identified natural features of the relief formation of the coast of Lake Alakol are recommended as a basis for making decisions on the planning and implementation of any economic activities on the coast, including infrastructure development of the coast and strengthening of the shores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Innovations – Data and Machine Learning)
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21 pages, 4272 KiB  
Article
Exploration of Spatio-Temporal Evolution and Threshold Effect of Shrinking Cities
Land 2023, 12(7), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071474 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
Shrinking cities are a global issue with regional characteristics. This paper focuses on the county-level administrative units in the Three Northeastern Provinces in China to identify and classify shrinking cities using a two-step identification method and explores their spatial-temporal evolution. The paper utilizes [...] Read more.
Shrinking cities are a global issue with regional characteristics. This paper focuses on the county-level administrative units in the Three Northeastern Provinces in China to identify and classify shrinking cities using a two-step identification method and explores their spatial-temporal evolution. The paper utilizes the panel threshold regression model for empirical testing. The results indicate the following: (1) The number of shrinking cities in the region is large and deep. Quantitatively, the shrinking cities account for about 50% of the whole; spatially, there are six major shrinking city “groups”, showing the distribution trend around the “Ha-Da” urban corridor. (2) The threshold effect test reveals that GDP is a critical threshold variable influencing the formation of shrinking cities. Moreover, cities are classified into three types based on the threshold values: Type I (GDP > 2,270,731 yuan), Type II (434,832 < GDP ≤ 2,270,731), and Type III (GDP < 434,832). (3) The results of the dual-threshold and grouped regression models show significant variations in the dominant factors of shrinking cities of different scales. Variables such as impervious area, fiscal revenue, and grass area demonstrate relatively stable promoting effects. Full article
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20 pages, 6126 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Comprehensive Evaluation of Sustainable Development in Rural Tourism: A Perspective and Method Based on the AVC Theory
Land 2023, 12(7), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071473 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a surge in rural tourism, catering to consumers during the pandemic. However, rural tourism faces severe issues of homogeneity and environmental degradation owing to excessive development. Sustainable development of rural tourism is an urgent problem. [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a surge in rural tourism, catering to consumers during the pandemic. However, rural tourism faces severe issues of homogeneity and environmental degradation owing to excessive development. Sustainable development of rural tourism is an urgent problem. This study, based on the average variable cost (AVC) theory, aims to explore the sustainable development of rural tourism landscapes with a focus on the Shijing area. A landscape evaluation system was established through factor analysis and weight calculations, with ten principal components contributing to a cumulative contribution rate of 77.196%. The weighted values for attractiveness, vitality, and resilience were 0.539, 0.297, and 0.164, respectively. The findings indicate that Caijiapo Village had the highest comprehensive score of 88.79 (good level of performance), whereas Laoyukou Village had the lowest comprehensive score of 80.25 (average level of performance). Caijiapo and Liyukou exhibited the strongest overall strength, whereas Liyuanpo and Xiazhuang had moderate overall strength, and Laoyukou had the weakest overall strength. The results reveal that all five villages possess rich natural landscapes and favorable geographical conditions, demonstrating the potential and attractiveness of rural tourism development. However, the overall carrying capacity was moderate and vitality was relatively weak. This supports the AVC theory application in rural tourism research and emphasizes the importance of rural landscape quality and economic vitality. The main contributions of this study are as follows: (1) the establishment of a rural tourism landscape evaluation system based on the AVC theory, providing a scientific assessment method for sustainable development; (2) the case evaluation in the Shiying area provides decision-makers with reference for development strategies; (3) emphasis on the importance of ecological conservation in rural tourism and providing recommendations to address issues of homogenization and environmental degradation. Full article
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18 pages, 1861 KiB  
Article
Evaluation and Optimization of Restorative Environmental Perception of Treetop Trails: The Case of the Mountains-to-Sea Trail, Xiamen, China
Land 2023, 12(7), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071472 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
A treetop trail is an elevated linear green open space that plays a key role in forming a scientifically rational urban space and meeting the growing leisure needs of the people. Taking the Mountains-to-Sea Trail in Xiamen, China as a case, and through [...] Read more.
A treetop trail is an elevated linear green open space that plays a key role in forming a scientifically rational urban space and meeting the growing leisure needs of the people. Taking the Mountains-to-Sea Trail in Xiamen, China as a case, and through 426 questionnaires, this study explores the dimensions of the perceived restorative environment components of greenway recreationists and impacts on behavioral intentions. The demographic factors lead us to the following three conclusions. First, from an age perspective, restorative environmental perceptions are strongest among those aged 60 and above and weakest among those aged 18–30. Second, in terms of place of permanent residence, local visitors have stronger restorative environmental perceptions than other city users. Third, in relation to the number of accompanying travelers, individuals who embark on solo journeys experience the most robust perception, while that diminishes as the count reaches three or more companions. A structural equation model (SEM) is used to present the quantitative relationship among avoidance motivation, treetop trail environmental quality, restorative environmental perception, place attachment, and loyalty. The results showed that users’ escape motivation has a direct and indirect positive correlation with restorative environmental perceptions, and environmental perceptions have a significant positive correlation with restorative environmental perceptions. Furthermore, their place attachment to the restorative nature of the treetop trails positively affected their loyalty. This study provides essential factors to consider when constructing treetop trails in high-density cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Planning and Landscape Architecture)
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18 pages, 2790 KiB  
Article
The Flow Matrix Offers a Straightforward Alternative to the Problematic Markov Matrix
Land 2023, 12(7), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071471 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1138
Abstract
The Flow matrix is a novel method to describe and extrapolate transitions among categories. The Flow matrix extrapolates a constant transition size per unit of time on a time continuum with a maximum of one incident per observation during the extrapolation. The Flow [...] Read more.
The Flow matrix is a novel method to describe and extrapolate transitions among categories. The Flow matrix extrapolates a constant transition size per unit of time on a time continuum with a maximum of one incident per observation during the extrapolation. The Flow matrix extrapolates linearly until the persistence of a category shrinks to zero. The Flow matrix has concepts and mathematics that are more straightforward than the Markov matrix. However, many scientists apply the Markov matrix by default because popular software packages offer no alternative to the Markov matrix, despite the conceptual and mathematical challenges that the Markov matrix poses. The Markov matrix extrapolates a constant transition proportion per time interval during whole-number multiples of the duration of the calibration time interval. The Markov extrapolation allows at most one incident per observation during each time interval but allows repeated incidents per observation through sequential time intervals. Many Markov extrapolations approach a steady state asymptotically through time as each category size approaches a constant. We use case studies concerning land change to illustrate the characteristics of the Flow and Markov matrices. The Flow and Markov extrapolations both deviate from the reference data during a validation time interval, implying there is no reason to prefer one matrix to the other in terms of correspondence with the processes that we analyzed. The two matrices differ substantially in terms of their underlying concepts and mathematical behaviors. Scientists should consider the ease of use and interpretation for each matrix when extrapolating transitions among categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches to Land Use/Land Cover Change Modeling)
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21 pages, 6808 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Habitat Quality Analysis in the Temperate Desert Sub-Region of Ordos Plateau, China
Land 2023, 12(7), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071470 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
Habitat quality has great significance in terms of regional ecological conservation and human welfare. In this study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal characteristics of land use and habitat quality in the temperate desert sub-region of the Ordos Plateau using patch-generating land use [...] Read more.
Habitat quality has great significance in terms of regional ecological conservation and human welfare. In this study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal characteristics of land use and habitat quality in the temperate desert sub-region of the Ordos Plateau using patch-generating land use simulation (PLUS) and integrated valuation of ecosystem services and trade-offs (InVEST) models. From 2000 to 2020, the areas of grassland, cropland, and unused land in the study area increased significantly; the areas of water bodies and woodland increased slightly; and the area of wasteland decreased significantly. Moreover, the habitat quality in the temperate desert subzone of the Ordos Plateau showed a trend of initial increase and then decrease between 2000 and 2020. The areas of lower and low habitat quality first decreased and then increased, and the overall area decreased over time. Conversely, the areas of high and higher habitat quality initially increased and then decreased, and the overall area increased over time. The area of medium habitat quality first decreased and then increased, although the overall change was minimal. Based on the PLUS model, the predicted habitat quality of the study area in 2025 under the natural development scenario was compared to that predicted under the ecological conservation scenario. The comparison of results showed higher habitat quality and lower habitat degradation under the ecological conservation development scenario. These results can be used to provide a scientific basis and decision reference for the sustainable use of land resources and encouragement of high-quality socio-economic development in the temperate desert sub-region of the Ordos Plateau. Full article
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19 pages, 3993 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Evolution and Correlation Analysis of Carbon Emissions in the Nine Provinces along the Yellow River since the 21st Century Using Nighttime Light Data
Land 2023, 12(7), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071469 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Monitoring carbon emissions is crucial for assessing and addressing economic development and climate change, particularly in regions like the nine provinces along the Yellow River in China, which experiences significant urbanization and development. However, to the best of our knowledge, existing studies mainly [...] Read more.
Monitoring carbon emissions is crucial for assessing and addressing economic development and climate change, particularly in regions like the nine provinces along the Yellow River in China, which experiences significant urbanization and development. However, to the best of our knowledge, existing studies mainly focus on national and provincial scales, with fewer studies on municipal and county scales. To address this issue, we established a carbon emission assessment model based on the “NPP-VIIRS-like” nighttime light data, aiming to analyze the spatiotemporal variation of carbon emissions in three different levels of nine provinces along the Yellow River since the 21st century. Further, the spatial correlation of carbon emissions at the county level was explored using the Moran’s I spatial analysis method. Results show that, from 2000 to 2021, carbon emissions in this region continued to rise, but the growth rate declined, showing an overall convergence trend. Per capita carbon emission intensity showed an overall upward trend, while carbon emission intensity per unit of GDP showed an overall downward trend. Its spatial distribution generally showed high carbon emissions in the eastern region and low carbon emissions in the western region. The carbon emissions of each city mainly showed a trend of “several”; that is, the urban area around the Yellow River has higher carbon emissions. Meanwhile, there is a trend of higher carbon emissions in provincial capitals. Moran’s I showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing and gradually tended to a stable state in the later stage, and the pattern of spatial agglomeration was relatively fixed. “High–High” and “Low–Low” were the main types of local spatial autocorrelation, and the number of counties with “High–High” agglomeration increased significantly, while the number of counties with “Low–Low” agglomeration gradually decreased. The findings of this study provide valuable insights into the carbon emission trends of the study area, as well as the references that help to achieve carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals proposed by China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Sustainable Management Pathways to Carbon Neutrality)
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27 pages, 19470 KiB  
Article
Physical Environment Study on Social Housing Stock in Italian Western Alps for Healthy and Sustainable Communities
Land 2023, 12(7), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071468 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Climate change has reduced the comfort of community environments, and there is an urgent need to improve the health and well-being of low-income residents through design and technical measures. Therefore, this paper conducts research in the context of an ongoing social housing renovation [...] Read more.
Climate change has reduced the comfort of community environments, and there is an urgent need to improve the health and well-being of low-income residents through design and technical measures. Therefore, this paper conducts research in the context of an ongoing social housing renovation project in Aosta, Italy, in a cold winter and hot summer Alpine environment. The study combined interviews, field measurements, and multiple software simulations to analyze the home of an older adult experiencing energy deprivation. The study found that the indoor acoustic environment quality meets the requirements of various sound-related standards. Still, the lighting and thermal environment must be designed to reduce glare and western sun exposure, and the air quality could improve. Residents’ demand for renovation is low technology, low cost, and high comfort. Therefore, suggestions for combining active and passive transformation measures and maximizing the use of climate and resources are proposed. The lighting and thermal environment are optimized based on the green wisdom of the Haylofts building of the Walser family in the Alps: increase ventilation and reduce indoor air age to improve air quality. Overall, a comprehensive assessment of extreme climatic conditions facilitates the quantitative and qualitative study and control of social housing environments, improves occupant comfort, and decarbonizes such social building stock. Full article
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22 pages, 7081 KiB  
Article
Spatial Spillover and Convergent Mechanism of Urban–Rural Financial Imbalances: Evidence from China
Land 2023, 12(7), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071467 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Based on the perspective of financial geography, this study analyzed the convergent mechanism of urban–rural financial imbalances under the influence of spatial spillover through the theoretical framework of spatial process, spatial action, and spatial convergence. Then, we empirically tested the spatial spillover, spatial [...] Read more.
Based on the perspective of financial geography, this study analyzed the convergent mechanism of urban–rural financial imbalances under the influence of spatial spillover through the theoretical framework of spatial process, spatial action, and spatial convergence. Then, we empirically tested the spatial spillover, spatial difference, and spatial convergence of urban–rural financial imbalances in China from 1991 to 2021. We found that urban–rural financial imbalances showed significant spillover effects and heterogeneous characteristics. Spillovers based on financial radiation and exclusion were apparent during the urban financial agglomeration stage, decreasing with geographical distance, and had an essential impact on the convergence of provincial urban–rural financial imbalance. As such spillovers declined during the financial diffusion period, new spillovers at the technology and information dimensions, which were less geographically constrained, came into play and contributed to urban–rural financial convergence. The policy implications are that it is necessary to pay attention to the spatial interaction of urban–rural financial inequality, correctly use their spillover effects to achieve financial convergence, and activate new spatial spillover channels according to their spatial interaction mode changes for further urban and rural financial convergence. Full article
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17 pages, 2275 KiB  
Article
Reputation, Network, and Performance: Exploring the Diffusion Mechanism of Local Governments’ Behavior during Inter-Governmental Environmental Cooperation
Land 2023, 12(7), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071466 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
The selective behavior of local governments during regional environmental cooperation could generate a diffusion effect through the black box of reputation mechanism. This study incorporates the reputation mechanism, social capital, and environmental governance performance into a unified analysis framework, empirically testing the moderating [...] Read more.
The selective behavior of local governments during regional environmental cooperation could generate a diffusion effect through the black box of reputation mechanism. This study incorporates the reputation mechanism, social capital, and environmental governance performance into a unified analysis framework, empirically testing the moderating effect of the implementation rate of environmental cooperative projects (indicating reputation) on the relationship between two types of social capital and environmental governance performance among cities in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) regions. The inter-governmental environmental cooperation news and policies are collected by Data Capture technology as a dataset, and a set of social-economic data is also adopted. The spatial econometric regression results show that an increase in reputation could both strengthen the leadership and coordination ability (bridging social capital) of the central cities in the YRD and BTH regions, thus improving their environmental governance performance. However, the bonding social capital path could only significantly work in the BTH region, which unexpectedly increases pollutant emission through excessive internal cohesion. The results indicate that a “community of entangled interest” should be constructed among cities within urban agglomerations, which requires local governments to weaken the concept of their administrative boundary. At the same time, in order to avoid excessive internal condensation, a clear division of rights and responsibilities is also necessary during continuous inter-governmental environmental cooperation. We believe that these findings could provide empirical evidence for local governments to avoid failing to the traps of “agglomeration shadow”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Sustainable Development of Yangtze River Delta, China II)
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16 pages, 2734 KiB  
Article
Strategies for Green Space Management in Mountain Cities Based on the Habitat Suitability for Urban Birds Breeding
Land 2023, 12(7), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071465 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 831
Abstract
The reproduction suitability of urban birds reflects the health status and service level of urban ecosystems. Therefore, studying the relationship between the nest density of urban birds and environmental factors has certain reference significance for guiding green space management. In this study, 67 [...] Read more.
The reproduction suitability of urban birds reflects the health status and service level of urban ecosystems. Therefore, studying the relationship between the nest density of urban birds and environmental factors has certain reference significance for guiding green space management. In this study, 67 green spaces of Liupanshui city in the Wumeng Mountain Area were selected as study sites. Through the statistics of the number of bird’s nests in the plots in 2020, a stepwise regression analysis was conducted on 10 environment-influencing factors. The results show that the nest density of birds in urban green space is not significantly correlated with the plot size, noise, light pollution, vegetation diversity, proportion of paved land, proportion of native plants, or distance from water body, but is significantly correlated with the canopy coverage of arbor, spatial openness, and distance from non-artificial environment to plot. The research identified the environmental factors affecting nest density, and frames a method to compare the density of bird’s nests in urban green space. Based on this, strategies for the construction and management of green space are put forward, so as to provide reference for ecological city construction and alleviate the correlation between the expansion of urban construction land and the deterioration of bird habitats. Full article
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19 pages, 6100 KiB  
Review
Mountainous Areas: Alleviating the Shortage of Cultivated Land Caused by Changing Dietary Structure in China
Land 2023, 12(7), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071464 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Achieving food security and improving nutrition is one of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. With rapid socioeconomic development, the dietary structure of the Chinese population has changed significantly, leading to increased demand for cultivated land. At the same time, rapid urbanization has [...] Read more.
Achieving food security and improving nutrition is one of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. With rapid socioeconomic development, the dietary structure of the Chinese population has changed significantly, leading to increased demand for cultivated land. At the same time, rapid urbanization has continuously reduced the amount of cultivated land in China, and there is an urgent necessity for the nation to alleviate the shortage of cultivated land to meet the population’s evolving dietary consumption needs. A review of the literature indicates that the use of mountainous areas to produce agricultural products for the population can effectively reduce the use of cultivated land on the plains and mitigate the shortage of cultivated land to meet dietary consumption needs. According to the different natural and socioeconomic conditions of mountainous areas, this study concludes that the adoption of mountain hillside, mountain understory, and mountainous limited cultivated land use patterns to develop agricultural production in mountainous areas is an effective approach to address the shortage of cultivated land caused by changes in the Chinese dietary structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water, Energy, Land and Food (WELF) Nexus)
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17 pages, 3563 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Intra-City and Inter-City Innovation Networks on City Economic Growth: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta in China
Land 2023, 12(7), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071463 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 964
Abstract
Innovation networks promote regional innovation and economic growth. Using the patent data of cooperative inventions and the panel data of socio-economic statistics for 2010–2019, this study quantitatively analyzes the spatial structure evolution of intra-city and inter-city innovation networks for 41 cities in the [...] Read more.
Innovation networks promote regional innovation and economic growth. Using the patent data of cooperative inventions and the panel data of socio-economic statistics for 2010–2019, this study quantitatively analyzes the spatial structure evolution of intra-city and inter-city innovation networks for 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta and their influence on economic growth. This study shows that these networks are increasingly connected and have a highly similar Z-shaped spatial structure. City economic growth is generally high, relatively stable, and mainly positively influenced by inter-city innovation networks. Intra-city innovation networks have no significant effect on economic growth; however, they are complementary to the inter-city ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Sustainable Development of Yangtze River Delta, China II)
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21 pages, 3064 KiB  
Article
Building a Cadastral Map of Europe through the INSPIRE and Other Related Initiatives
Land 2023, 12(7), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071462 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Digital cadastral maps with accompanying land-related attributes have become a fundamental dataset for many application fields, e.g., spatial planning and development, protecting state lands, securing of land tenure, facilitating land reforms, agriculture, forestry, land management, taxation, etc. In order to fulfil its main [...] Read more.
Digital cadastral maps with accompanying land-related attributes have become a fundamental dataset for many application fields, e.g., spatial planning and development, protecting state lands, securing of land tenure, facilitating land reforms, agriculture, forestry, land management, taxation, etc. In order to fulfil its main objectives, cadastral data needs to be available and accessible, which is, among the others, emphasized also within the United Nations Framework for Effective Land Administration (FELA). This is not only important on the national level but also beyond, including at the European level where use cases and consequently demand for pan-European data sets have evolved in recent years. In order to satisfy these needs, several initiatives regarding cadastral and other geospatial data have been launched in the last 20 years. It started with the Permanent Committee on Cadastre in the European Union, the European Land Information Service, INSPIRE, UN-GGIM Europe and recent European policies on open data and high-value datasets. Our main question is, did those initiatives result in the possibility of building a cadastral map of Europe or not? Is it possible to create a cadastral map of Europe on the desktop or an open online GIS application? Within the paper, we take the opportunity to reflect on the development and implementation of European spatial data infrastructure (INSPIRE) with the main focus on the availability and accessibility of cadastral data. We also take into consideration other European initiatives related to cadastral data. The overall findings show that there is still work to be carried out. Technological developments and recent policy initiatives will certainly be drivers for future improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Integrated Land Management)
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19 pages, 3719 KiB  
Article
Differences in High-Quality Development and Its Influencing Factors between Yellow River Basin and Yangtze River Economic Belt
Land 2023, 12(7), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071461 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
As a national strategy, the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) and the ecological protection and high-quality development (HQD) of the Yellow River Basin (YRB) are of great significance for promoting the HQD of the regional economy. Based on the panel [...] Read more.
As a national strategy, the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) and the ecological protection and high-quality development (HQD) of the Yellow River Basin (YRB) are of great significance for promoting the HQD of the regional economy. Based on the panel data in the YRB and the YREB from 2006 to 2019, this paper constructed an evaluation index system of HQD with five dimensions of “innovation development, coordination development, green development, openness development, and sharing development”, and we used the entropy weight method, kernel density method, and Tobit panel model to analyze the differences in the HQD and the similarities and differences of the influencing factors between the two regions. The research findings were as follows: (1) The HQD of the YRB and the YREB was consistent with the national trend, showing a fluctuating upward trend. The HQD of the YRB was always lower than that of the YREB. The kernel density curves in both regions had a rightward trailing pattern, with polarization and unbalanced development. (2) From the perspective of the spatial distribution pattern, the HQD of the YRB presented a spatial distribution characteristic of “high at both ends and low in the middle”. In contrast, the HQD of the YREB maintained the characteristic of “high in the east and low in the west”. (3) The level of human capital, the level of foreign direct investment, and the economic scale played a significant positive role in improving the HQD of the YRB. The level of human capital, urbanization, foreign direct investment, and economic scale significantly improved the HQD of the YREB. Full article
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22 pages, 15383 KiB  
Article
Refuge Green Space Equity: A Case Study of Third Ring Road on Chengdu
Land 2023, 12(7), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071460 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
As part of urban green space and emergency shelters, refuge green spaces (RGS) contribute significantly to the resilience of cities to natural disasters. In contrast, few studies have been conducted to assess the equity of RGS in relation to their planning layout. The [...] Read more.
As part of urban green space and emergency shelters, refuge green spaces (RGS) contribute significantly to the resilience of cities to natural disasters. In contrast, few studies have been conducted to assess the equity of RGS in relation to their planning layout. The presented research aims to quantitatively evaluate the equity of RGS within Chengdu’s Third Ring Road, and to propose corresponding optimization measures in conjunction with future green space planning. The rapid evacuation capacity of the RGS was evaluated by calculating the equity of the RGS in walking modes of 5, 10 and 15 min using an improved three-step floating catchment area method (3SFCA). Based on the results, RGS had an average equity in the study area. The total number of RGS within the Third Ring Road of Chengdu was insufficient, with an uneven spatial distribution and a structure to be optimized. The rapid evacuation capacity of RGS in 5 and 10 min needs to be further improved. The short-term resettlement capacity of RGS after 15 min was relatively good. Using Moran’s I index, the RGS equity and house price results were analyzed and no significant aggregation and polarization were observed. Following the evaluation, recommendations are made for optimizing and adding future RGS in accordance with Chengdu Green Space System Planning. The equity of RGS has been significantly improved after optimization, which can meet the needs of over 90% of residents for 15 min. This study provided feasible suggestions for the layout and structural optimization of the future RGS within the Third Ring Road of Chengdu, which aimed to create a RGS network with complex functions, to meet the multiple needs of citizens. Full article
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17 pages, 1158 KiB  
Article
Interplay of Urbanization and Ecological Environment: Coordinated Development and Drivers
Land 2023, 12(7), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071459 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1654
Abstract
The interplay between urbanization and ecological environmental efficiency has gained increasing significance in the context of sustainable development, as rapid urban growth poses challenges to resource consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and the overall ecological well-being of urban areas. Understanding and analyzing the coordinated [...] Read more.
The interplay between urbanization and ecological environmental efficiency has gained increasing significance in the context of sustainable development, as rapid urban growth poses challenges to resource consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and the overall ecological well-being of urban areas. Understanding and analyzing the coordinated development of urbanization and ecological environmental efficiency, as well as assessing the influence of drivers on this relationship, is crucial for developing effective policies and strategies that promote environmentally sustainable urban development. This study establishes an urbanization index based on four key aspects: economy, society, population, and ecology. This investigation focuses on 30 provinces in China spanning from 2011 to 2020. The following methods are applied: global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index, entropy method, TOPSIS model, coupled coordination degree model, panel-corrected standard error (PCSE), and feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) models. The empirical results demonstrate a favorable level of coordinated development between urbanization and the ecological environment overall, with more pronounced regional evolution trends. The trade openness, energy structure, and digitalization level play significant roles in effectively promoting the coordinated development of urbanization and the ecological environment to varying extents. The growth of trade openness and digitalization level promote coordinated development between urbanization and the ecological environment by 0.125 and 0.049, respectively. However, the increase in the energy structure decreases it by 0.509. These results have significant implications for policymakers, urban planners, and stakeholders, emphasizing the need for a balanced approach that prioritizes ecological environmental protection in urbanization efforts. This study underscores the importance of sustainable urban development strategies to ensure long-term ecological and environmental sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of Urbanization and Ecosystem Services Provision II)
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15 pages, 1279 KiB  
Article
Decoupling Analysis of Carbon Emissions and Forest Area in China from 2004 to 2020
Land 2023, 12(7), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071458 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
As the largest ecological carbon sequestration systems on the Earth, forests play a significant role in reducing carbon dioxide, and countries around the world are actively expanding their forest areas. However, China’s carbon emissions and forest area have shown an upward trend, which [...] Read more.
As the largest ecological carbon sequestration systems on the Earth, forests play a significant role in reducing carbon dioxide, and countries around the world are actively expanding their forest areas. However, China’s carbon emissions and forest area have shown an upward trend, which has seriously hindered the implementation of forestry carbon sequestration projects. This paper analyzed the temporal variation, spatial distribution, and deviation degree of the forest area and carbon emissions in China from 2004 to 2020 by using a decoupling model and a coordination model. Firstly, according to the decoupling model, the national carbon emissions and forest area are negatively decoupled. At the provincial level, Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Gansu have weak decoupling. Expansive link areas include Shanxi, Henan, Hubei, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. The other 19 provinces show expansive negative decoupling. Secondly, according to the coordination model, national carbon emissions are coordinated to the forest area. Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, and Guangdong are basically coordinated provinces. More coordinated provinces include Ningxia. The other 25 provinces are coordinated provinces. Finally, according to the comprehensive measurement model, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Hainan, Jilin, Anhui, Liaoning, and Heilongjiang are high-quality expansive negative decoupling provinces. Chongqing, Hunan, Tianjin, Shandong, Hebei, and Guangxi are moderate to strong expansive negative decoupling provinces. This study not only provides a new perspective for analyzing forest carbon sinks, but also provides theoretical guidance for enhancing the natural carbon sink capacity, helping to achieve global carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals. Full article
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25 pages, 4944 KiB  
Article
Tactical Urbanism Interventions for the Urban Environment: Which Economic Impacts?
Land 2023, 12(7), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071457 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2074
Abstract
In the last decades, the emergence of new social, environmental, and economic demands, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, has led urban planning to innovate its themes, methods, and approaches. In this context, temporary urbanism has emerged as a mainstream approach. How-ever, the impacts [...] Read more.
In the last decades, the emergence of new social, environmental, and economic demands, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, has led urban planning to innovate its themes, methods, and approaches. In this context, temporary urbanism has emerged as a mainstream approach. How-ever, the impacts of temporary approaches to urban planning are far from being fully understood. In this light, this study focuses on one of the mainstream approaches to temporary urbanism, tactical urbanism, and tries to understand its economic impacts on contemporary cities. Indeed, despite the growing interest in tactical urbanism interventions and their value as an urban regeneration tool, there are no specific reflections focused on investigating their economic effects. Based on these premises, this paper focuses on different tactical urbanism experiences in the Italian context and tries to assess the economic impacts of tactical urbanism interventions by adopting the lens of real estate values as a suitable proxy when dealing with urban environments. The first obtained results show that the experiences of tactical urbanism, partly because of their temporary nature and their tendency toward minimal intervention, fail to trigger regeneration processes or produce significant economic impacts on the territory. Instead, such experiences can play a role in accelerating or consolidating urban regeneration processes already underway, and, in this sense, they contribute to the generation of economic impact on the territory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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21 pages, 7274 KiB  
Article
Improving Urban Habitat Connectivity for Native Birds: Using Least-Cost Path Analyses to Design Urban Green Infrastructure Networks
Land 2023, 12(7), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071456 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2462
Abstract
Habitat loss and fragmentation are primary threats to biodiversity in urban areas. Least-cost path analyses are commonly used in ecology to identify and protect wildlife corridors and stepping-stone habitats that minimise the difficulty and risk for species dispersing across human-modified landscapes. However, they [...] Read more.
Habitat loss and fragmentation are primary threats to biodiversity in urban areas. Least-cost path analyses are commonly used in ecology to identify and protect wildlife corridors and stepping-stone habitats that minimise the difficulty and risk for species dispersing across human-modified landscapes. However, they are rarely considered or used in the design of urban green infrastructure networks, particularly those that include building-integrated vegetation, such as green walls and green roofs. This study uses Linkage Mapper, an ArcGIS toolbox, to identify the least-cost paths for four native keystone birds (kererū, tūī, korimako, and hihi) in Wellington, New Zealand, to design a network of green roof corridors that ease native bird dispersal. The results identified 27 least-cost paths across the central city that connect existing native forest habitats. Creating 0.7 km2 of green roof corridors along these least-cost paths reduced cost-weighted distances by 8.5–9.3% for the kererū, tūī, and korimako, but there was only a 4.3% reduction for the hihi (a small forest bird). In urban areas with little ground-level space for green infrastructure, this study demonstrates how least-cost path analyses can inform the design of building-integrated vegetation networks and quantify their impacts on corridor quality for target species in cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land-Use Dynamics and Green Infrastructure Mapping)
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20 pages, 32156 KiB  
Article
Research on Township Industry Development under GEP Accounting—A Case Study of Hanwang Town in Xuzhou City
Land 2023, 12(7), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071455 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
The protection and utilization of ecological environment are very important for urban and rural development. At present, a large number of relevant theoretical and practical explorations have been carried out, which confirms the important conclusion that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable [...] Read more.
The protection and utilization of ecological environment are very important for urban and rural development. At present, a large number of relevant theoretical and practical explorations have been carried out, which confirms the important conclusion that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets. The sustainable development of ecological environments is based on coordination with human production and life. In this paper, by constructing an accounting system for the gross ecosystem product (GEP) applicable to Hanwang town, using the market value method, the alternative cost method, the travel cost method, the willingness to pay method and other technical methods, the GEP of Hanwang town is calculated from three aspects: product supply, regulation service and cultural tourism. Finally, the spatial distribution characteristics of value are used to guide the development and layout of ecological industry in Hanwang town. The results showed that the total ecosystem product value of Hanwang town in Xuzhou was relatively high, reaching 1.165 billion CNY, with per capita reaching 30 million CNY, which was 49.16% of the town’s GDP in 2020. The value of cultural tourism is 820 million CNY, the value of regulatory services is 239 million CNY, and the value of product provision is 106 million CNY. The ecological value of Hanwang town varies greatly in spatial distribution. On the whole, the price is low in the southwest, but high in the northeast. The high-value areas are mainly concentrated in three areas: Yudai River Riverside, Xuzhou Paradise in the north, Hanwang Scenic Spot in the middle and the Panaxi Valley tourist spot in the south. Based on the principle of ecological value transformation, combining with the spatial distribution characteristics of ecological value in Hanwang town, four modes of promoting ecological value transformation were proposed: ecological industrialization management, ecological governance and value promotion, ecological resource index trading and ecotourism. This paper preliminarily explores a method to calculate and transform the value of ecological space, which provides feasible concrete strategies for the protection of ecological space and the development of ecological industry in towns. Full article
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15 pages, 1837 KiB  
Article
Spatial Patterns of Urban Green-Blue Spaces and Residents’ Well-Being: The Mediating Effect of Neighborhood Social Cohesion
Land 2023, 12(7), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071454 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Urban green-blue spaces (UGBS) can benefit residents’ well-being through multiple pathways. Previous studies have confirmed that the quantity and composition of UGBS can promote neighborhood social cohesion, which subsequently contributes to residents’ physical and mental health. However, there has been little attention paid [...] Read more.
Urban green-blue spaces (UGBS) can benefit residents’ well-being through multiple pathways. Previous studies have confirmed that the quantity and composition of UGBS can promote neighborhood social cohesion, which subsequently contributes to residents’ physical and mental health. However, there has been little attention paid to the spatial patterns of UGBS in such relationships. This study adopted landscape pattern indexes to characterize the spatial patterns of UGBS and explored the mediation effect of neighborhood social cohesion between the spatial patterns of UGBS and residents’ well-being, measured by self-rated health (SRH) and happiness. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) was used for analyses with data obtained from the 2018 Shandong Provincial Social Survey Questionnaire (SGSS), which included 773 selected residents in urban areas. The results indicated that (1) there was a mediation effect of neighborhood social cohesion between the spatial patterns of UGBS and residents’ SRH and happiness; (2) the aggregation and diversity of UGBS had greater impacts on enhancing neighborhood social cohesion than the size, complexity, and fragmentation; (3) the aggregation and diversity of UGBS had indirect effects on improving happiness and SRH, and the aggregation of UGBS had a direct positive effect on SRH. By focusing on the spatial patterns of UGBS and neighborhood social cohesion, this study extends current debates on the pathways among UGBS, social cohesion, and public health. Urban planning strategies were proposed to increase the benefits of UGBS in urban areas. Full article
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19 pages, 2605 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Urban Resilience Abased on Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) Model in the Post-Pandemic Era: A Case Study of Jiangsu Province, China
Land 2023, 12(7), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071453 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Since China declared that the post-epidemic era would begin in April 2020, the prevention and control of epidemics have become routine. The capacity of cities to respond to future public health emergencies will be enhanced if the resilience of cities is accurately measured [...] Read more.
Since China declared that the post-epidemic era would begin in April 2020, the prevention and control of epidemics have become routine. The capacity of cities to respond to future public health emergencies will be enhanced if the resilience of cities is accurately measured and an emphasis is placed on improving resilience levels. Under the 4R framework, this study quantifies and analyzes the level of resilience of the cities in Jiangsu Province from both subjective and objective perspectives. By selecting explanatory variables and developing a GWR model, the spatial distribution characteristics of the quantified scores of resilience and the spatial characteristics of the influencing factors are analyzed. The results indicate that cities in southern Jiangsu should invest more in economic development and medical resources in the post-epidemic period. Northern Jiangsu should prioritize boosting the health and social work sector’s gross domestic product. Coastal cities must enhance their capacity for innocuous waste treatment. Full article
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15 pages, 544 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness in Rural Governance: Influencing Factors and Driving Pathways—Based on 20 Typical Cases of Rural Governance in China
Land 2023, 12(7), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071452 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
Effective rural governance is the foundation for achieving rural revitalization and promoting the modernization of China’s system and governance capacity in the new era. The elucidation of the influencing factors and driving pathways underlying effective rural governance has significant importance in facilitating the [...] Read more.
Effective rural governance is the foundation for achieving rural revitalization and promoting the modernization of China’s system and governance capacity in the new era. The elucidation of the influencing factors and driving pathways underlying effective rural governance has significant importance in facilitating the advancement of rural revitalization. Drawing upon the Actor-Network Theory (ANT), this study introduces an analytical framework of “human actor dimension—non-human actor dimension”. The study employs the fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparison Analysis (fsQCA) to explore the effective governance pathways within 20 typical cases of rural governance. The study reveals that a cooperative-based collective economy is a necessary condition for effective governance, while possessing a resource advantage is a core condition. Villager autonomy, local culture, and new technology are marginal conditions for effective governance, while the absence of elite participation fails to promote effective governance. The combination of human variables and resource compacts gives rise to “human actor-resource compacts” and “non-human actor-resource compacts”. The study further elaborates on the efficacious model of rural governance through three multifactor driving pathways: “human actor-non-human actor resource sparse linkage”. The research emphasizes the importance of fortifying rural governance and revitalization through the cultivation of relationships, enhancing government management systems, embracing technological innovation, supporting community economies, and advocating mechanisms that empower rural elites and talent. Full article
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22 pages, 25990 KiB  
Article
Recommendations for Landslide Early Warning Systems in Informal Settlements Based on a Case Study in Medellín, Colombia
Land 2023, 12(7), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071451 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Fatalities from landslides are rising worldwide, especially in cities in mountainous regions, which often expand into the steep slopes surrounding them. For residents, often those living in poor neighborhoods and informal settlements, integrated landslide early warning systems (LEWS) can be a viable solution, [...] Read more.
Fatalities from landslides are rising worldwide, especially in cities in mountainous regions, which often expand into the steep slopes surrounding them. For residents, often those living in poor neighborhoods and informal settlements, integrated landslide early warning systems (LEWS) can be a viable solution, if they are affordable and easily replicable. We developed a LEWS in Medellín, Colombia, which can be applied in such semi-urban situations. All the components of the LEWS, from hazard and risk assessment, to the monitoring system and the reaction capacity, were developed with and supported by all local stakeholders, including local authorities, agencies, NGO’s, and especially the local community, in order to build trust. It was well integrated into the social structure of the neighborhood, while still delivering precise and dense deformation and trigger measurements. A prototype was built and installed in a neighborhood in Medellín in 2022, comprising a dense network of line and point measurements and gateways. The first data from the measurement system are now available and allow us to define initial thresholds, while more data are being collected to allow for automatic early warning in the future. All the newly developed knowledge, from sensor hardware and software to installation manuals, has been compiled on a wiki-page, to facilitate replication by people in other parts of the world. According to our experience of the installation, we give recommendations for the implementation of LEWSs in similar areas, which can hopefully stimulate a lively exchange between researchers and other stakeholders who want to use, modify, and replicate our system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives for the Monitoring and Early Detection of Geohazards)
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27 pages, 15498 KiB  
Article
Land System Simulation of Ruoergai Plateau by Integrating MaxEnt and Boltzmann Entropy into CLUMondo
Land 2023, 12(7), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071450 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
In the context of global change, land cover change is significantly influenced by human activities. However, there is limited knowledge about the potential economic and ecological benefits that land cover change on the Ruoergai Plateau will bring by 2035, considering the existing development [...] Read more.
In the context of global change, land cover change is significantly influenced by human activities. However, there is limited knowledge about the potential economic and ecological benefits that land cover change on the Ruoergai Plateau will bring by 2035, considering the existing development plans. In our study, the CLUMondo model was improved by integrating the MaxEnt model and Boltzmann entropy and used to predict the structure and intensity of land change in China’s Ruoergai Plateau. The results show that the model integrated with MaxEnt and Boltzmann entropy is the most accurate in four contrasting experiments that have a Kappa of 0.773. The predicted results show that with the increase in the demand for ecological benefits, the total area of the water area shows a clear increasing trend. With 0.25% GDP growth, the water area is about 178 km2. With 2.5% GEP growth, the water area is about 202 km2. The latter is 24 km2 more than the former, an increase of about 13.6%. With the increase in the demand for economic benefits, the total area of construction land shows a clear increasing trend. Grassland, forest, and cropland are partly converted into construction land, because of the higher economic benefits of construction land. At the same time, the density of construction land will increase. With 12.6% GDP growth, the high-density construction area is about 399 km2. With 126.1% GEP growth, the water area is about 761 km2. High-density construction land increased by 90.7% (about 362 km2). In the low elevation area near the mountains of Ruoergai County, a new concentration of construction land will appear. The simulation results are of great significance for guiding ecological protection and urban construction in Ruoergai. Full article
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1 pages, 163 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Mottaghi et al. Caring for Blue-Green Solutions (BGS) in Everyday Life: An Investigation of Recreational Use, Neighborhood Preferences and Willingness to Pay in Augustenborg, Malmö. Land 2023, 12, 336
Land 2023, 12(7), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071449 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 345
Abstract
There was an error in the original publication [...] Full article
28 pages, 6689 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Land Ecological Security from 2000 to 2020 in the Chengdu Plain Region of China
Land 2023, 12(7), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071448 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
The purpose of land ecological security (LES) assessment is to evaluate the influence of land use and human activities on the land ecosystem. Its ultimate objective is to offer decision-making assistance and direction for safeguarding and rejuvenating the well-being and effectiveness of the [...] Read more.
The purpose of land ecological security (LES) assessment is to evaluate the influence of land use and human activities on the land ecosystem. Its ultimate objective is to offer decision-making assistance and direction for safeguarding and rejuvenating the well-being and effectiveness of the land ecosystem. However, it is important to note that there are still significant uncertainties associated with current land ecological safety assessments. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation model that combines the strengths of subjective and objective weighting methods. The model is built upon an index system developed using the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework. To verify the level of LES, theThe results of classifying the total ecosystem service valueTotal Ecosystem Service Value are utilized to verify the level of LES. Furthermore, spatial distribution patterns of regional land ecological safety levels are analyzed using statistical techniques, such as Moran’s I, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Kruskal–Wallis H-test. The findings indicate that: (1) theThe evaluation model developed in this paper achieves a validation accuracy of 75.55%, indicating that it provides a more accurate reflection of the level of land ecological safety in the region; (2) The ecological security index is generally safe, with a mean value in the moderate safety range. It experienced a turning point in 2010, showing initial deterioration followed by improvement, mainly due to the transition between unsafe and relatively safe zones. (3) The level of economic development, topography, and urban-–rural structure are significant factors influencing the spatial concentration of LES in the region, ultimately shaping the spatial pattern of LES in the Chengdu Plain region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Land Use and Spatial Analysis)
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14 pages, 3183 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Land Use and Cover Change Inside and Outside China’s Ecological Function Area
Land 2023, 12(7), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071447 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The establishment of nature reserves and ecological function areas is crucial for preserving the natural environment and the invaluable services provided by ecosystems. In our study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis using the 2011–2020 Chinese land cover dataset to examine the impact of [...] Read more.
The establishment of nature reserves and ecological function areas is crucial for preserving the natural environment and the invaluable services provided by ecosystems. In our study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis using the 2011–2020 Chinese land cover dataset to examine the impact of ecological function areas on regional land use and cover change. This analysis allowed us to quantify and visualize the intensity, aggregation effects, and transformation paths of land cover change while considering China’s ecological function areas. Our findings highlight notable disparities in land cover types between the ecological function area and its surroundings. Within the ecological function area, forest and grassland dominate, constituting 67% of the total land cover. In contrast, outside the ecological function area, there is a greater presence of wasteland, in addition to forest and grassland. Moreover, the abundance of impervious surfaces, which are closely linked to human activities, is significantly higher outside the ecological function area, almost double the amount found inside. By examining specific land cover types, we observed that forests exhibit the least change within the ecological function area, whereas croplands experience the least change outside. Throughout the study period, approximately 8.1% of land cover pixels underwent changes, with some areas displaying a frequency of change reaching up to 2. Interestingly, the number of high-frequency land use and cover change pixels inside the ecological function area is only half of the outside. Notably, a higher percentage of impervious surfaces within the ecological function area (0.13%) were converted into cropland compared to the outside (0.07%). Understanding the dynamics of land cover change within China’s ecological function areas provides valuable insights for effective land resource management and planning. It enables us to make informed decisions to ensure the sustainable development and conservation of these areas. Full article
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19 pages, 72082 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Evaluation of the Service Capacity of a Waterfront Public Space Using Point-of-Interest Data Combined with Questionnaire Surveys
Land 2023, 12(7), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071446 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 915
Abstract
The analysis and evaluation of the service capacity of an urban public space is of great importance for optimizing spatial design and ensuring sustainable regeneration of the space. Point-of-interest (POI) data analysis is a common method for evaluating the performance of public space [...] Read more.
The analysis and evaluation of the service capacity of an urban public space is of great importance for optimizing spatial design and ensuring sustainable regeneration of the space. Point-of-interest (POI) data analysis is a common method for evaluating the performance of public space since it contains various geographical information about specific facilities. However, this method is incapable of providing intuitive and clear feedback on the usage of the space, such as visitor experience and satisfaction levels. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach that combines POI data with questionnaire surveys to comprehensively analyze and evaluate the service capacity of the facilities in a waterfront public space. By taking the Changning section of the Suzhou Creek in Shanghai as an example, we evaluate and verify the utilization rate and satisfaction level of public facilities based on this hybrid approach with three satisfaction factors: accessibility, landscape visual quality, and service functions. The results reveal that the service space that can be reached on foot provides the most satisfaction in terms of accessibility, followed by the space that can be reached by bicycle. When it comes to landscape visual quality, visitors are more concerned with the view around the facility than with the greenery. Regarding service functions, the service facility with beverage outlets, fitness, and small gatherings is more appealing. The proposed approach will be useful for further developing advanced public space evaluation strategies with real-time feedback capabilities, as well as for the intelligent design and long-term regeneration of future public spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Land Planning and Landscape Architecture)
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