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Geomorphodynamics in Argan Woodlands, South Morocco

Department of Physical Geography, Trier University, DE-54286 Trier, Germany
Department of Physical Geography, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, DE-60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Department of Geography, Université Ibn Zohr, MA-80060 Agadir, Morocco
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2193;
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Hydrology on Soil Erosion)
The endemic argan tree (Argania spinosa) populations in South Morocco are highly degraded due to their use as a biomass resource in dry years and illegal firewood extraction. The intensification and expansion of agricultural land lead to a retreat of the wooded area, while the remaining argan open woodlands are often overgrazed. Thus, canopy-covered areas decrease while areas without vegetation cover between the argan trees increase. In total, 36 rainfall simulation experiments as well as 60 infiltration measurements were conducted to investigate the potential difference between tree-covered areas and bare intertree areas. In addition, 60 soil samples were taken under the trees and in the intertree areas parallel to the contour lines. Significant differences using a t-test were found between tree and intertree areas for the studied parameters Ksat, Kh, pH, electric conductivity, percolation stability, total C-content, total N-content, K-content, Na-content, and Mg-content. Surface runoff and soil losses were not as conclusive but showed similar trends. The results showed that argan trees influence the soil underneath significantly, while the soil in intertree areas is less protected and more degraded. It is therefore reasonable to assume further degradation of the soil when intertree areas extend further due to lack of rejuvenation of argan trees. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil erosion; argan; South Morocco; soil degradation; tree; intertree soil erosion; argan; South Morocco; soil degradation; tree; intertree
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kirchhoff, M.; Engelmann, L.; Zimmermann, L.L.; Seeger, M.; Marzolff, I.; Aït Hssaine, A.; Ries, J.B. Geomorphodynamics in Argan Woodlands, South Morocco. Water 2019, 11, 2193.

AMA Style

Kirchhoff M, Engelmann L, Zimmermann LL, Seeger M, Marzolff I, Aït Hssaine A, Ries JB. Geomorphodynamics in Argan Woodlands, South Morocco. Water. 2019; 11(10):2193.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kirchhoff, Mario, Lars Engelmann, Lutz L. Zimmermann, Manuel Seeger, Irene Marzolff, Ali Aït Hssaine, and Johannes B. Ries. 2019. "Geomorphodynamics in Argan Woodlands, South Morocco" Water 11, no. 10: 2193.

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