Production of potable water or reclaimed water with higher quality are in demand to address water scarcity issues as well as to meet the expectation of stringent water quality standards. Forward osmosis (FO) provides a highly promising platform for energy-efficient membrane-based separation technology. This emerging technology has been recognized as a potential and cost-competitive alternative for many conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Motivated by its advantages over existing wastewater treatment technologies, the interest of applying FO technology for wastewater treatment has increased significantly in recent years. This article focuses on the recent developments and innovations in FO for wastewater treatment. An overview of the potential of FO in various wastewater treatment application will be first presented. The contemporary strategies used in membrane designs and fabrications as well as the efforts made to address membrane fouling are comprehensively reviewed. Finally, the challenges and future outlook of FO for wastewater treatment are highlighted.
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