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Flow Depths and Velocities across a Smooth Dike Crest

Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2197;
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between Waves and Maritime Structures)
This contribution proposes a systematic analysis of the overtopping process at dikes, focused on the statistical description of the extreme flow characteristics across the dike crest. The specific objective of the analysis is the investigation of structures subjected to high run-up levels and low freeboards, under severe or extreme conditions that are likely to occur in the future due to climate change. The adopted methodology is based on the collection of new experimental and numerical tests of wave overtopping at smooth dikes at various crest levels. The reliability of the new data is checked in terms of average overtopping discharge and wave reflection coefficient, against consolidated predicting methods from the literature. An update and refitting of the existing formulae for the prediction of the extreme flow depths and velocities at the dike off-shore edge is proposed based on the experimental and numerical outcomes. The dynamics of the overtopping flow propagation along the dike crest under breaking and non-breaking waves, in emerged and submerged conditions, is investigated. Guidelines to update the state-of-the-art formulae for a more cautious estimation of the water depths and the velocities of propagation of the flow in the landward area are provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: wave overtopping; flow velocity; flow depth; dike; wave breaking; experiments; numerical modelling wave overtopping; flow velocity; flow depth; dike; wave breaking; experiments; numerical modelling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Formentin, S.M.; Gaeta, M.G.; Palma, G.; Zanuttigh, B.; Guerrero, M. Flow Depths and Velocities across a Smooth Dike Crest. Water 2019, 11, 2197.

AMA Style

Formentin SM, Gaeta MG, Palma G, Zanuttigh B, Guerrero M. Flow Depths and Velocities across a Smooth Dike Crest. Water. 2019; 11(10):2197.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Formentin, Sara M.; Gaeta, Maria G.; Palma, Giuseppina; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Guerrero, Massimo. 2019. "Flow Depths and Velocities across a Smooth Dike Crest" Water 11, no. 10: 2197.

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