Table of Contents
Cancers, Volume 11, Issue 9 (September 2019) – 188 articles
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Cover Story (view full-size image) A better knowledge of the immunology of T-cell activation has led to the establishment of immune [...] Read more. A better knowledge of the immunology of T-cell activation has led to the establishment of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) using monoclonal antibodies to block the inhibition of T-cell activation through PD1: PDL1 and CTLA-4: B7 interactions. Both VEGF-inhibition and ICI allow durable responses and increase the survival rate of patients suffering this dreadful disease. New combination therapies such as pembrolizumab plus axitinib or ipilimumab plus nivolumab have emerged and rapidly reached the category of first-line options, while more classical treatments based on VEGF-inhibition alone, for example, sunitinib, pazopanib, or cabozantinib, remain excellent alternatives. However, many questions are still unanswered in this new therapeutic landscape, including how to minimize treatment toxicities, find optimal markers of response, and solve the dilemma on the role of cytoreductive nephrectomy in these patients. View this paper