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Article

Aflatoxin B1 Occurrence in Children under the Age of Five’s Food Products and Aflatoxin M1 Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization of Arab Infants through Consumption of Infant Powdered Formula: A Lebanese Experience

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Centre d’Analyses et de Recherche (CAR), Unité de Recherche Technologies et Valorisation Agro-Alimentaire (UR-TVA), Faculty of Sciences, Campus of Sciences and Technologies, Mar Roukos, Saint-Joseph University of Beirut, Beirut 1104 2020, Lebanon
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Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut 6573, Lebanon
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PHENOL Research Group (Public HEalth Nutrition Program-Lebanon), Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut 6573, Lebanon
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Lebanese University Nutrition Surveillance Center (LUNSC), Lebanese Food Drugs and Chemical Administrations, Lebanese University, Beirut 6573, Lebanon
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National Nutrition Committee, Saudi Food and Drug Authority, Riyadh 344, Saudi Arabia
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Executive Department of Monitoring and Risk Assessment, Food Sector, Saudi Food and Drug Authority, Riyadh 3292, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Madinah 344, Saudi Arabia
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Research Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Life and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut 6573, Lebanon
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World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo 11371, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2022, 14(5), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050290
Received: 13 March 2022 / Revised: 3 April 2022 / Accepted: 14 April 2022 / Published: 19 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins in Feed and Food)
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a salient metabolite that can be used to assess Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure in humans and animals. The carcinogenic potency of AFB1 and AFM1 was severely reported. The aims of this study were (1) to survey the contamination level of AFM1 in the most traded infant powdered formula brands (IPF) (n = 42) along with the AFB1 level in under 5’s children food brands (biscuits, cornflakes, and cereals) (n = 42) and (2) to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI), the hazard quotient (HQ) and the margin of exposure (MOE) of AFM1 among infants (0–12 months) in Lebanon. All of the samples were analyzed using ELISA technique. AFB1 was below detection limit in all of the children’s food brands samples. Out of 42 IPF samples 9.5% were AFM1-positive in the range of 29.54–140.16 ng/L and exceeded the maximum tolerable limit (MTL) set by the European commission (25 ng/kg). The overall average contamination level was 5.72 ± 0.014 ng/L. The EDI of AMF1 for male was in the range of 0.37–0.78 ng/kg/b.w./day and 0.40–0.87 ng/kg/b.w./day for females. Similarly, the HQ calculation resulted in an average of 3.05 for males and 3.28 for females. MOE calculations were far lower from 10,000 in both genders which indicates a high risk of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Our findings show that AFM1’s EDI, HQ and MOE scored high among Lebanese infants. As infants consume more IPF relative to their body weight, the persistence of IPF with high AFM1 levels threatens their health. Thus, infant’s exposure risk to AFM1 in IPF should be a continuous focus of attention. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aflatoxin B1; Aflatoxin M1; occurrence; exposure; infants; Lebanon Aflatoxin B1; Aflatoxin M1; occurrence; exposure; infants; Lebanon
MDPI and ACS Style

Daou, R.; Hoteit, M.; Bookari, K.; Al-Khalaf, M.; Nahle, S.; Al-Jawaldeh, A.; Koubar, M.; Doumiati, S.; EL Khoury, A. Aflatoxin B1 Occurrence in Children under the Age of Five’s Food Products and Aflatoxin M1 Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization of Arab Infants through Consumption of Infant Powdered Formula: A Lebanese Experience. Toxins 2022, 14, 290. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050290

AMA Style

Daou R, Hoteit M, Bookari K, Al-Khalaf M, Nahle S, Al-Jawaldeh A, Koubar M, Doumiati S, EL Khoury A. Aflatoxin B1 Occurrence in Children under the Age of Five’s Food Products and Aflatoxin M1 Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization of Arab Infants through Consumption of Infant Powdered Formula: A Lebanese Experience. Toxins. 2022; 14(5):290. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050290

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daou, Rouaa, Maha Hoteit, Khlood Bookari, Majid Al-Khalaf, Sahar Nahle, Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh, Mohamad Koubar, Samah Doumiati, and André EL Khoury. 2022. "Aflatoxin B1 Occurrence in Children under the Age of Five’s Food Products and Aflatoxin M1 Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization of Arab Infants through Consumption of Infant Powdered Formula: A Lebanese Experience" Toxins 14, no. 5: 290. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050290

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