Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Orally administered sea buckthorn pulp oil (not seed oil) restored aqueous tear secretion to its [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-107
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessRetraction Retraction: Yu et al. Low Iron Diet Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Young Rats. Nutrients 2016, 8, 456
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040422
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Nutrients Editorial Office has recently been made aware that the figures in the title paper [1] are taken from the same micrographs as those of other papers by the same authors [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Supplementation with a Polyphenol-Rich Extract, PerfLoad®, Improves Physical Performance during High-Intensity Exercise: A Randomized, Double Blind, Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040421
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an
[...] Read more.
Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an innovative polyphenol-based food supplement, PerfLoad®, was able to improve metabolic homeostasis and physical performance during high-intensity exercises under anaerobic conditions. The effect of a supplementation has been investigated on fifteen recreationally-active male athletes during a randomized, double-blind and crossover clinical investigation. The Wingate test, an inducer of an unbalanced metabolism associated to oxidative stress, was used to assess maximum anaerobic power during a high-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Supplementation with PerfLoad® correlated with a significant increase in total power output (5%), maximal peak power output (3.7%), and average power developed (5%), without inducing more fatigue or greater heart rate. Instead, oxidative homeostasis was stabilized in supplemented subjects. Such results demonstrated that PerfLoad® is a natural and efficient solution capable of, similarly to training benefits, helping athletes to improve their physical performance, while balancing their metabolism and reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Associations between Diet and Toenail Arsenic Concentration among Pregnant Women in Bangladesh: A Prospective Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040420
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
PDF Full-text (1248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This prospective study evaluated the relationship between long-term dietary habits and total arsenic (As) concentration in toenail clippings in a cohort of 1616 pregnant women in the Bangladeshi administrative regions of Sirajdikhan and Pabna Sadar. Diet was assessed at Gestation Week 28 and
[...] Read more.
This prospective study evaluated the relationship between long-term dietary habits and total arsenic (As) concentration in toenail clippings in a cohort of 1616 pregnant women in the Bangladeshi administrative regions of Sirajdikhan and Pabna Sadar. Diet was assessed at Gestation Week 28 and at Postpartum Month 1, using a locally-validated dish-based semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Toenail As concentration was analyzed by microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between natural log-transformed consumption of individual food items and temporally matched natural log-transformed toenail As concentration were quantified using general linear models that accounted for As concentration in the primary drinking water source and other potential confounders. The analysis was stratified by As in drinking water (≤50 μg/L versus >50 μg/L) and the time of dietary assessment (Gestation Week 28 versus Postpartum Week 1). Interestingly, toenail As was not significantly associated with consumption of plain rice as hypothesized. However, toenail As was positively associated with consumption of several vegetable, fish and meat items and was negatively associated with consumption of rice, cereal, fruits, and milk based food items. Further studies in pregnant women are needed to compare As metabolism at different levels of As exposure and the interaction between dietary composition and As absorption. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Reliability of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) Questionnaire
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040419
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to determine the test–retest reliability of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) questionnaire in college students. Two hundred and seventy-six college students (127 men, 46%; 149 women, 54%; mean age 19.70 ± 1.32 years; mean height
[...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the test–retest reliability of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) questionnaire in college students. Two hundred and seventy-six college students (127 men, 46%; 149 women, 54%; mean age 19.70 ± 1.32 years; mean height 1.75 ± 0.09 m; mean weight 69.28 ± 13.84 kg; mean body-mas index 22.41 ± 3.19 kg/m2) participated in the study. To investigate the reliability of the KIDMED questionnaire, the participants were asked to complete the questionnaire on two occasions two weeks apart, stratified by gender. Kappa statistics showed moderate to excellent agreement (ranging from 0.504 to 0.849) in the total sample and moderate to excellent agreement in both men (ranging from 0.467 to 0.803) and women (ranging from 0.435 to 0.927). Results in the total KIDMED score showed a moderate correlation between two occasions inthe total sample (κ = 0.597, p < 0.001) and in women (κ = 0.586, p < 0.001) and a good correlation in men (κ = 0.611, p < 0.001). Our study shows that the KIDMED questionnaire is a reliable instrument for assessing adherence to the Mediterranean diet in college students. Future studies should focus on investigating the reliability of the questionnaire in other countries and in different age groups for generating comparable data. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sweet Taste Receptor Activation in the Gut Is of Limited Importance for Glucose-Stimulated GLP-1 and GIP Secretion
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040418
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin secretion from an isolated perfused
[...] Read more.
Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin secretion from an isolated perfused rat small intestine and whether selective STR activation by artificial sweeteners stimulates secretion. Intra-luminal administration of the STR agonists, acesulfame K (3.85% w/v), but not sucralose (1.25% w/v) and stevioside (2.5% w/v), stimulated GLP-1 secretion (acesulfame K: 31 ± 3 pmol/L vs. 21 ± 2 pmol/L, p < 0.05, n = 6). In contrast, intra-arterial administration of sucralose (10 mM) and stevioside (10 mM), but not acesulfame K, stimulated GLP-1 secretion (sucralose: 51 ± 6 pmol/L vs. 34 ± 4 pmol/L, p < 0.05; stevioside: 54 ± 6 pmol/L vs. 32 ± 2 pmol/L, p < 0.05, n = 6), while 0.1 mM and 1 mM sucralose did not affect the secretion. Luminal glucose (20% w/v) doubled GLP-1 and GIP secretion, but basolateral STR inhibition by gurmarin (2.5 µg/mL) or the inhibition of the transient receptor potential cation channel 5 (TRPM5) by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) (100 µM) did not attenuate the responses. In conclusion, STR activation does not drive GIP/GLP-1 secretion itself, nor does it have a role for glucose-stimulated GLP-1 or GIP secretion. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sodium and Potassium Intake in Healthy Adults in Thessaloniki Greater Metropolitan Area—The Salt Intake in Northern Greece (SING) Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040417
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is a global health priority, as well as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies
[...] Read more.
A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is a global health priority, as well as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies for setting targets and monitoring effectiveness within each country, the current level of consumption should be known. Greece lacks data on actual sodium and potassium intake. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess dietary salt (using sodium as biomarker) and potassium intakes in a sample of healthy adults in northern Greece, and to determine whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet is related to different sodium intakes or sodium-to-potassium ratio. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Thessaloniki greater metropolitan area (northern Greece) (n = 252, aged 18–75 years, 45.2% males). Participants’ dietary sodium and potassium intakes were determined by 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretions. In addition, we estimated their adherence to Mediterranean diet by the use of an 11-item MedDietScore (range 0–55). The mean sodium excretion was 175 (SD 72) mmol/day, equivalent to 4220 (1745) mg of sodium or 10.7 (4.4) g of salt per day, and the potassium excretion was 65 (25) mmol/day, equivalent to 3303 (1247) mg per day. Men had higher sodium and potassium excretions compared to women. Only 5.6% of the sample had salt intake <5 g/day, which is the target intake recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio was 2.82 (1.07). There was no significant difference in salt or potassium intake or their ratio across MedDietScore quartiles. No significant relationships were found between salt intake and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, suggesting that the perception of the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet does not hold when referring to salt consumption. These results suggest the need for a larger, nation-wide survey on salt intake in Greece and underline the importance of continuation of salt reduction initiatives in Greece. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Association of Polyphenol Biomarkers with Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040415
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Epidemiologic studies have suggested an inverse association between flavonoids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the results might have been influenced by the use of dietary assessment methods, which are error prone. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse the
[...] Read more.
Epidemiologic studies have suggested an inverse association between flavonoids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the results might have been influenced by the use of dietary assessment methods, which are error prone. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse the literature for evidence of associations between polyphenol biomarkers and CVD and mortality risk in observational studies. Eligible studies were identified through PubMed, Web of Science, and reference lists. Multivariable adjusted associations were extracted. Data were log-transformed and pooled using the random effects model. In total, eight studies were included, investigating 16 different polyphenol biomarkers in association with CVD and mortality. Blood and urine were used as biospecimens, and enterolactone, a lignan metabolite, was most often investigated. Three meta-analyses were conducted investigating the association between enterolactone, and all-cause and CVD mortality, and non-fatal myocardial infarction. A 30% and 45% reduced all-cause and CVD mortality risk were revealed at higher enterolactone concentrations. Furthermore, inverse associations were observed between polyphenol biomarkers and all-cause mortality, kaempferol, and acute coronary syndrome. There is evidence to suggest that enterolactone is associated with a lower CVD mortality risk. This emphasises the importance of the role of the microbiota in disease prevention. To strengthen the evidence, more studies are warranted. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Suppression of Oxidative Stress and NFκB/MAPK Signaling by Lyophilized Black Raspberries for Esophageal Cancer Prevention in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040413
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Research in the laboratory has shown that lyophilized black raspberries (BRB) significantly inhibit N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis in rats. The objective of the present study is to characterize the underlying mechanism(s) of anti-cancer action of BRB in this preclinical animal
[...] Read more.
Research in the laboratory has shown that lyophilized black raspberries (BRB) significantly inhibit N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis in rats. The objective of the present study is to characterize the underlying mechanism(s) of anti-cancer action of BRB in this preclinical animal model focusing on oxidative stress and its related oncogenic signaling pathways. Esophageal epithelial tissues were collected and assessed for markers of oxidative stress and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). BRB reduced the incidence of esophageal cancer from 100% in NMBA-treated rats to 81.5% in rats treated with NMBA plus BRB (p < 0.05). Tumor multiplicity was reduced from 4.73 ± 0.45 tumors per esophagus in NMBA-treated rats to 1.44 ± 0.26 in rats treated with NMBA plus BRB (p < 0.001). The data indicated that NMBA treatment increased production of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide, reduced expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase 2, and activated NFκB/MAPK signaling in rat esophagus. The study’s results show that BRB reverses oxidative stress and suppresses NFκB/MAPK pathways, which could be the mechanisms for esophageal cancer chemopreventive action of BRB in rats. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Association of Ankle Brachial Index, Protein-Energy Wasting, and Inflammation Status with Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040416
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We investigated the association of abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI), PEW, and chronic inflammation status with clinical prognosis in HD patients. A total of 973 HD patients were enrolled and were followed-up for
[...] Read more.
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We investigated the association of abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI), PEW, and chronic inflammation status with clinical prognosis in HD patients. A total of 973 HD patients were enrolled and were followed-up for 8 years. As a marker of the PEW, geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was used. Cut-off levels were 91.2 for GNRI defined from previous studies and 1.9 mg/L for C-reactive protein (CRP) as median value, respectively. Abnormal ABI was seen in 332 (34.1%) patients. Declined GNRI and elevated CRP levels were independently associated with abnormal ABI (odds ratio (OR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96–0.99, p = 0.0009 and OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.07–1.83, p = 0.013, respectively). GNRI levels were also independently correlated with CRP levels (β = −0.126, p < 0.0001). During follow-up period, 283 (29.1%) patients died, including 123 (12.6%) due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abnormal ABI (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% CI 1.13–2.32, p = 0.0096), GNRI < 91.2 (adjusted HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.06–2.33, p = 0.023) and CRP > 1.9 mg/L (adjusted HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.31–2.77, p = 0.0007) independently predicted mortality due to CVD, respectively. In conclusion, abnormal ABI, GNRI, and CRP levels were closely associated with each other, and the combination of these variables increase their predictive values for the risk of mortality due to CVD and all-cause mortality in HD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Curcumin Inhibits Apoptosis of Chondrocytes through Activation ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways Induced Autophagy
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040414
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory disease of load-bearing synovial joints that is currently treated with drugs that exhibit numerous side effects and are only temporarily effective in treating pain, the main symptom of the disease. Consequently, there is an acute need for novel,
[...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory disease of load-bearing synovial joints that is currently treated with drugs that exhibit numerous side effects and are only temporarily effective in treating pain, the main symptom of the disease. Consequently, there is an acute need for novel, safe, and more effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoarthritis and related arthritic diseases. Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid and the most active component in turmeric, is a biologically active phytochemical. Evidence from several recent in vitro studies suggests that curcumin may exert a chondroprotective effect through actions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-catabolic activity that are critical for mitigating OA disease pathogenesis and symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the protective mechanisms of curcumin on interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-stimulated primary chondrocytes in vitro. The treatment of interleukin (IL)-1β significantly reduces the cell viability of chondrocytes in dose and time dependent manners. Co-treatment of curcumin with IL-1β significantly decreased the growth inhibition. We observed that curcumin inhibited IL-1β-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in chondrocytes. Curcumin can increase the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), autophagy marker light chain 3 (LC3)-II, and Beclin-1 in chondrocytes. The expression of autophagy markers could be decreased when the chondrocytes were incubated with ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Our results suggest that curcumin suppresses apoptosis and inflammatory signaling through its actions on the ERK1/2-induced autophagy in chondrocytes. We propose that curcumin should be explored further for the prophylactic treatment of osteoarthritis in humans and companion animals. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperConcept Paper “Eat as If You Could Save the Planet and Win!” Sustainability Integration into Nutrition for Exercise and Sport
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040412
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today’s industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change
[...] Read more.
Today’s industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change that promotes both health for planet and people with focus on athletes. Healthy, sustainable eating recommendations begin to appear in various governmental guidelines. However, there remains resistance to the suggested reductions in meat consumption. While food citizens are likely to choose what is good for them and the planet, others may not, unless healthy eating initiatives integrate creative food literacy approaches with experiential learning as a potential vehicle for change. This concept paper is organized in three sections: (1) Environmental impact of food; (2) health and sustainability connections; and (3) application in sports and exercise. For active individuals, this article focuses on the quantity of protein, highlighting meat and dairy, and quality of food, with topics such as organic production and biodiversity. Finally, the timing of when to integrate sustainability principles in sport nutrition is discussed, followed by practical applications for education and inclusion in team, institutional, and event operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Testing the Capacity of a Multi-Nutrient Profiling System to Guide Food and Beverage Reformulation: Results from Five National Food Composition Databases
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040406
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets
[...] Read more.
Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets (UK, US, China, Brazil, France). Products (n = 7183) were split into 35 categories based on the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling Systems (NNPS) and were then classified as NNPS ‘Pass’ if all nutrient targets were met (energy (E), total fat (TF), saturated fat (SFA), sodium (Na), added sugars (AS), protein, calcium). In a modelling scenario, all NNPS Fail products were ‘reformulated’ to meet NNPS standards. Overall, a third (36%) of all products achieved the NNPS standard/pass (inter-country and inter-category range: 32%–40%; 5%–72%, respectively), with most products requiring reformulation in two or more nutrients. The most common nutrients to require reformulation were SFA (22%–44%) and TF (23%–42%). Modelled compliance with NNPS standards could reduce the average content of SFA, Na and AS (10%, 8% and 6%, respectively) at the food supply level. Despite the good potential to stimulate reformulation across the five countries, the study highlights the need for better data quality and granularity of food composition databases. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Endurance Training with or without Glucose-Fructose Ingestion: Effects on Lactate Metabolism Assessed in a Randomized Clinical Trial on Sedentary Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040411
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Glucose-fructose ingestion increases glucose and lactate oxidation during exercise. We hypothesized that training with glucose-fructose would induce key adaptations in lactate metabolism. Two groups of eight sedentary males were endurance-trained for three weeks while ingesting either glucose-fructose (GF) or water (C). Effects of
[...] Read more.
Glucose-fructose ingestion increases glucose and lactate oxidation during exercise. We hypothesized that training with glucose-fructose would induce key adaptations in lactate metabolism. Two groups of eight sedentary males were endurance-trained for three weeks while ingesting either glucose-fructose (GF) or water (C). Effects of glucose-fructose on lactate appearance, oxidation, and clearance were measured at rest and during exercise, pre-training, and post-training. Pre-training, resting lactate appearance was 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.6 ± 0.4 mg·kg−1·min−1 in GF and C, and was increased to 11.2 ± 1.4 vs. 8.8 ± 0.7 mg·kg−1·min−1 by exercise (Exercise: p < 0.01). Lactate oxidation represented 20.6% ± 1.0% and 17.5% ± 1.7% of lactate appearance at rest, and 86.3% ± 3.8% and 86.8% ± 6.6% during exercise (Exercise: p < 0.01) in GF and C, respectively. Training with GF increased resting lactate appearance and oxidation (Training × Intervention: both p < 0.05), but not during exercise (Training × Intervention: both p > 0.05). Training with GF and C had similar effects to increase lactate clearance during exercise (+15.5 ± 9.2 and +10.1 ± 5.9 mL·kg−1·min−1; Training: p < 0.01; Training × Intervention: p = 0.97). The findings of this study show that in sedentary participants, glucose-fructose ingestion leads to high systemic lactate appearance, most of which is disposed non-oxidatively at rest and is oxidized during exercise. Training with or without glucose-fructose increases lactate clearance, without altering lactate appearance and oxidation during exercise. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Beneficial Effect of Voluntary Exercise on Experimental Colitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: The Role of Irisin, Adiponectin and Proinflammatory Biomarkers
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040410
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (6308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn‘s disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and
[...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn‘s disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i.e., voluntary wheel running) on the disease activity index (DAI), colonic blood flow (CBF), plasma irisin and adiponectin levels and real-time PCR expression of proinflammatory markers in mesenteric fat in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to those on a standard chow diet (SD). Macroscopic and microscopic colitis in sedentary SD mice was accompanied by a significant fall in CBF, some increase in colonic tissue weight and a significant increase in the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and IL-13 (p < 0.05). In sedentary HFD mice, colonic lesions were aggravated, colonic tissue weight increased and the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels significantly increased. Simultaneously, a significant decrease in the plasma irisin and adiponectin levels was observed in comparison with SD mice (p < 0.05). Exercise significantly decreased macroscopic and microscopic colitis, substantially increased CBF and attenuated the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels while raising the plasma irisin and the plasma and WAT concentrations of adiponectin in HFD mice (p < 0.05). We conclude that: (1) experimental colitis is exacerbated in HFD mice, possibly due to a fall in colonic microcirculation and an increase in the plasma and mesenteric fat content of proinflammatory biomarkers; and (2) voluntary physical activity can attenuate the severity of colonic damage in mice fed a HFD through the release of protective irisin and restoration of plasma adiponectin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessErratum Erratum: Effect of Fibre Supplementation on Body Weight and Composition, Frequency of Eating and Dietary Choice in Overweight Individuals Nutrients 2017, 9, 149
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040409
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Open AccessReply Response to Comments by Vuksan V. et al., Nutrients 2017, 9, 398, Regarding an Article by Solah V.A. et al., Nutrients 2017, 9, 149
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040408
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
PDF Full-text (147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To the Editor: We have read the comments by Dr. Vuksan regarding our article entitled “Effect of Fibre Supplementation on Body Weight and Composition, Frequency of Eating and Dietary Choice in Overweight Individuals” as published in Nutrients in February 2017 [1].[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Prenatal Exposure to a Maternal High-Fat Diet Affects Histone Modification of Cardiometabolic Genes in Newborn Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040407
Received: 18 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Infants born to women with diabetes or obesity are exposed to excess circulating fuels during fetal heart development and are at higher risk of cardiac diseases. We have previously shown that late-gestation diabetes, especially in conjunction with a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, impairs
[...] Read more.
Infants born to women with diabetes or obesity are exposed to excess circulating fuels during fetal heart development and are at higher risk of cardiac diseases. We have previously shown that late-gestation diabetes, especially in conjunction with a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, impairs cardiac functions in rat-offspring. This study investigated changes in genome-wide histone modifications in newborn hearts from rat-pups exposed to maternal diabetes and HF-diet. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed a differential peak distribution on gene promoters in exposed pups with respect to acetylation of lysines 9 and 14 and to trimethylation of lysines 4 and 27 in histone H3 (all, false discovery rate, FDR < 0.1). In the HF-diet exposed offspring, 54% of the annotated genes showed the gene-activating mark trimethylated lysine 4. Many of these genes (1) are associated with the “metabolic process” in general and particularly with “positive regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis” (FDR = 0.03); (2) overlap with 455 quantitative trait loci for blood pressure, body weight, serum cholesterol (all, FDR < 0.1); and (3) are linked to cardiac disease susceptibility/progression, based on disease ontology analyses and scientific literature. These results indicate that maternal HF-diet changes the cardiac histone signature in offspring suggesting a fuel-mediated epigenetic reprogramming of cardiac tissue in utero. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Fructose Consumption in the Development of Obesity and the Effects of Different Protocols of Physical Exercise on the Hepatic Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040405
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context,
[...] Read more.
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes, and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance. However, physical exercise has been indicated for the treatment of several chronic diseases. In this review, we show how each exercise protocol (aerobic, strength, or a combination of both) promote improvements in the obesogenic state created by fructose consumption as an improvement in the serum and liver lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein (HDL) increase and decrease triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels) and a reduction of markers of inflammation caused by an excess of fructose. Therefore, it is concluded that the practice of aerobic physical exercise, strength training, or a combination of both is essential for attenuating the complications developed by the consumption of fructose. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Sodium Content of Processed Foods in South Africa during the Introduction of Mandatory Sodium Limits
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040404
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: In June 2016, the Republic of South Africa introduced legislation for mandatory limits for the upper sodium content permitted in a wide range of processed foods. We assessed the sodium levels of packaged foods in South Africa during the one-year period leading
[...] Read more.
Background: In June 2016, the Republic of South Africa introduced legislation for mandatory limits for the upper sodium content permitted in a wide range of processed foods. We assessed the sodium levels of packaged foods in South Africa during the one-year period leading up to the mandatory implementation date of the legislation. Methods: Data on the nutritional composition of packaged foods was obtained from nutrition information panels on food labels through both in-store surveys and crowdsourcing by users of the HealthyFood Switch mobile phone app between June 2015 and August 2016. Summary sodium levels were calculated for 15 food categories, including the 13 categories covered by the sodium legislation. The percentage of foods that met the government’s 2016 sodium limits was also calculated. Results: 11,065 processed food items were included in the analyses; 1851 of these were subject to the sodium legislation. Overall, 67% of targeted foods had a sodium level at or below the legislated limit. Categories with the lowest percentage of foods that met legislated limits were bread (27%), potato crisps (41%), salt and vinegar flavoured snacks (42%), and raw processed sausages (45%). About half (49%) of targeted foods not meeting the legislated limits were less than 25% above the maximum sodium level. Conclusion: Sodium levels in two-thirds of foods covered by the South African sodium legislation were at or below the permitted upper levels at the mandatory implementation date of the legislation and many more were close to the limit. The South African food industry has an excellent opportunity to rapidly meet the legislated requirements. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Genistein Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Renal Injury in a SIRT1-Dependent Manner
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040403
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (14374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury continues to be a complicated situation in clinical practice. Genistein, the main isoflavone found in soy products, is known to possess a wide spectrum of biochemical and pharmacological activities. However, the protective effect of genistein on renal I/R injury
[...] Read more.
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury continues to be a complicated situation in clinical practice. Genistein, the main isoflavone found in soy products, is known to possess a wide spectrum of biochemical and pharmacological activities. However, the protective effect of genistein on renal I/R injury has not been well investigated. In the current study, we explore whether genistein exhibits its renal-protective effects through SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1) in I/R-induced mice model. We found the treatment of genistein significantly reduced renal I/R-induced cell death, simultaneously stimulating renal cell proliferation. Meanwhile, SIRT1 expression was up-regulated following the administration of genistein in renal region. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated depletion of SIRT1 significantly reversed the protective effect of genistein on renal dysfunction, cellular damage, apoptosis, and proliferation following I/R injury, suggesting an indispensible role of the increased SIRT1 expression and activity in this process. Meanwhile, the reduced p53 and p21 expression and increased PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) expression were blocked after the depletion of SIRT1 compared with the genistein treatment group in the renal I/R process. Hence, our results provided further experimental basis for the potential use of genistein for the treatment of kidney disease with deficiency of SIRT1 activity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040402
Received: 5 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed,
[...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus through December 2016 and scrutinized the reference lists of relevant literatures to identify eligible studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effect models. The dose–response relationship between chocolate consumption and incident HF was also assessed. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017054230. Five prospective studies with 106,109 participants were finally included. Compared to no consumption of chocolate, the pooled HRs (95% CIs) of HF were 0.86 (0.82–0.91) for low-to-moderate consumption (<7 servings/week) and 0.94 (0.80–1.09) for high consumption (≥7 servings/week). In dose–response meta-analysis, we detected a curve linear relationship between chocolate consumption and risk of HF (p for nonlinearity = 0.005). Compared with non-consumption, the HRs (95% CIs) of HF across chocolate consumption levels were 0.92 (0.88–0.97), 0.86 (0.78–0.94), 0.93 (0.85–1.03), and 1.07 (0.92–1.23) for 1, 3, 7, and 10 servings/week, respectively. In conclusion, chocolate consumption in moderation may be associated with a decreased risk of HF. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Dried Plums, Prunes and Bone Health: A Comprehensive Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040401
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of
[...] Read more.
The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of Americans age 50+ have either osteoporosis or low bone mass. Dried plums, also commonly referred to as prunes, have a unique nutrient and dietary bioactive profile and are suggested to exert beneficial effects on bone. To further elucidate and summarize the potential mechanisms and effects of dried plums on bone health, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature was conducted. The PubMed database was searched through 24 January 2017 for all cell, animal, population and clinical studies that examined the effects of dried plums and/or extracts of the former on markers of bone health. Twenty-four studies were included in the review and summarized in table form. The beneficial effects of dried plums on bone health may be in part due to the variety of phenolics present in the fruit. Animal and cell studies suggest that dried plums and/or their extracts enhance bone formation and inhibit bone resorption through their actions on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. These studies are consistent with clinical studies that show that dried plums may exert beneficial effects on bone mineral density (BMD). Long-term prospective cohort studies using fractures and BMD as primary endpoints are needed to confirm the effects of smaller clinical, animal and mechanistic studies. Clinical and prospective cohort studies in men are also needed, since they represent roughly 29% of fractures, and likewise, diverse race and ethnic groups. No adverse effects were noted among any of the studies included in this comprehensive review. While the data are not completely consistent, this review suggests that postmenopausal women may safely consume dried plums as part of their fruit intake recommendations given their potential to have protective effects on bone loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040400
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order
[...] Read more.
Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order to understand what health benefits these products may offer. The Food Label Information Program was used to identify probiotic-containing products in the food supply. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled trials that tested the health effects of these strains in humans. There were six probiotic strains/strain combinations identified in the food supply. Thirty-one studies investigated these strains and found that they are associated with decreased diarrhea and constipation, improved digestive symptoms, glycemic control, antioxidant status, blood lipids, oral health, and infant breastfeeding outcomes, as well as enhanced immunity and support for Helicobacter pylori eradication. There were a limited number of studies investigating these strains. Many studies were funded by the food industry and tested dosages that were up to twenty-five times the dosage found in most food products. Probiotic food products could have health benefits not currently reported on their labels. However, many dosages are too low to provide the benefits demonstrated in clinical trials. Further research is needed to enable more effective use of these functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Nutritional Status Predicts 10-Year Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040399
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis. The correct diagnosis of PEW is extremely important in order to predict clinical outcomes. However, it is unclear which parameters should be used to diagnose PEW.
[...] Read more.
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis. The correct diagnosis of PEW is extremely important in order to predict clinical outcomes. However, it is unclear which parameters should be used to diagnose PEW. Therefore, this retrospective observational study investigated the relationship between mortality and nutritional parameters in ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 144 patients were enrolled. Nutritional parameters, including body mass index, serum albumin, dietary intake, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), were measured at baseline. Fifty-three patients died during the study. Survivors had significantly higher nPCR (1.10 ± 0.24 g/kg/day vs. 1.01 ± 0.21 g/kg/day; p = 0.048), energy intake (26.7 ± 5.8 kcal/kg vs. 24.3 ± 4.2 kcal/kg; p = 0.009) and protein intake (0.91 ± 0.21 g/kg vs. 0.82 ± 0.24 g/kg; p = 0.020), and lower MIS (5.2 ± 2.3 vs. 6.1 ± 2.1, p = 0.039). In multivariable analysis, energy intake <25 kcal/kg (HR 1.860, 95% CI 1.018–3.399; p = 0.044) and MIS > 5 (HR 2.146, 95% CI 1.173–3.928; p = 0.013) were independent variables associated with all-cause mortality. These results suggest that higher MIS and lower energy intake are harmful to ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Optimal energy intake could reduce mortality in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessComment Comments to Article by Solah VA et al., Nutrients 2017, 9, 149
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040398
Received: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 18 April 2017
PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dear Editor, We read with interest the article published in the 16 February 2017 issue of The Journal, titled “Effect of Fibre Supplementation on Body Weight and Composition, Frequency of Eating and Dietary Choice in Overweight Individuals” by Solah VA et al. [1].[...]
[...] Read more.
Dear Editor, We read with interest the article published in the 16 February 2017 issue of The Journal, titled “Effect of Fibre Supplementation on Body Weight and Composition, Frequency of Eating and Dietary Choice in Overweight Individuals” by Solah VA et al. [1].[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Do Chinese Children Get Enough Micronutrients?
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040397
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine usual daily micronutrient intake of Chinese children based on data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed data from 4 to 17-year-old participants, who provided dietary data on three consecutive days combined
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine usual daily micronutrient intake of Chinese children based on data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed data from 4 to 17-year-old participants, who provided dietary data on three consecutive days combined with the household weighing method in 2011. Usual daily intake of each nutrient was estimated using a mixed effects model based on the China Food Composition published in 2009. The means, medians and percentages below Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) were reported for selected micronutrients, including calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C. For sodium and potassium, the means and the distribution of intakes were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) level. The average usual daily intakes of all micronutrients increase with age, and the intakes of boys were found to be higher than girls in the same age group. The average calcium intake increased from 272 mg/day in 4–6 years to 391 mg/day in 14–17 years, but the percentage of inadequate calcium intake remained very high (>96%). The prevalence of inadequacy of calcium was the highest among the mineral nutrients reported in this study. As the requirements of micronutrients increased with age, the percentage of subjects with inadequate intake increased in the 11–17 years age groups. Among 14–17 years group, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C below the EAR were 96.8%, 18.8%, 37.6%, 72.8%, 36.8%, 91.8%. 85.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Among 11–13 years group, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A below the EAR were 23.5%, 41.5%, and 41.6%, respectively. Thus, micronutrient deficiency is a problem in Chinese children. Nutrition education and intervention programs are needed to address these nutritional gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
Open AccessArticle Cereal Consumption among Subjects with Celiac Disease: A Snapshot for Nutritional Considerations
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040396
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: To our knowledge no study has focused on the pattern of cereal-based products (CBP) consumption among people with celiac disease (CD). Our study aimed at evaluating the dietary intake of CBP among patients with CD and comparing it with a control population.
[...] Read more.
Background: To our knowledge no study has focused on the pattern of cereal-based products (CBP) consumption among people with celiac disease (CD). Our study aimed at evaluating the dietary intake of CBP among patients with CD and comparing it with a control population. Methods: Eighty-two volunteers with CD and 77 non-CD volunteers enrolled throughout Italy were asked to register their consumption of CBP on specific diaries for three days. Results: CD patients’ median three-day intake of biscuits and crackers was higher compared to controls (65.8 g vs. 22.7 g and 44.7 g vs. 10.6 g, p < 0.05 respectively, Mann–Whitney test). A significant difference was observed also comparing the two groups for median three-day bread consumption, with the CD group consuming less bread than controls (109.5 g vs. 150.7 g, p < 0.05, Mann–Whitney test). When assessing regional and gender-related CBP consumption patterns, significantly higher rice consumption was found among CD women from Northern Italy compared to CD women from Central and Southern Italy (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002 respectively, Fisher’s exact test). No other significant differences were observed. Conclusions: Our results provide a snapshot of the overall consumption of CBP among Italian subjects with CD. Altogether, these data show that, despite minor differences, dietary consumption of CBP among CD patients is similar to the general population. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040395
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular
[...] Read more.
There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5–6 mg/dL). In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040394
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: To investigate the association between serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PaC). Methods: We identified eligible studies in Medline and EMBASE databases (no reference trials from 2014 to 2016) in addition to the reference lists
[...] Read more.
Objective: To investigate the association between serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PaC). Methods: We identified eligible studies in Medline and EMBASE databases (no reference trials from 2014 to 2016) in addition to the reference lists of original studies and review articles on this topic. A summary of relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. The heterogeneity between studies was assessed using Cochran Q and I2 statistics. Results: Ten studies (seven nested case-control studies and three retrospective case-control studies) were selected as they met our inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis. All these studies were published between 1997 and 2013. The current data suggested that serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3)in addition to the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio were not associated with an increased risk of PaC (Summary relative risks (SRRs) = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.67–1.16 for IGF-I; SRRs = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.54–1.15 for IGF-II; SRRs = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.69–1.17 for IGFBP-3; SRRs = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.71–1.23 for IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio). There was no publication bias in the present meta-analysis. Conclusion: Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 as well as the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio were not associated with increased risk of PaC. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Differential Effect of Sucrose and Fructose in Combination with a High Fat Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Kidney Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040393
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 16 April 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is controversial information about the adverse effect of sucrose (S) or fructose (F) in the development of obesity. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of S or F in a high fat diet (HF) on gut microbiota
[...] Read more.
There is controversial information about the adverse effect of sucrose (S) or fructose (F) in the development of obesity. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of S or F in a high fat diet (HF) on gut microbiota and renal oxidative stress. Rats were fed for four months with either high-fat + sucrose (HFS) or high-fat + fructose (HFF) or a control diet (C). Half of the HFS or HFF groups were maintained with the same diet and the other half were switched to the consumption of C. HFS and HFF groups increased 51% and 19% body weight, respectively, compared with the C group. Body fat mass, metabolic inflexibility, glucose intolerance, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), insulin, renal reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), Nadphox, and Srebp-1 were significantly higher and antioxidant enzymes and lean body mass were significantly lower in the HFS group with respect to the HF-F group. Change in the consumption of HFS or HFF to a C diet ameliorated the insulin and glucose intolerance. The type of carbohydrate differentially modified the microbiota composition, however, both groups significantly decreased C. eutactus with respect to the C group. Thus, metabolic alterations with the HFS diet had a more detrimental effect than HFF. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top