Hyperglycemia and dysregulation of lipid metabolism play a crucial role in metabolic dysfunction. The aims of present study were to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of Chinese olive fruit extract (CO-EtOAc) on high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. CO-EtOAc, rich in gallic acid and ellagic acid, could markedly decreased the body weight and epididymal adipose mass. In addition, CO-EtOAc increased serum HDL-C levels, hepatic GSH levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities; lowered blood glucose, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), bile acid, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα); and reduced TC and TG in liver. We further demonstrated that CO-EtOAc mildly suppressed hepatic levels of phosphorylated IRS-1, TNF-α, and IL-6, but enhanced Akt phosphorylation. The possible mechanisms of cholesterol metabolism were assessed by determining the expression of genes involved in cholesterol transportation, biosynthesis, and degradation. It was found that CO-EtOAc not only inhibited mRNA levels of SREBP-2
, and CYP7A1
but also increased the expression of genes, such as ABCA1
that governed cholesterol efflux and cholesterol uptake. Moreover, the protein expressions of ABCA1 and LDLR were also significantly increased in the liver of rats supplemented with CO-EtOAc. We suggest that Chinese olive fruit may ameliorate metabolic dysfunction in diabetic rats under HFD challenge.
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