Both vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin D exerts neuroprotective and regulatory roles in the central nervous system. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with muscle weakness and bone loss, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia), inflammation, oxidative stress, immune suppression and neurocognitive impairment. The combination of hypovitaminosis D and CKD can be even more debilitating, as cognitive impairment can develop and progress through vitamin D-associated and CKD-dependent/independent processes, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Although an increasingly recognized comorbidity in CKD, cognitive impairment remains underdiagnosed and often undermanaged. Given the association of cognitive decline and hypovitaminosis D and their deleterious effects in CKD patients, determination of vitamin D status and when appropriate, supplementation, in conjunction with neuropsychological screening, should be considered integral to the clinical care of the CKD population.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited