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Open AccessArticle

Hormonal and Thirst Modulated Maintenance of Fluid Balance in Young Women with Different Levels of Habitual Fluid Consumption

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Division of Kinesiology and Health, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
Department of Health Sciences and Nursing, University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT 06117, USA
Hydration & Health Department, Danone Research, Palaiseau 91767, France
Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
Department of Human Sciences, the Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 302;
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Background: Surprisingly little is known about the physiological and perceptual differences of women who consume different volumes of water each day. The purposes of this investigation were to (a) analyze blood osmolality, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone; (b) assess the responses of physiological, thirst, and hydration indices; and (c) compare the responses of individuals with high and low total water intake (TWI; HIGH and LOW, respectively) when consuming similar volumes of water each day and when their habitual total water intake was modified. Methods: In a single-blind controlled experiment, we measured the 24 h total water intake (TWI; water + beverages + food moisture) of 120 young women. Those who consumed the highest (HIGH, 3.2 ± 0.6 L·day−1, mean ± SD) and the lowest (LOW, 1.6 ± 0.5 L·day−1) mean habitual TWI were identified and compared. Outcome variables were measured during two ad libitum baseline days, a four-day intervention of either decreased TWI (HIGH) or increased TWI (LOW), and one ad libitum recovery day. Results: During the four-day intervention, HIGH and LOW experienced differences in thirst (p = 0.002); also, a statistically significant change of AVP occurred (main effect of TWI and day, p < 0.001), with no effect (TWI or day) on aldosterone and serum osmolality. Urine osmolality and volume distinguished HIGH from LOW (p = 0.002) when they consumed similar 24 h TWI. View Full-Text
Keywords: arginine vasopressin; aldosterone; thirst; osmolality; urine arginine vasopressin; aldosterone; thirst; osmolality; urine
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Johnson, E.C.; Muñoz, C.X.; Jimenez, L.; Le Bellego, L.; Kupchak, B.R.; Kraemer, W.J.; Casa, D.J.; Maresh, C.M.; Armstrong, L.E. Hormonal and Thirst Modulated Maintenance of Fluid Balance in Young Women with Different Levels of Habitual Fluid Consumption. Nutrients 2016, 8, 302.

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