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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study

1
Division of Nutrition, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
2
Department of Logistics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa
3
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
4
Biostatistics Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
5
Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Durban 4001, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050285
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544), stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E)) and women (33.4%E) in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E) while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E) than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E) while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01) in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016), saturated fat (p = 0.001), monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002) and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046). Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001). Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR) as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers. View Full-Text
Keywords: South Africa; black; urban; dietary intake; energy; fats; carbohydrates; nutrition transition South Africa; black; urban; dietary intake; energy; fats; carbohydrates; nutrition transition
MDPI and ACS Style

Steyn, N.P.; Jaffer, N.; Nel, J.; Levitt, N.; Steyn, K.; Lombard, C.; Peer, N. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 285. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050285

AMA Style

Steyn NP, Jaffer N, Nel J, Levitt N, Steyn K, Lombard C, Peer N. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study. Nutrients. 2016; 8(5):285. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050285

Chicago/Turabian Style

Steyn, Nelia P.; Jaffer, Nasreen; Nel, Johanna; Levitt, Naomi; Steyn, Krisela; Lombard, Carl; Peer, Nasheeta. 2016. "Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study" Nutrients 8, no. 5: 285. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050285

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