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Patterns of Change in Dietary Habits and Physical Activity during Lockdown in Spain Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic

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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Biscay, Spain
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Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC), 08029 Barcelona, Spain
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Nutrition and Mental Health Research Group (NUTRISAM), Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Tarragona, Spain
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Nutrición Sin Fronteras, 08029 Barcelona, Spain
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Departamento de Nutrición y Ciencia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Granada, 18010 Granada, Spain
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Fundación Iberoamericana de Nutrición, FINUT, 18016 Armilla Granada, Spain
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Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y de la Salud, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, 28925 Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain
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Conselleria de Sanidad Universal y Salud Pública, Generalitat Valenciana, 46020 Valencia, Spain
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CIBERESP (Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health), Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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CIBEROBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Fundación para la Investigación Nutricional (FIN), 08029 Barcelona, Spain
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Departamento de Biomedicina, Biotecnología y Salud Pública, Facultad de Enfermería y Fisioterapia Universidad de Cádiz, 11009 Cádiz, Spain
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Departament de Salut, Generalitat de Catalunya, 08005 Barcelona, Spain
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Research Group on Community Nutrition & Oxidative Stress, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), 28010 Madrid, Spain
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Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, and Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular—Materno Infantil (CHUIMI), Canarian Health Service, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
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Department of Food Sciences and Physiology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, 31009 Navarra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020300
Received: 12 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Background: Lockdown due to COVID-19 influenced food habits and lifestyles with potential negative health impact. This study aims to identify patterns of change in eating habits and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown in Spain and to identify associations with sociodemographic factors and usual habits. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1155 adults recruited online to answer a 10-section questionnaire. The protocol assessed usual diet by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, usual physical activity (PA) and supplement use, dietary changes, sedentary time, PA, exposure to sunlight, sleep quality, and smoking during confinement. Patterns of dietary change were identified by factor analysis. Factor scores were included in cluster analysis together with change in PA. Results: Six patterns of dietary change were identified that together with PA changes during lockdown defined three clusters of lifestyle change: a cluster less active, a more active cluster, and a third cluster as active as usual. People who were usually less active were more likely to be classified in the cluster that increased physical activity in confinement. Scores of the Healthy Mediterranean-Style dietary pattern were higher in this group. Conclusions: Different patterns of change in lifestyles in confinement suggest the need to tailor support and advice to different population groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; lifestyles; food consumption; physical activity; supplements; confinement; patterns COVID-19 pandemic; lifestyles; food consumption; physical activity; supplements; confinement; patterns
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pérez-Rodrigo, C.; Gianzo Citores, M.; Hervás Bárbara, G.; Ruiz-Litago, F.; Casis Sáenz, L.; Arija, V.; López-Sobaler, A.M.; Martínez de Victoria, E.; Ortega, R.M.; Partearroyo, T.; Quiles-Izquierdo, J.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Rodríguez-Martín, A.; Salvador Castell, G.; Tur, J.A.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Serra-Majem, L.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J. Patterns of Change in Dietary Habits and Physical Activity during Lockdown in Spain Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Nutrients 2021, 13, 300. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020300

AMA Style

Pérez-Rodrigo C, Gianzo Citores M, Hervás Bárbara G, Ruiz-Litago F, Casis Sáenz L, Arija V, López-Sobaler AM, Martínez de Victoria E, Ortega RM, Partearroyo T, Quiles-Izquierdo J, Ribas-Barba L, Rodríguez-Martín A, Salvador Castell G, Tur JA, Varela-Moreiras G, Serra-Majem L, Aranceta-Bartrina J. Patterns of Change in Dietary Habits and Physical Activity during Lockdown in Spain Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):300. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020300

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gianzo Citores, Marta; Hervás Bárbara, Gotzone; Ruiz-Litago, Fátima; Casis Sáenz, Luis; Arija, Victoria; López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Martínez de Victoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M.; Partearroyo, Teresa; Quiles-Izquierdo, Joan; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Martín, Amelia; Salvador Castell, Gemma; Tur, Josep A.; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier. 2021. "Patterns of Change in Dietary Habits and Physical Activity during Lockdown in Spain Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 300. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020300

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