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FlexPro MD®, a Combination of Krill Oil, Astaxanthin and Hyaluronic Acid, Reduces Pain Behavior and Inhibits Inflammatory Response in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats

1
Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Sedaemun-gu, Seoul 03760, Korea
2
R&D Center, Novarex Co., Ltd., 60 Gangni 1-gil, Ochang-eup, Cheongwon-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28126, Korea
3
US Nutraceuticals, Inc. d/b/a Valensa International, Eustis, FL 32726, USA
4
College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-21 Osongsaengmyeong 1-ro, Osong-eup, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28160, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040956
Received: 17 February 2020 / Revised: 24 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 30 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Dietary Supplements and Healthy Foods)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of adult disability. Since there is no cure for OA and no effective treatment to slow its progression, current pharmacologic treatments, such as analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), only alleviate symptoms, such as pain and inflammation, but do not inhibit the disease process. Moreover, chronic intake of these drugs may result in severe adverse effects. For these reasons, patients have turned to the use of various complementary and alternative approaches, including diverse dietary supplements and nutraceuticals, in an effort to improve symptoms and manage or slow disease progression. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-osteoarthritic effects of FlexPro MD® (a mixture of krill oil, astaxanthin, and hyaluronic acid; FP-MD) in a rat model of OA induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). FP-MD significantly ameliorated joint pain and decreased the severity of articular cartilage destruction in rats that received oral supplementation for 7 days prior to MIA administration and for 21 days thereafter. Furthermore, FP-MD treatment significantly reduced serum levels of the articular cartilage degeneration biomarkers cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and crosslinked C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), and the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as mRNA expression levels of inflammatory mediators, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and matrix-degrading enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, in the knee joint tissue. Our findings suggest that FP-MD is a promising dietary supplement for reducing pain, minimizing cartilage damage, and improving functional status in OA, without the disadvantages of previous dietary supplements and medicinal agents, including multiple adverse effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: FlexPro MD; krill oil; astaxanthin; hyaluronic acid; inflammation; pain; osteoarthritis FlexPro MD; krill oil; astaxanthin; hyaluronic acid; inflammation; pain; osteoarthritis
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Park, M.H.; Jung, J.C.; Hill, S.; Cartwright, E.; Dohnalek, M.H.; Yu, M.; Jun, H.J.; Han, S.B.; Hong, J.T.; Son, D.J. FlexPro MD®, a Combination of Krill Oil, Astaxanthin and Hyaluronic Acid, Reduces Pain Behavior and Inhibits Inflammatory Response in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats. Nutrients 2020, 12, 956.

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