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Open AccessArticle

Anaemia and Its Relation to Demographic, Socio-economic and Anthropometric Factors in Rural Primary School Children in Hai Phong City, Vietnam

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Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC 3125, Australia
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Biostatistics Unit, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC 3125, Australia
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National Institute of Nutrition, Hanoi 10000, Vietnam
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Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
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Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, Australia
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Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
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Nutrition Society of Australia, PO Box 576, Crows Nest, NSW 1585, Australia
8
Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 10000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071478
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
Little is known about the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in school children in Vietnam. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and its subtypes, and the associations of types of anaemia with demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric factors among 6–9-year-old primary school children in rural areas of Hai Phong City, Vietnam. Haemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured, and demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were collected in 893 children from eight primary schools. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 115 g/L) was 12.9% (95% CI: 8.1%, 19.9%), microcytic anaemia (Hb < 115 g/L and MCV < 80 fL) was 7.9% (95% CI: 5.3%, 11.6%) and normocytic anaemia (Hb < 115 g/L and MCV 80–90 fL) was 5.3% (95% CI: 2.9%, 9.5%). No child presented with macrocytic anaemia (Hb < 115 g/L and MCV > 90 fL). Children who were underweight, wasted, or in anthropometric failure (either underweight, stunted or wasted) were more likely to be anaemic (all p ≤ 0.004), and specifically, to have normocytic anaemia (all p ≤ 0.006), than those who were not underweight, wasted or in anthropometric failure. Stunted children were more likely to be anaemic (p = 0.018) than those who were not stunted. Overweight/obese children were less likely to be anaemic (p = 0.026) or have normocytic anaemia (p = 0.038) compared with children who were not overweight/obese. No anthropometric status indicator was associated with the risk of microcytic anaemia. No demographic or socio-economic factor was associated with any type of anaemia. Anaemia remains a public health issue in rural areas in Hai Phong City, Vietnam, and future approaches for its prevention and control should target undernourished primary school children. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vietnam; anaemia; childhood overweight/obesity; malnutrition; double burden of diseases; school children Vietnam; anaemia; childhood overweight/obesity; malnutrition; double burden of diseases; school children
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoang, N.T.D.; Orellana, L.; Le, T.D.; Gibson, R.S.; Worsley, A.; Sinclair, A.J.; Hoang, N.T.T.; Szymlek-Gay, E.A. Anaemia and Its Relation to Demographic, Socio-economic and Anthropometric Factors in Rural Primary School Children in Hai Phong City, Vietnam. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1478. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071478

AMA Style

Hoang NTD, Orellana L, Le TD, Gibson RS, Worsley A, Sinclair AJ, Hoang NTT, Szymlek-Gay EA. Anaemia and Its Relation to Demographic, Socio-economic and Anthropometric Factors in Rural Primary School Children in Hai Phong City, Vietnam. Nutrients. 2019; 11(7):1478. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071478

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoang, Ngan T.D.; Orellana, Liliana; Le, Tuyen D.; Gibson, Rosalind S.; Worsley, Anthony; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Hoang, Nghien T.T.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A. 2019. "Anaemia and Its Relation to Demographic, Socio-economic and Anthropometric Factors in Rural Primary School Children in Hai Phong City, Vietnam" Nutrients 11, no. 7: 1478. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071478

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