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Volume 12, June-2

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Sustainability, Volume 12, Issue 13 (July-1 2020) – 196 articles

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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Social Networking on Food Security Status of Cassava Farming Households in Nigeria
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5420; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135420 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Food security, at national and household levels, is on the decline because traditional capital (physical, natural, human and financial) has not fully led to its improvement. There is an increasing shift of attention to social capital as an element that explains household food [...] Read more.
Food security, at national and household levels, is on the decline because traditional capital (physical, natural, human and financial) has not fully led to its improvement. There is an increasing shift of attention to social capital as an element that explains household food security, but there is a lack of adequately documented information on this. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of social capital on food security, using data collected on a cross-section of 775 cassava farming households from four zones of Nigeria. About 58% of the respondents (cassava farming households) fall under the intermediate category in terms of the benefits received from belonging in social groups. Age and educational level increased the probability to receive benefit from group activities (p < 0.05), while membership density, labor contribution and decision making significantly affected the level of benefit received (p < 0.10). Based on the estimated food security line, 41% of the cassava households were food secure, while 59% were food insecure. Membership density, cash and labor contribution significantly affected food security. Membership density (p < 0.10) and cash contribution (p < 0.05) increased the probability of being food secure. It was recommended that cassava farming households should be encouraged or aided to form cooperatives or farmers’ groups, participate in the activities, and make financial contributions to investments that reduce manual labor-input in the farming activities to enhance household food security. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Program for Lagging Districts as a Framework for Innovative Approaches within the State Regional Development Policies in Slovakia
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5419; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135419 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
This paper analyses new approaches in Slovak regional policy based on the law that frames the paradigm shift by introducing a new scheme of state support for lagging districts. This law created the frame for integrated actions in the districts with high unemployment [...] Read more.
This paper analyses new approaches in Slovak regional policy based on the law that frames the paradigm shift by introducing a new scheme of state support for lagging districts. This law created the frame for integrated actions in the districts with high unemployment rates and caused wide-reaching structural changes in their peripheral locations. The key difference lies in shifting from the sectoral policy approach to integrated and integrative policies that have so far been absent. The main goal of this policy has been to restart the social and economic development and increase the availability of work opportunities in lagging districts, which has been defined by their monthly unemployment rate over the past years. The concurrence of this government initiative with the Maria Currie project RegPol2 focused on socio-economic and political responses to regional polarization in Central and Eastern Europe, and engagement of academics in the preparation and implementation of the program that has been developed in accordance with this law; this has allowed the use of the latest knowledge and innovative solutions to build on a comprehensive understanding of the problems of decline, using integrative and integrated territorial strategies that capitalize on the scientific achievements in higher efficiency of public intervention efforts. The evaluation of this new approach occurs within the VEGA 1/0789/18 project granted by the Scientific Grant Agency of the Slovak Republic. The paper analyses the applied strategies as tools framed by the new paradigm within the law on supporting lagging districts and discusses the implications in improving the situation in other EU countries. Positive experience as well as identified problems from the program realization have created the base for the definition of a new development strategy for the Slovak Republic 2030 as the main implementation tool of the Agenda 2030 in Slovakia; this is a new act on integrated development that replaces the previous set of less coordinated norms on regional development and cohesion policy. Full article
Open AccessCommentary
Insect Farming for Feed and Food Production from a Circular Business Model Perspective
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5418; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135418 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
The studies focused on the use of insects have outlined numerous reasons for using insects as food and feed as an important method to increase food opportunities for consumers. Insects have been emphasized as a food source with a low environmental impact due [...] Read more.
The studies focused on the use of insects have outlined numerous reasons for using insects as food and feed as an important method to increase food opportunities for consumers. Insects have been emphasized as a food source with a low environmental impact due to the limited requirement for arable land and water, low ecological cost, and high-quality protein provision. In Europe and Western countries, insect farming is a growing business in which, however, some critical economic aspects must be recognized. The sector needs to be adequately promoted to rationally exploit the huge amount of potential. As such, the aim of this study was to analyze the recent research on economic aspects related to insect farming for feed and food production with the purpose of providing evidence of the critical economic points in this emerging sector. The focus was mainly oriented to understanding how insect farming can foster virtuous circular economic processes, specifically considering economic aspects on the basis of the limited literature currently available and the circular economic principles. A circular business model approach was proposed to address the entire insect-based feed and food supply chain from a circular economic perspective. In our opinion, the findings underline some economic research questions that need to be addressed in the near future, and the conceptual approach can be individualized to help increase cost- and eco-effectiveness from a circular economic perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards More Sustainable Food Systems: A Circular Economy Approach)
Open AccessArticle
Implications of Low Carbon City Sustainability Strategies for 2050
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5417; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135417 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Cities and urban areas are critical nodes of societal resource flows, responsible for both global and local sustainability implications. They are complex systems and understanding the implications of potential actions by cities is critical for progress towards sustainability. In this paper the future [...] Read more.
Cities and urban areas are critical nodes of societal resource flows, responsible for both global and local sustainability implications. They are complex systems and understanding the implications of potential actions by cities is critical for progress towards sustainability. In this paper the future implications of sustainability strategies are assessed for 10 European cities by comparing two scenarios for 2050: a business-as-usual (BAU) and a post-carbon/sustainability scenario (PC2050) (generated by city stakeholders). The effects of the scenarios are assessed using a mixed methodology: a semi-quantitative sustainability indicator analysis, energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (both production-based and consumption-based accounting (PBA and CBA)), land-use spatial modelling, and cost–benefit analysis. The paper highlights the clear benefits of PC2050 with improved sustainability indicator results, reduced land sprawl (which averages 16% in BAU) and positive cost–benefit results. Nonetheless, inequality and segregation are a common concern. In addition, whilst PBA indicates a significant decrease (average decrease from 4.7 to 1.3 tCO2eq per capita) CBA demonstrates rising overall emissions from an average of 11 to 14.8 tCO2eq per capita. This is linked to rising affluence and consumption trends despite local improvements in GHG emissions, which highlights a need for cities to address consumption-based emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Management for Sustainable Regional Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Waste Electronic Product Trade-in Strategies in Predictive Twin Disassembly Systems in the Era of Blockchain
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5416; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135416 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Manufacturing and supply chain operations are on the cusp of an era with the emergence of groundbreaking technologies. Among these, the digital twin technology is characterized as a paradigm shift in managing production and supply networks since it facilitates a high degree of [...] Read more.
Manufacturing and supply chain operations are on the cusp of an era with the emergence of groundbreaking technologies. Among these, the digital twin technology is characterized as a paradigm shift in managing production and supply networks since it facilitates a high degree of surveillance and a communication platform between humans, machines, and parts. Digital twins can play a critical role in facilitating faster decision making in product trade-ins by nearly eliminating the uncertainty in the conditions of returned end-of-life products. This paper demonstrates the potential effects of digital twins in trade-in policymaking through a simulated product-recovery system through blockchain technology. A discrete event simulation model is developed from the manufacturer’s viewpoint to obtain a data-driven trade-in pricing policy in a fully transparent platform. The model maps and mimics the behavior of the product-recovery activities based on predictive indicators. Following this, Taguchi’s Orthogonal Array design is implemented as a design-of-experiment study to test the system’s behavior under varying experimental conditions. A logistics regression model is applied to the simulated data to acquire optimal trade-in acquisition prices for returned end-of-life products based on the insights gained from the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurial Orientation, Resource Orchestration Capability, Environmental Dynamics and Firm Performance: A Test of Three-Way Interaction
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5415; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135415 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance with the firm resource orchestration capability and environmental dynamics in moderating roles. Using survey data collected from 301 Korean manufacturing and service firms, we devised a three-way interaction model to uncover the [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance with the firm resource orchestration capability and environmental dynamics in moderating roles. Using survey data collected from 301 Korean manufacturing and service firms, we devised a three-way interaction model to uncover the complex and dynamic conditions that maximize the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance. We found a positive association between entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance. Moreover, our findings indicated that both the firm resource orchestration capability and environmental dynamics played positive moderating roles in the above relationship. The results also showed that, in the case of a high level of environmental dynamics, entrepreneurial orientation was more positively related to firm performance for firms with a high resource orchestration capability. In addition, in the case of low resource orchestration capability, entrepreneurial orientation was associated more positively with firm performance for firms with high environmental dynamics. Thus, this study confirmed the importance of interaction between the three factors for enhancing firm performance. Furthermore, our investigation of substantial moderators provided key insights regarding the conditions that better explain how entrepreneurial orientation promotes firm performance. In addition to two-way interaction, the support for a three-way interaction suggests that moderators of the relationship interact to further explain the relationship. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Emission Inventory on Modelling of Seasonal Exposure Metrics of Particulate Matter and Ozone with the WRF-Chem Model for Poland
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5414; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135414 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
In Poland, high concentrations of particulate matter (with a diameter smaller than 2.5 or 10 μm) exceeding the WHO threshold values are often measured in winter, while ozone (O3) concentrations are high in spring. In winter high PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations [...] Read more.
In Poland, high concentrations of particulate matter (with a diameter smaller than 2.5 or 10 μm) exceeding the WHO threshold values are often measured in winter, while ozone (O3) concentrations are high in spring. In winter high PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are linked to high residential combustion and road transport. The main objective of this study was to assess performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model in reproducing observations for a period of 2017–2018 covering various meteorological conditions. We compare modelled and observed exposure metrics for PM2.5, PM10 and O3 for two sets of the WRF-Chem model runs: with coarse and fine resolution emission inventory (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection (CIEP), respectively). CIEP run reduces the negative bias of PM2.5 and PM10 and improves the model performance for number of days with exceedance of WHO (World Health Organization) threshold for PM2.5 and PM10 24-h mean concentration. High resolution emission inventory for primary aerosols helps to better distinguish polluted urban areas from non-urban ones. There are no large differences for the model performance for O3 and secondary inorganic aerosols, and high-resolution emission inventory does not improve the results in terms of 8-h rolling mean concentrations of ozone. Full article
Open AccessReview
Material Flow Cost Accounting in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5413; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135413 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
This study aims to provide a better understanding of material flow cost accounting (MFCA) application in developing countries, which are characterized by rapid structure transformation leading to serious environmental problems. By systematically reviewing the existing literature, our analysis of 28 studies from nine [...] Read more.
This study aims to provide a better understanding of material flow cost accounting (MFCA) application in developing countries, which are characterized by rapid structure transformation leading to serious environmental problems. By systematically reviewing the existing literature, our analysis of 28 studies from nine developing countries (China, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam) shows that MFCA research has primarily focused on Asian developing countries. Moreover, while the use of MFCA is often associated with improving eco-efficiency, the reviewed studies also indicate a high relevance for strategic decision-making processes within organizations. Finally, one of the key challenges in MFCA application reported in developing country studies lies in existing accounting systems with limited data availability and insufficient cost allocation. Based on our findings and gaps identified in the MFCA literature, we suggest paths for further research, including the necessity of quantitative research and comparative analysis of MFCA application across countries, the further investigation of MFCA application in small and medium-sized enterprises as well as in various manufacturing and service sectors in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Management Accounting (EMA) for Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Biomass Growth and Its Control in the Process of Biofiltration of Air Contaminated with Xylene on a Biotrickling Column Filled with Expanded Clay
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5412; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135412 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Biofiltration of air polluted with xylene vapors was carried out for nearly two years in a large laboratory-scale installation with a volume of the bed of expanded clay equal to 32 dm3. During the experiment, different xylene inlet concentrations were applied, [...] Read more.
Biofiltration of air polluted with xylene vapors was carried out for nearly two years in a large laboratory-scale installation with a volume of the bed of expanded clay equal to 32 dm3. During the experiment, different xylene inlet concentrations were applied, within the range from 300 to over 1500 mg/m3 at a linear gas flow rate of 0.008, 0.016, and 0.033 m/s, as well as 0.12 and 0.24 dm3 of medium dispensed every 3 h on top of the bed. The progress of the process was followed by measuring the xylene concentration at the inlet and outlet of the column, column mass, and gas flow resistance. The capability to purify air polluted with xylene with an average efficiency of approx. 90% was demonstrated. The process was interrupted by a significant increase in gas flow resistance, caused by a large growth of biomass, resulting in an increase in the mass of the bed by more than 45%. Both intensive rinsing of the bed with a stream of water, causing its fluidization, and rinsing and mixing after removing the bed from the column allowed to reduce flow resistance to a value close to the initial one. To ensure the supply of biogenic elements, it was necessary to periodically spray the bed with a solution of the medium in an amount of up to about 0.1 dm3/h/m3 of purified air. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Employees’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model of Grit and Meaning Orientation
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5411; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135411 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Even though research on the micro-effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been growing, our understanding of the psychological mechanisms through which perceived CSR affects employees’ organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) remains insufficient. Based on social identity theory and the concept of whole self, [...] Read more.
Even though research on the micro-effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been growing, our understanding of the psychological mechanisms through which perceived CSR affects employees’ organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) remains insufficient. Based on social identity theory and the concept of whole self, this study examines the mediating role of meaning orientation as a psychological mechanism and tests the moderating role of grit, using survey data collected from 361 South Korean workers. Our results show that the positive association between perceived CSR and OCB is mediated by meaning orientation. In addition, grit strengthens the perceived CSR-meaning orientation relationship, which in turn boosts employees’ OCB. This study contributes to the literature by revealing a psychological mechanism and how it is moderated by individual traits, which are crucial in predicting CSR’s micro-effects. We discuss how our results can be practically applied by organizations as part of sustainable human resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Human Resource Management: Putting People in the Center)
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Open AccessArticle
Microbial Communities Associated with Acetaminophen Biodegradation from Mangrove Sediment
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5410; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135410 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Acetaminophen (ACE) is a widely used medicine. Currently, concerns regarding its potential adverse effects on the environments are raised. The aim of this study was to evaluate ACE biodegradation in mangrove sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three ACE biodegradation strategies in mangrove [...] Read more.
Acetaminophen (ACE) is a widely used medicine. Currently, concerns regarding its potential adverse effects on the environments are raised. The aim of this study was to evaluate ACE biodegradation in mangrove sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three ACE biodegradation strategies in mangrove sediments were tested. The degradation half-lives (t1/2) of ACE in the sediments with spent mushroom compost under aerobic conditions ranged from 3.24 ± 0.16 to 6.25 ± 0.31 d. The degradation half-lives (t1/2) of ACE in sediments with isolated bacterial strains ranged from 2.54 ± 0.13 to 3.30 ± 0.17 d and from 2.62 ± 0.13 to 3.52 ± 0.17 d under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The degradation half-lives (t1/2) of ACE in sediments amended with NaNO3, Na2SO4 and NaHCO3 under anaerobic conditions ranged from 1.16 ± 0.06 to 3.05 ± 0.15 d, 2.39 ± 0.12 to 3.84 ± 0.19 d and 2.79 ± 0.14 to 10.75 ± 0.53 d, respectively. The addition of the three electron acceptors enhanced ACE degradation in mangrove sediments, where NaNO3 yielded the best effects. Sixteen microbial genera were identified as the major members of microbial communities associated in anaerobic ACE degradation in mangrove sediments with addition of NaNO3 and Na2SO4. Three (Arthrobacter, Enterobacter and Bacillus) of the sixteen microbial genera were identified in the isolated ACE-degrading bacterial strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed and Floating Wetlands for Sustainable Water Reclamation)
Open AccessReview
People and the City: Urban Fragility and the Real Estate-Scape in a Neighborhood of Catania, Italy
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5409; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135409 (registering DOI) - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Urban/social fragility is the main focus of most studies on civil economy involving the commitment of politics in the prospect of integrating and somehow guiding an ordered development of and ordered communities. The contemporary city is strongly influenced by the incommunicability between the [...] Read more.
Urban/social fragility is the main focus of most studies on civil economy involving the commitment of politics in the prospect of integrating and somehow guiding an ordered development of and ordered communities. The contemporary city is strongly influenced by the incommunicability between the social system and environment, the latter more and more, including urban and societal components. This study tries to outline a comparative social-urban profile of Picanello, a popular central neighborhood of Catania, in Sicily, Italy, characterized by the combination of different urban and social life-quality levels, thus expressing a heterogeneous vulnerability/resilience profile. The analysis is placed in the urban planning context and aims to: (1) Denotative a pattern that considers the different fragility/resilience descriptive indices; and (2) connotative a pattern of the human and urban dimensions of the social capital asset. This analysis was performed by implementing a multidimensional pattern allowing us to place the neighborhood in a ranking of the neighborhoods of Catania, thus highlighting strength and weakness under different respects. Furthermore, the monetary measurements of this vulnerability/resilience profile, was carried by means of the structured observation of the real estate market. Fuzzy k-medoids cluster analyses have been comparatively performed—showing and mapping the relationships between urban value density and real estate market prices tensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real Estate Landscapes: Appraisal, Accounting and Assessment)
Open AccessArticle
Differential Effects of the Valence and Volume of Online Reviews on Customer Share of Visits: The Case of US Casual Dining Restaurant Brands
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5408; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135408 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 168
Abstract
Online customer reviews increasingly influence customer purchase decisions. Indeed, many customers have highlighted the significance of online reviews as an influential source of information. This study reports an investigation of the differential effects of online reviews, such as valence and volume, on the [...] Read more.
Online customer reviews increasingly influence customer purchase decisions. Indeed, many customers have highlighted the significance of online reviews as an influential source of information. This study reports an investigation of the differential effects of online reviews, such as valence and volume, on the customer share of visits. Our findings suggest that valence (i.e., star rating) had more effect, giving a higher average check size to restaurants on the share of visits, while number reviews (volume) did not drive the share of visits to restaurants regardless of the average check size. Therefore, the ideal for casual dining restaurant brands would be to manage highly positive ratings to retain their customers Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Explore Online Hospitality Management: Price and Reputation)
Open AccessArticle
Reconstructing the History of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, East Nepal: An Interdisciplinary Approach
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5407; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135407 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 334
Abstract
An interdisciplinary field investigation of historic glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in the Kanchenjunga region of Nepal was conducted between April and May, 2019. Oral history and field measurements suggested that at least six major GLOFs have occurred in the region since 1921. [...] Read more.
An interdisciplinary field investigation of historic glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in the Kanchenjunga region of Nepal was conducted between April and May, 2019. Oral history and field measurements suggested that at least six major GLOFs have occurred in the region since 1921. A remote sensing analysis confirmed the occurrence of the six GLOFs mentioned by informants, including two smaller flood events not mentioned that had occurred at some point before 1962. A numerical simulation of the Nangama GLOF suggested that it was triggered by an ice/debris avalanche of some 800,000 m3 of material, causing a surge wave that breached the terminal moraine and released an estimated 11.2 × 106 m3 ± 1.4 × 106 m3 of water. Debris from the flood dammed the Pabuk Khola river 2 km below the lake to form what is today known as Chheche Pokhari lake. Some concern has been expressed for the possibility of a second GLOF from Nangama as the result of continued and growing landslide activity from its right lateral moraine. Regular monitoring of all lakes and glaciers is recommended to avoid and/or mitigate the occurrence of future GLOF events in the region. Collectively, the paper demonstrates the benefits and utility of interdisciplinary research approaches to achieving a better understanding of past and poorly documented GLOF events in remote, data-scarce high mountain environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Catastrophes)
Open AccessArticle
A Real Option Approach to Sustainable Corporate Tax Behavior
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5406; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135406 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 176
Abstract
Aggressive tax planning has become a sustainability problem, as governments have to cope with less tax revenue, which is crucial for investments in sustainable development goals. The OECD and the EU authorities have taken several initiatives against aggressive tax planning, such as the [...] Read more.
Aggressive tax planning has become a sustainability problem, as governments have to cope with less tax revenue, which is crucial for investments in sustainable development goals. The OECD and the EU authorities have taken several initiatives against aggressive tax planning, such as the Action Plan against BEPS. However, these initiatives lack effectiveness, and aggressive tax planning is still omnipresent. We analyze the fight against aggressive corporate tax planning from a Real Option Theory perspective, in order to find an explanation for the difficult shift of companies’ aggressive tax planning strategies to more sustainable tax behavior. The Real Option Theory shows that, as long as the option to ‘delay’ the investment in sustainable tax behavior has too much value because the benefits of such investment are uncertain, companies will wait. Based on this new understanding, we suggest additional public policy interventions against aggressive tax planning. These interventions aim directly at reducing this real option value (of waiting). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxation and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Tweets on the Go: Gender Differences in Transport Perception and Its Discussion on Social Media
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5405; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135405 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 241
Abstract
People often base their mobility decisions on subjective aspects of travel experience, such as time perception, space usage, and safety. It is well recognized that different groups within a population will react differently to the same trip, however, current data collection methods might [...] Read more.
People often base their mobility decisions on subjective aspects of travel experience, such as time perception, space usage, and safety. It is well recognized that different groups within a population will react differently to the same trip, however, current data collection methods might not consider the multi dimensional aspects of travel perception, which could lead to overlooking the needs of large population groups. In this paper, we propose to measure several aspects of the travel experience from the social media platform Twitter, with a focus on differences with respect to gender. We analyzed more than 400,000 tweets from 100,000 users about transportation from Santiago, Chile. Our main findings show that both genders express themselves differently, as women write about their emotions regarding travel (both, positive and negative feelings), that men express themselves using slang, making it difficult to interpret emotion. The strongest difference is related to harassment, not only on transportation, but also on the public space. Since these aspects are usually omitted from travel surveys, our work provides evidence on how Twitter allows the measurement of aspects of the transportation system in a city that have been studied in qualitative terms, complementing surveys with emotional and safety aspects that are as relevant as those traditionally measured. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Addressing Inequality: The First Step Beyond COVID-19 and towards Sustainability
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5404; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135404 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 169
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted billions of lives across the world and has revealed and worsened the social and economic inequalities that have emerged over the past several decades. As governments consider public health and economic strategies to respond the crisis, it is [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted billions of lives across the world and has revealed and worsened the social and economic inequalities that have emerged over the past several decades. As governments consider public health and economic strategies to respond the crisis, it is critical they also address the weaknesses of their economic and social systems that inhibited their ability to respond comprehensively to the pandemic. These same weaknesses have also undermined efforts to advance equality and sustainability. This paper explores over 30 interventions across the following nine categories of change that hold the potential to address inequality, provide all citizens with access to essential goods and services, and advance progress towards sustainability: (1) Income and wealth transfers to facilitate an equitable increase in purchasing power/disposable income; (2) broadening worker and citizen ownership of the means of production and supply of services, allowing corporate profit-taking to be more equitably distributed; (3) changes in the supply of essential goods and services for more citizens; (4) changes in the demand for more sustainable goods and services desired by people; (5) stabilizing and securing employment and the workforce; (6) reducing the disproportionate power of corporations and the very wealthy on the market and political system through the expansion and enforcement of antitrust law such that the dominance of a few firms in critical sectors no longer prevails; (7) government provision of essential goods and services such as education, healthcare, housing, food, and mobility; (8) a reallocation of government spending between military operations and domestic social needs; and (9) suspending or restructuring debt from emerging and developing countries. Any interventions that focus on growing the economy must also be accompanied by those that offset the resulting compromises to health, safety, and the environment from increasing unsustainable consumption. This paper compares and identifies the interventions that should be considered as an important foundational first step in moving beyond the COVID-19 pandemic and towards sustainability. In this regard, it provides a comprehensive set of strategies that could advance progress towards a component of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 10 to reduce inequality within countries. However, the candidate interventions are also contrasted with all 17 SDGs to reveal potential problem areas/tradeoffs that may need careful attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle
Gendered Roles in Agrarian Transition: A Study of Lowland Rice Farming in Lao PDR
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5403; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135403 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 164
Abstract
Traditional lifestyles of lowland rice farmers of the southern provinces of Lao People’s Democratic Republic are rapidly changing, due to two important trends. Firstly, there is a push towards modernization and commercialization of farming. Secondly, though farmers still focus on rice farming as [...] Read more.
Traditional lifestyles of lowland rice farmers of the southern provinces of Lao People’s Democratic Republic are rapidly changing, due to two important trends. Firstly, there is a push towards modernization and commercialization of farming. Secondly, though farmers still focus on rice farming as a key activity, there is an increasing move towards diversification of livelihoods. The changes have seen the uptake of non-rice crops, livestock husbandry and forest and river utilization; as well as non-farming activities. This has influenced gender relations, impacting household agricultural production decisions and amplified transitional trends. To explore the processes, we analyzed data from a study of innovation adoption amongst rice farmers in southern Lao PDR. The study revealed nuances of gender-based differences in the priorities and attitudes towards farming and off-farm activities, as well as differences in behaviour related to the adoption of new practices. Women were more focused on non-farming practices and considered engaging in the modern, non-traditional, economy more so than men. Women also reported experiencing greater challenges when engaging and trading in the agricultural marketplace. The study supports the importance of taking a gendered approach to understanding the inherent complexities within agrarian change. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Smart Digital Marketing Capabilities for Sustainable Property Development: A Case of Malaysia
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5402; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135402 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Digital tools and marketing have been widely adopted in various industries throughout the world. These tools have enabled companies to obtain real-time customer insights and create and communicate value to customers more effectively. This study aims at understanding the principles and practices of [...] Read more.
Digital tools and marketing have been widely adopted in various industries throughout the world. These tools have enabled companies to obtain real-time customer insights and create and communicate value to customers more effectively. This study aims at understanding the principles and practices of sustainable digital marketing in the Malaysian property development industry by investigating the extent to which digital marketing has been adopted, the impediments to its adoption, and the strategies to improve digital capabilities for the local context. Digital marketing theories, practices, and models from other industries are adopted and applied to the local property development industry to lay the foundation for making it smart and sustainable. This paper proposes a marketing technology acceptance model (MTAM) for digital marketing strategy and capability development. The key factors used in the model are ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived cost, higher return, efficiency, digital service quality, digital information quality, digital system quality, attitude towards use, and actual use. The model and hypothetical relationships of critical factors are tested using structural modeling, reliability, and validity techniques using a sample of 279 Malaysian property development sector representatives. A quantitative approach is adopted, using an online questionnaire tool to investigate the behavior of respondents on the current digital marketing practices and capabilities of Malaysian property development companies. The results show that the sample property development companies are driven by the benefit of easily obtaining real-time customer information for creating and communicating value to customers more effectively through the company brand. Further strategies, such as creating real-time interactions, creating key performance indicators to measure digital marketing, personalization, and encouraging innovation in digital marketing are most preferred by local professionals. An adoption framework is provided based on the reviewed models and results of the current study to help transform the Malaysian property development sector into a smart and sustainable property development sector by facilitating the adoption of digital technologies. The results, based on real-time data and pertinent strategies for improvement of the local property sector, are expected to pave the way for inducing sustainable digital marketing trends, enhancing capabilities, and uplifting the state of the property development sector in developing countries. Full article
Open AccessReview
Dietary Fiber from Underutilized Plant Resources—A Positive Approach for Valorization of Fruit and Vegetable Wastes
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5401; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135401 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 155
Abstract
Agri-food industries generate enormous amounts of fruit and vegetable processing wastes, which opens up an important research area aimed towards minimizing and managing them efficiently to support zero wastes and/or circular economy concept. These wastes remain underutilized owing to a lack of appropriate [...] Read more.
Agri-food industries generate enormous amounts of fruit and vegetable processing wastes, which opens up an important research area aimed towards minimizing and managing them efficiently to support zero wastes and/or circular economy concept. These wastes remain underutilized owing to a lack of appropriate processing technologies vital for their efficient valorization, especially for recovery of health beneficial bioactives like dietary fibers. Dietary fiber finds wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industries and holds high promise as a potential food additive and/or as a functional food ingredient to meet the techno-functional purposes important for developing health-promoting value-added products. Based on this, the present review has been designed to support ‘zero waste’ and ‘waste to wealth’ concepts. In addition, the focus revolves around providing updated information on various sustainability challenges incurred towards valorization of fruit and vegetable wastes for extraction of health promoting dietary fibers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Identification of Marginal Landscapes as Support for Sustainable Development: GIS-Based Analysis and Landscape Metrics Assessment in Southern Italy Areas
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5400; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135400 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 154
Abstract
Landscape is increasingly characterized by a multifaced nature. In scientific literature and landscape governance, new landscape definitions are often coined to explain new meanings and to define specific intervention strategies and tools. The present study purposes a framework for the identification of hybrid [...] Read more.
Landscape is increasingly characterized by a multifaced nature. In scientific literature and landscape governance, new landscape definitions are often coined to explain new meanings and to define specific intervention strategies and tools. The present study purposes a framework for the identification of hybrid landscapes as support for land-use planners, which aim to guarantee development opportunities as well as natural heritage preservation and valorization. “Marginal lands” were identified starting from EU Directives and scientific approaches, by means of multicriteria analysis. Different scenarios were built: (1) no-change; (2) energy crops; (3) green infrastructures. An ecosystem services approach, via landscape metrics analysis, was used to compare the possible effects of scenarios. About 20% of the study area, an internal area of the southern Apennines, was identified as suitable for land-use change in a medium-short time, and scenarios of land-use changes show a better condition, in terms of fragmentation, than as a current asset. Results showed the strategic role and potentialities of marginal lands, as a trade-off between nature conservation and development issues, suggesting new opportunities for green infrastructures and a renewable energies chain. The study allowed for deepening the close connection among landscape planning approaches, land use change scenarios building and environmental assessment, focused on the ex-ante evaluation stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Analysis, Planning and Regional Development)
Open AccessArticle
Significant Implication of Optimal Capacitor Placement and Sizing for a Sustainable Electrical Operation in a Building
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5399; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135399 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 159
Abstract
The improvement of energy efficiency plays an important role to ensure sustainable electrical operation in large-scale buildings. In relation to the low-cost electrical components, a capacitor is an electrical component that can be used to sustain or improve the operating performance of an [...] Read more.
The improvement of energy efficiency plays an important role to ensure sustainable electrical operation in large-scale buildings. In relation to the low-cost electrical components, a capacitor is an electrical component that can be used to sustain or improve the operating performance of an unbalanced electrical system in large-scale buildings so that energy efficiency improvement can be obtained. This is important to overcome the ineffective utilization of energy caused by the occurrence of power losses in an unbalanced electrical system of large-scale buildings. Further improvement of energy efficiency can be obtained by reducing an excessive amount of incoming power through the determination of tap setting for incoming transformer, and this is classified under the concept of conservative voltage regulation (CVR) approach. In order to solve the problem, the optimal capacitor placement and sizing (OCPS) with CVR is introduced as a new approach for energy efficiency improvement while ensuring a sustainable operation in an unbalanced electrical system of large-scale buildings. The proposed technique utilizes the artificial intelligence (AI) based differential evolution particle swarm optimization (DEPSO) technique with the objective function of total cost minimization for the real power losses, real power consumption, and capacitors installation. The effectiveness of the proposed technique to achieve energy efficiency improvement is investigated through a case study of an unbalanced electrical system in a large-scale office building. The significance of the research output is related to its low-cost technology that has the potential for a comprehensive, pragmatic implementation in large-scale buildings, and subsequently, it will significantly accelerate the increase of national agenda in energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency and Sustainability in Buildings)
Open AccessArticle
A Methodological Approach to Upscale toward an Agroecology System in EU-LAFSs: The Case of the Parma Bio-District
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5398; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135398 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 165
Abstract
The increasing interest in bio-districts is part of the debate on the capacity to integrate agri-food systems and territory in order to improve the quality of life in rural communities. Considering the goals of developing and promoting an innovative territorial rural development approach, [...] Read more.
The increasing interest in bio-districts is part of the debate on the capacity to integrate agri-food systems and territory in order to improve the quality of life in rural communities. Considering the goals of developing and promoting an innovative territorial rural development approach, the bio-district can become a process toward a more sustainable model represented by the agroecological agriculture system. The paper presents a case study of the Parma bio-district through the approach of a Localized Agri Food System (LAFS) to verify whether bio-districts can be a tool for scaling up towards agroecology. Stakeholder classification and analysis are conducted using an influence–interest matrix. We identified four groups of stakeholders in relation to their interests and power to influence the process. In the case of the Parma bio-district the role of local institutions in dialogue with consumers and producers’ associations is crucial for success. We conclude that bio-districts can be a tool for a scaling-up towards agroecology since they can facilitate a synergetic relation between organic and agroecological agriculture, spreading organic agriculture more widely around the local area. However, the involvement of a wide variety of different stakeholders means that governance is a key element in facilitating “cross fertilization” and preventing the process from becoming purely formulaic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaling Up Agroecology: Experiences, Opportunities and Constraints)
Open AccessArticle
Social Network Addiction and Its Impact on Anxiety Level among University Students
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5397; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135397 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Despite the obvious favorable effects of social networking sites, there is a risk of developing behavioral addictions. This study aims to analyze addiction to social networks and its relationship with anxiety. A sample (n = 361) of university students (undergraduate, master’s and doctoral) [...] Read more.
Despite the obvious favorable effects of social networking sites, there is a risk of developing behavioral addictions. This study aims to analyze addiction to social networks and its relationship with anxiety. A sample (n = 361) of university students (undergraduate, master’s and doctoral) comprising 87.5% women and 12.5% men with a mean age of 32.58 (SD = 12.03) and 32.36 (SD = 10.21), respectively, was included. Addiction to social networks was measured using the Social Network Addiction (SNA) questionnaire and anxiety was measured using Spanish adaptation of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI Test). The regression results show how concurrent moderating variables such as age (adulthood) predispose individuals to addiction in some way (Model 5, explained 13.5%, R2= 0.135, p = 0.040). Similarly, we found that the aspect of addiction that generates anxiety is an obsession with social networks. Anxiety arises as excessive use decreases, similar to abstinence syndrome. It is concluded that the harmlessness of social networks and their inappropriate use can lead to behavioral addiction. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Scalable Life-Cycle Inventory for Heavy-Duty Vehicle Production
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5396; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135396 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 142
Abstract
The transportation sector needs to significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. European manufacturers in particular must develop new vehicles and powertrains to comply with recent regulations and avoid fines for exceeding CO2 emissions. To answer the question regarding which powertrain concept provides [...] Read more.
The transportation sector needs to significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. European manufacturers in particular must develop new vehicles and powertrains to comply with recent regulations and avoid fines for exceeding C O 2 emissions. To answer the question regarding which powertrain concept provides the best option to lower the environmental impacts, it is necessary to evaluate all vehicle life-cycle phases. Different system boundaries and scopes of the current state of science complicate a holistic impact assessment. This paper presents a scaleable life-cycle inventory (LCI) for heavy-duty trucks and powertrains components. We combine primary and secondary data to compile a component-based inventory and apply it to internal combustion engine (ICE), hybrid and battery electric vehicles (BEV). The vehicles are configured with regard to their powertrain topology and the components are scaled according to weight models. The resulting material compositions are modeled with LCA software to obtain global warming potential and primary energy demand. Especially for BEV, decisions in product development strongly influence the vehicle’s environmental impact. Our results show that the lithium-ion battery must be considered the most critical component for electrified powertrain concepts. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of considering the vehicle production phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020 Perspectives on Electric Mobility Research, What’s Next?)
Open AccessArticle
A Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process-Based Analysis of the Dynamic Sustainable Management Index in Leisure Agriculture
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5395; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135395 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Agricultural leisure is one of the development trends in modern society. However, in leisure agriculture management, managers must consider the dual characteristics of agricultural production technology and the leisure service industry. Therefore, managers often face various selection pressures during management decision-making. This study [...] Read more.
Agricultural leisure is one of the development trends in modern society. However, in leisure agriculture management, managers must consider the dual characteristics of agricultural production technology and the leisure service industry. Therefore, managers often face various selection pressures during management decision-making. This study examined the following five evaluation aspects: organization and operation, leisure agricultural resources, environmental maintenance management, public facility maintenance management, and operational performance. Thereafter, according to the five evaluation aspects, 21 subprojects were further divided at the second level on the basis of different attributes. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) was adopted to calculate the relative weights of various indicators, and the indicators were dynamically sorted according to their importance. Moreover, the study summarized the dynamic management indicators of leisure agriculture and contributed to research on leisure farming. The results show that managers’ approach toward leisure agriculture management can be divided into three types: active, moderate, and conservative. The indicators in which the active managers attach importance when managing leisure agricultural enterprises are clearly different from those valued by moderate and conservative managers. Finding managers who are suitable for leisure agriculture management is of great significance to leisure agriculture enterprises. Appointing managers with appropriate attitudes who can continuously improve the efficiency of enterprises and create a competitive advantage can bring sustainable business value to these enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Removal of Arsenate and Chromate from Ground- and Surface- Waters by Iron-Based Redox Assisted Coagulation
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5394; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135394 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 137
Abstract
Arsenic (As) and chromate (Cr(VI)) contamination of ground and surface waters is a major problem worldwide. Given that a new drinking water limit is anticipated for Cr(VI) and that the limit of arsenic in drinking water is quite low (10 μg/L), there is [...] Read more.
Arsenic (As) and chromate (Cr(VI)) contamination of ground and surface waters is a major problem worldwide. Given that a new drinking water limit is anticipated for Cr(VI) and that the limit of arsenic in drinking water is quite low (10 μg/L), there is an urgent need for evaluating technologies that could be efficient for removal of both contaminants simultaneously. In this work, the use of Fe(II) redox assisted coagulation was investigated to simultaneously remove the contaminants of interest. The basic principle of this technology is that Fe(II) could react with Cr(VI) and form Fe(III)-hydroxides and insoluble Cr(III) species, while the freshly formed Fe(III) hydroxides are very efficient adsorbents for As(V). The effect of pH, the water matrix composition, Fe(II) dose, initial contaminant concentrations, NOM presence and phosphate concentration were the examined parameters. The results revealed that with a dose of 2 mg/L Fe(II), residual As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations were both below 10 μg/L, from initial concentrations of 50 μg/L. Though, this is effective only at circumneutral pH values. This is however not a big obstacle, since most natural waters, especially groundwaters, have near neutral pH values. At these pH values, residual iron concentration was far below 200 μg/L. The presence of phosphate anions inhibited As(V) removal but had no effect on Cr(VI) removal. Increasing Fe(II) concentrations eliminated the effect of phosphate and provided simultaneous phosphate removal. Therefore, Fe(II) coagulation can be applied, with secured results, for simultaneous As(V), Cr(VI) and phosphate removal from waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Open AccessArticle
Policy Coordination for National Climate Change Adaptation in Europe: All Process, but Little Power
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5393; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135393 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 159
Abstract
Climate change adaptation (CCA) is argued to require coordinated policy responses because it is a complex, long-term, knowledge intensive, cross-sectoral, and multi-level governance challenge that involves many interdependencies and actors with different perceptions, goals, and approaches. This study, therefore, examines approaches of a [...] Read more.
Climate change adaptation (CCA) is argued to require coordinated policy responses because it is a complex, long-term, knowledge intensive, cross-sectoral, and multi-level governance challenge that involves many interdependencies and actors with different perceptions, goals, and approaches. This study, therefore, examines approaches of a set of European Union (EU) member states (Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom (England)) to pursue a more coordinated approach to CCA policy. It specifically addresses the co-ordination approaches that the selected countries use for the development and implementation of their national CCA policies in the immediate period following the publication of the EU’s 2013 Adaptation Strategy. The analysis demonstrates that while useful coordination processes have been established in the analyzed EU member states, they have difficulty in challenging existing institutional hierarchies and decision rules. Consequently, longer-term opportunities for managing CCA conflicts and synergies among sectoral policies have to date been limited. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Design, Modeling, and Experimental Investigation of Active Water Cooling Concentrating Photovoltaic System
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5392; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135392 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 135
Abstract
This work presents performance study of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T) collector and its efficiency to produce electric and thermal power under different operating conditions. The study covers a detailed description of flat photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) and CPV/T systems using water as a cooling working [...] Read more.
This work presents performance study of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T) collector and its efficiency to produce electric and thermal power under different operating conditions. The study covers a detailed description of flat photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) and CPV/T systems using water as a cooling working fluid, numerical model analysis, and qualitative evaluation of thermal and electrical output. The aim of this study was to achieve higher efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) system while reducing the cost of generating power. Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cells with low-cost reflectors were used to enhance the efficiency of the PV system and simultaneously reduce the cost of electricity generation. For this purpose, a linear Fresnel flat mirror (LFFM) integrated with a PV system was used for low-concentration PV cells (LCPV). To achieve the maximum benefit, water as a coolant fluid was used to study the ability of actively cooling PV cells, since the electrical power of the CPV system is significantly affected by the temperature of the PV cells. This system was characterized over the traditional PV systems via producing more electrical energy due to concentrating the solar radiation as well as cooling the PV modules and at the same time producing thermal energy that can be used in domestic applications. During the analysis of the results of the proposed system, it was found that the maximum electrical and thermal energy obtained were 170 W and 580 W, respectively, under solar concentration ratio 3 and the flow rate of the cooling water 1 kg/min. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results was confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Systems and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle
On the Unbalanced Atmospheric Environmental Performance of Major Cities in China
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5391; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135391 (registering DOI) - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 148
Abstract
As the largest emitter of CO2, China has also serious air pollution issues. Is it possible to catch these two rabbits under heterogenetic conditions of urbanization? To answer this, this study examines atmospheric environmental performance (SO2, NOx, [...] Read more.
As the largest emitter of CO2, China has also serious air pollution issues. Is it possible to catch these two rabbits under heterogenetic conditions of urbanization? To answer this, this study examines atmospheric environmental performance (SO2, NOx, and PMs) of 30 major cities in China using streaming data from 2011 to 2017. A non-radial SBM-DEA approach is adopted with a meta-frontier model to evaluate regional heterogeneity in atmospheric environmental management. Our results suggest that pollution prevention and regulation policies encouraged synergic development of most cities in the economy and atmospheric environment. On average, atmospheric environmental efficiency of the cities improved from 0.556 to 0.691. However, significantly unbalanced development exists in the regions, requiring customized policies. Eastern cities achieved continuing improvement owing to stringent air pollutant emission policies. Central cities showed a strong improvement but lacked momentum after they achieved certain targets. Western cities lagged behind in the studying period due to both technology gap as well as weak regulation. Furthermore, we identify heterogeneous paths for inefficient cities to enhance their performance using benchmark information. Economically developed eastern cities, such as Beijing, Fuzhou, are facing an over-supply issue. Reshaping their economic structure may be necessary to attain better environmental performance. Central cities face diversified issues. The emphasis of different cities may vary from stringent emission policies to proactive supply-side transition to achieve strong atmospheric management performance. For under-developed cities, preferential policies for investment and tax incentives may be needed to improve their production scale for higher efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency and Urban Climate Adaption)
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