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Sustainability, Volume 11, Issue 23 (December-1 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This work focuses on a densely urbanised area settled along the Tagus Estuary hydrographic network [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Properties of External Insulation Surface Preparation Mortar Using Expandable Graphite for Fire Resistance
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6882; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236882 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 269
Abstract
In the case of fire, surface treatment agents used in external insulation finishing methods are substances that are vulnerable to fire. This study examined the incorporation and applicability of expandable graphite in surface preparation mortar so that heat transfer to the surface part [...] Read more.
In the case of fire, surface treatment agents used in external insulation finishing methods are substances that are vulnerable to fire. This study examined the incorporation and applicability of expandable graphite in surface preparation mortar so that heat transfer to the surface part can be suppressed even when the cementitious surface preparation mortar is thinly constructed in the external insulation method. Experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of surface preparation mortar were improved by using the fly ash and silica fume. Surface treatment materials using expanded graphite have a characteristic of expanding when a fire occurs. It was experimentally confirmed that incorporating expanded graphite can reduce the phenomenon of heat penetration to the rear surface when the surface preparation mortar is exposed to high temperatures such as a flame. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Bonds, Corporate Performance, and Corporate Social Responsibility
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6881; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236881 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 258
Abstract
Green bonds are a financial tool that has been vigorously promoted in the global green finance field in recent years. Since 2013, the global issuance of green bonds has seen explosive growth. China’s green bond market has made great progress, rising to the [...] Read more.
Green bonds are a financial tool that has been vigorously promoted in the global green finance field in recent years. Since 2013, the global issuance of green bonds has seen explosive growth. China’s green bond market has made great progress, rising to the top tier of global rankings. In this paper, Chinese listed companies that issue green bonds are used as the research object to explore the impact of green bond issuance on companies, including the impact of the announcement of green bond issuance on companies’ stock prices, as well as the impact of green bond issuance on companies’ financial performance and corporate social responsibility (CSR). The empirical results indicate that announcements of green bonds issuance have a positive impact not only on companies’ stock prices, companies’ profitability, and operational performance, but also on innovation capacity, and can improve companies’ CSR. Overall, the issuance of green bonds has a positive impact on companies, can contribute to environmental improvement, promotes CSR and value creation, and helps to attract investors to some extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of Water-Saving Measures in Hotels in Mallorca
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6880; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236880 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 254
Abstract
The efficient management of water resources by the tourism sector is essential to be able to achieve sustainability in the future. Hotels, together with other tour operators, have a responsibility not to use more water than is absolutely necessary. Through a survey carried [...] Read more.
The efficient management of water resources by the tourism sector is essential to be able to achieve sustainability in the future. Hotels, together with other tour operators, have a responsibility not to use more water than is absolutely necessary. Through a survey carried out in hotels on the island of Mallorca, we asked hotel managers about their water consumption and what types of water-saving measures they had introduced. We identified eleven water-saving measures, which were classified into “advanced” and “simple” according to the technical complications and the level of economic investment required. The numbers of measures of each kind that had been implemented were used as the dependent variables in two different Ordered Probit models. This method allowed us to identify the main variables that explain the introduction of water-saving measures. The significant main variables leading hotel managers to adopt simple water-saving initiatives are the existence of laundry facilities, the age of the hotel, and the number of stars. The same variables were found to be important for the introduction of advanced measures. The main drivers for introducing water-saving measures were the reduction in costs, followed by environmental concerns, while legal requirements and customer loyalty were found to be the least important drivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Key Factors Influencing Italian Mothers’ Intention to Vaccinate Sons against HPV: The Influence of Trust in Health Authorities, Anticipated Regret and Past Behaviour
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6879; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236879 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 207
Abstract
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world, is associated with different types of cancer, especially cervical cancer. In Italy in 2017 the Italian Ministry of Health introduced a free HPV vaccination programme for 12-years-old boys. [...] Read more.
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world, is associated with different types of cancer, especially cervical cancer. In Italy in 2017 the Italian Ministry of Health introduced a free HPV vaccination programme for 12-years-old boys. In this study we tested an integrated theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model to explain Italian mothers’ intention to vaccinate their sons against HPV. TPB variables plus past behaviour, trust in healthy authorities and anticipated regret were measured by a questionnaire in a sample of 333 Italian mothers of 6–11 years old boys, who were not yet vaccinated against HPV. Results showed that subjective norm was the strongest predictor of mothers’ intention followed by anticipated regret, trust in health authorities, perceived behavioural control and attitude. Mediation analysis found that past behaviour influenced intention via attitude. The discussion considers the relevance of these factors in promoting mothers’ adherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychology of Sustainability and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Development in Teacher Education in Terms of Being Solution Oriented and Self-Efficacy
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6878; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236878 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 198
Abstract
In this study, the correlation between 526 prospective teachers’ beliefs about education for sustainable development (ESD) and their perceptions of self-efficacy and abilities to focus on solutions was addressed. This descriptive study found that prospective teachers had strong beliefs about ESD. In terms [...] Read more.
In this study, the correlation between 526 prospective teachers’ beliefs about education for sustainable development (ESD) and their perceptions of self-efficacy and abilities to focus on solutions was addressed. This descriptive study found that prospective teachers had strong beliefs about ESD. In terms of the “beliefs about the implementation of sustainable development” and “beliefs about the limitation of sustainable development”, the prospective teachers who are studying at the faculty of education had stronger beliefs than those enrolled in the Pedagogical Formation Certificate Program. In addition, fourth-year prospective teachers and those perceiving themselves as showing good academic performance had stronger beliefs about ESD. Also, participants’ beliefs about ESD were found to be related to their abilities to focus on solutions and their perceptions of self-efficacy. Additionally, our study found that perceptions of self-efficacy significantly predicts the ability to focus on solutions and beliefs about ESD (29%). One of the limitations of our study is that our findings can be generalized only to a limited extent. Furthermore, further research is needed to validate the predictive variables that have arisen. Finally, longitudinal and experimental research that use qualitative analysis techniques is needed to investigate the implications of the results for professional improvement and to find out what sort of sustainable education practices there are in different education levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
Open AccessArticle
Proposing a Value Field Model for Predicting Homebuyers’ Purchasing Behavior of Green Residential Buildings: A Case Study in China
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6877; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236877 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 191
Abstract
Understanding the motivations that stimulate homebuyers’ green purchasing behavior can increase market demand for green products, especially considering the comparably low market share of green products worldwide. In this context, various studies have been conducted examining consumers’ intentions to pay for green products. [...] Read more.
Understanding the motivations that stimulate homebuyers’ green purchasing behavior can increase market demand for green products, especially considering the comparably low market share of green products worldwide. In this context, various studies have been conducted examining consumers’ intentions to pay for green products. Nevertheless, there is still limited research on evaluating homebuyers’ purchasing behavior toward green residential buildings. This study argues that the value of green residential buildings (GRBs) affects their adoption, and thus exerts an invisible force on homebuyers’ purchasing behavior. It also finds that field theory provides a scientific perspective on this phenomenon. Thus, this paper proposes a value field model for evaluating homebuyers’ GRB purchasing behavior based on physical field theory and psychology field theory. In particular, physical field theory provides the measurement formula, while psychological field theory explains the effect of the force stimulating homebuyers’ purchasing intention, and ultimately influencing their purchasing behavior. The initial model consisted of a field source (green perceived value), target charge (GRB demand), distance (psychological distance), and value field factor. As the value field factor was calculated to be approximately equal to 1, the final model is a composite of a field source (green perceived value), target charge (GRB demand), and distance (psychological distance). The results validate the construction of the value field model on the basis of field theory. This research contributes to the body of knowledge by analyzing GRB value and provides a clearer understanding of how GRBs and the environment combine to fulfill homebuyers’ requirements and influence their GRB purchasing behavior. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Structured Literature Review on Obsolete Electric Vehicles Management Practices
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6876; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236876 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 227
Abstract
The use of electricity for transportation needs offers the chance to replace fossil fuels with greener energy sources. Potentially, coupling sustainable transports with Renewable Energies (RE) could reduce significantly both Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and the dependency on oil imports. However, the expected [...] Read more.
The use of electricity for transportation needs offers the chance to replace fossil fuels with greener energy sources. Potentially, coupling sustainable transports with Renewable Energies (RE) could reduce significantly both Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and the dependency on oil imports. However, the expected growth rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs) could become also a potential risk for the environment if recycling processes will continue to function in the current way. To this aim, the paper reviews the international literature on obsolete EV management practices, by considering scientific works published from 2000 up to 2019. Results show that the experts have paid great attention to this topic, given both the critical and valuable materials embedded in EVs and their main components (especially traction batteries), by offering interesting potential profits, and identifying the most promising End-of-Life (EoL) strategy for recycling both in technological and environmental terms. However, the economics of EV recycling systems have not yet been well quantified. The intent of this work is to enhance the current literature gaps and to propose future research streams. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Projection of National Carbon Footprint in Japan with Integration of LCA and IAMs
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6875; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236875 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 177
Abstract
In order to achieve target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, such as those proposed by each country by nationally determined contributions (NDCs), GHG emission projections are receiving attention around the world. Generally, integrated assessment models (IAMs) are used to estimate future GHG emissions considering [...] Read more.
In order to achieve target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, such as those proposed by each country by nationally determined contributions (NDCs), GHG emission projections are receiving attention around the world. Generally, integrated assessment models (IAMs) are used to estimate future GHG emissions considering both economic structure and final energy consumption. However, these models usually do not consider the entire supply chain, because of differences in the aims of application. In contrast, life cycle assessment (LCA) considers the entire supply chain but does not cover future environmental impacts. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the national carbon footprint projection in Japan based on life cycle thinking and IAMs, using the advantages of each. A future input–output table was developed using the Asia-Pacific integrated model (AIM)/computable general equilibrium (CGE) model (Japan) developed by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). In this study, we collected the fundamental data using LCA databases and estimated future GHG emissions based on production-based and consumption-based approaches considering supply chains among industrial sectors. We targeted fiscal year (FY) 2030 because the Japanese government set a goal for GHG emissions in 2030 in its NDC report. Accordingly, we set three scenarios: FY2005 (business as usual (BAU)), FY2030 (BAU), and FY2030 (NDC). As a result, the carbon footprint (CFP) in FY2030 will be approximately 1097 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2eq), which is 28.5% lower than in FY2005. The main driver of this reduction is a shift in energy use, such as the introduction of renewable energy. According to the results, the CFP from the consumption side, fuel combustion in the use stage, transport and postal services, and electricity influence the total CFP, while results of the production side showed the CFP of the energy and material sectors, such as iron and steel and transport, will have an impact on the total CFP. Moreover, carbon productivity will gradually increase and FY2030 (NDC) carbon productivity will be higher than the other two cases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Building Sustainable Smart Destinations: An Approach Based on the Development of Spanish Smart Tourism Plans
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6874; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236874 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 194
Abstract
The aim of this research is to assess the real effects of developing smart tourism destinations on urban sustainability. A content analysis method is used to analyze 994 initiatives contained in action-plan and strategy documents from different smart tourism pilot projects funded by [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to assess the real effects of developing smart tourism destinations on urban sustainability. A content analysis method is used to analyze 994 initiatives contained in action-plan and strategy documents from different smart tourism pilot projects funded by Spanish tourism administration. The results indicate that, despite the noteworthy effort to develop smart initiatives, sustainability solutions based on the use of technology are scarcely proposed, suggesting that cultural, managerial and technological barriers do exist. Overall, smart tourism plans are mainly conceived as instruments designed to create new tourism products in a tourism-driven approach. Despite the institutional narrative promoting smart tourism destinations as a guarantee to transform destinations responding to residents’ needs and improve sustainability, pilot projects undergo little interest in holistic sustainable initiatives, suggesting that destination management is focused on a rhetorical approach to sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Analysis of Pottery Presence at the Former Pobedim Hillfort (an Archeological Site in Slovakia)
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6873; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236873 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 202
Abstract
The aim of this study was a spatial analysis of the pottery occurrence (potsherds) in the acropolis part of the Pobedim hillfort (Slovakia) using two spatial statistical methods (spatial autocorrelation and kriging interpolation) with the help of GIS and their subsequent comparison. To [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was a spatial analysis of the pottery occurrence (potsherds) in the acropolis part of the Pobedim hillfort (Slovakia) using two spatial statistical methods (spatial autocorrelation and kriging interpolation) with the help of GIS and their subsequent comparison. To understand the landscape of the study area, seven land use maps were created for different historical years (1783–1785, 1845, 1882, 1956, 1971, 2010 and 2017) confirming that the study area was predominantly utilized as arable land, which was related to advantageous floodplain location between the rivers of Horný Dudváh and Dubová. Using the Moran coefficient of spatial autocorrelation, it was found that there were seven high–high clusters and three high–low clusters representing the occurrence of potsherds. Using the kriging interpolation, three clusters of high concentration were found. Subsequent comparison of both methods revealed three identical areas with high frequency of pottery occurrence indicating places where significant settlement objects were located, such as the dwelling of a wealthy man, pottery workshop and the like. The difference between the areas with high number of potsherds between the two methods is approximately 12%, which indicates an acceptable match between the two methods and their applicability for spatial (geographic)–archaeological research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainability of Culture and Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy and Economic Analysis of Tropical Building Envelope Material in Compliance with Thailand’s Building Energy Code
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6872; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236872 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 192
Abstract
The building envelope has a direct impact on the overall energy consumption of a building. Thus, an improvement in the building envelope using energy-efficient material can yield the desired energy performance. This study is based on the materials and compositions used in building [...] Read more.
The building envelope has a direct impact on the overall energy consumption of a building. Thus, an improvement in the building envelope using energy-efficient material can yield the desired energy performance. This study is based on the materials and compositions used in building envelopes in compliance with the building energy code of Thailand. The building under study is an educational building located in Bangkok, Thailand. Both the energy and the economic aspects of retrofitted building envelopes are discussed in this study. The energy performance was evaluated by calculating the thermal transfer value and whole building energy consumption using the building energy code (BEC) software. The simulation was done under the assumption that the building envelope in the case study building was retrofitted with different materials and compositions. The study determines the feasibility of retrofitting buildings using energy-efficient material by utilizing the discounted payback period and internal rate of return (IRR) as indicators. The results show that retrofitted building envelopes in every case can reduce the whole building energy consumption. In the best envelope configuration, energy consumption can decrease by 65%. In addition, the economic potential is also high, with an IRR value of approximately 15% and a payback period of 23 less than nine years. These finding indicate that a building envelope made with energy-efficient material can achieve good results for both energy performance and economic feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Building Retrofit and Energy Optimization)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Residential Self-Selection on Low-Carbon Behavior: Evidence from Zhengzhou, China
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6871; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236871 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 187
Abstract
Current resident lifestyles pose a significant threat to urban sustainable development. Therefore, low-carbon behavior is receiving increasing attention from scholars and policy makers. Ascertaining residential self-selection is essential in order to study the relationship between the built environment and travel behavior. While several [...] Read more.
Current resident lifestyles pose a significant threat to urban sustainable development. Therefore, low-carbon behavior is receiving increasing attention from scholars and policy makers. Ascertaining residential self-selection is essential in order to study the relationship between the built environment and travel behavior. While several studies have explored the relationship between the urban form, socioeconomic factors, and travel behavior, only a few of them have studied the impact of self-selection on household energy consumption and other forms of consumption, which are also contribute to household carbon emissions. Using large-scale field surveys of 1,485 households and high-resolution images, sourced from Google Maps in 2018, of Zhengzhou city, the present study estimated the low-carbon level of three kinds of behavior: daily energy use at home, daily travel, and daily consumption. The study investigated the influence factors on low-carbon behavior using the hierarchical linear model. We found that residential self-selection impacts both energy use and daily travel. Residents in some built environments consumed less energy at home and contributed less CO2 emissions through daily travel than others. In particular, individual-level variables significantly affected the low-carbon energy use behavior. The female, elderly, highly educated, married, and working-class residents with children had higher levels of low-carbon energy use. Community-level variables significantly affected the level of low-carbon travel and low-carbon consumption. If residents lived in areas with high density, mixed land use, and high accessibility, their travel mode and consumption behavior would entail low carbon emissions. There is a relationship between individual variables and community variables. Different individual attributes living in the same built environment have different impacts on low-carbon behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Update and Monitoring of AOI Entrance via Spatiotemporal Clustering of Drop-Off Points
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6870; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236870 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 189
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel method for dynamically extracting and monitoring the entrances of areas of interest (AOIs). Most AOIs in China, such as buildings and communities, are enclosed by walls and are only accessible via one or more entrances. The entrances are [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel method for dynamically extracting and monitoring the entrances of areas of interest (AOIs). Most AOIs in China, such as buildings and communities, are enclosed by walls and are only accessible via one or more entrances. The entrances are not marked on most maps for route planning and navigation in an accurate way. In this work, the extraction scheme of the entrances is based on taxi trajectory data with a 30 s sampling time interval. After fine-grained data cleaning, the position accuracy of the drop-off points extracted from taxi trajectory data is guaranteed. Next, the location of the entrances is extracted, combining the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) with the boundary of the AOI under the constraint of the road network. Based on the above processing, the dynamic update scheme of the entrance is designed. First, a time series analysis is conducted using the clusters of drop-off points within the adjacent AOI, and then, a relative heat index ( R H I ) is applied to detect the recent access status (closed or open) of the entrances. The results show the average accuracy of the current extraction algorithm is improved by 24.3% over the K-means algorithm, and the R H I can reduce the limitation of map symbols in describing the access status. The proposed scheme can, therefore, help optimize the dynamic visualization of the entry symbols in mobile navigation maps, and facilitate human travel behavior and way-finding, which is of great help to sustainable urban development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Feasibility of Carbon Trading Policy on Heterogenetic Economic and Industrial Development
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6869; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236869 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 205
Abstract
A carbon emission trading system (ETS) is an effective market mechanism for promoting the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions and achieving sustainable development between the economy and the environment. To analyze the emissions reduction effect and economic effect of China’s ETS and [...] Read more.
A carbon emission trading system (ETS) is an effective market mechanism for promoting the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions and achieving sustainable development between the economy and the environment. To analyze the emissions reduction effect and economic effect of China’s ETS and further discuss the mechanisms of economic development differences and industrial development differences on the final effect of the policy, this study adopts the propensity score matching-difference in differences method and triple difference method. The empirical results show the following: (1) The ETS can simultaneously achieve both the emissions reduction effect and economic effect when key control variables are included. (2) The population, carbon emissions intensity and per capita GDP have significant positive impacts on carbon emissions; the environmental pollution control intensity, research structure, and research intensity have negative impacts on carbon emissions; and the capita stock, employment, and energy consumption have significant positive economic effects. (3) The ETS has a stronger inhibitory effect on the provinces with higher levels of economic and service development compared to the provinces with lower levels of economic and service development. In contrast, the policy has a weaker inhibitory effect on provinces with higher levels of industrial and construction development compared with the lower level provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Distributional Impacts of European Cap-and-Trade Climate Policies: A CGE Multi-Regional Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6868; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236868 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Carbon pricing is a policy with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions in the household sector and support the European Union in achieving its environmental targets by 2050. However, the policy faces acceptance problems from the majority of the public. In the [...] Read more.
Carbon pricing is a policy with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions in the household sector and support the European Union in achieving its environmental targets by 2050. However, the policy faces acceptance problems from the majority of the public. In the framework of the project Role of technologies in an energy efficient economy–model-based analysis of policy measures and transformation pathways to a sustainable energy system (REEEM), financed by the European Commission under the Horizon 2020 program, we investigate the effects of such a policy in order to understand its challenges and opportunities. To that end, we use a recursive-dynamic multi-regional Computable General Equilibrium model to represent carbon pricing as a cap-and-trade system and calculate its impacts on consumption of energy goods, incidence of carbon prices, and gross income growth for different income groups. We compare one reference scenario and four scenario variations with distinct CO2 reduction targets inside and outside of the EU. The results demonstrate that higher emission reductions, compared to the reference scenario, lead to slower Gross Domestic Product growth, but also produce a more equitable increase of gross income and can help reduce income inequalities. In this case, considering that the revenues of carbon pricing are paid back to the households, the gross income of the poorest quintile grows as much as, or even more in some cases, than the gross income of the richest quintile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Economics and Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Impact of Selected Parameters of the Hybrid Extinguishing System on the Fire Environment in a Closed Room
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6867; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236867 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 212
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of some parameters (water mist flow rate and type of gas used) of the hybrid extinguishing system on the fire environment (temperature as well as carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations) in a [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of some parameters (water mist flow rate and type of gas used) of the hybrid extinguishing system on the fire environment (temperature as well as carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations) in a closed room. Hybrid fire-extinguishing systems in which water mist is driven by inert gas combine the advantages of typical fog systems and fixed gas extinguishing devices. They have been developed in the last years but are now being used more and more often and the preparation of standards for them is planned for 2020. For this purpose, many fire tests with this system should be conducted. Some of them are discussed in this paper. Two different flow rates of water mist (1.5 or 3 dm3/min) and inert gas (nitrogen or air) were used during hybrid system testing. Some parameters of the fire environment in the compartment such as temperature measured by thermocouples as well as carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations measured by electrochemical gas sensors are presented here. The characteristic values of the extinguishing process are also included. The assumed times of ensuring safe conditions in the room have been confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies in Air Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
An Environmental Impact Calculator for 24-h Diet Recalls
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6866; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236866 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 212
Abstract
The production of food is associated with significant environmental impact. In this paper, we describe the first assessment of the environmental impact of food consumption in the United States using individually reported dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample. Using individual-level dietary [...] Read more.
The production of food is associated with significant environmental impact. In this paper, we describe the first assessment of the environmental impact of food consumption in the United States using individually reported dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample. Using individual-level dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and applying median environmental impact factors compiled by Poore and Nemecek (2018), we estimate that the daily diet that a non-institutionalized U.S. civilian reports results in a mean of 3.92 m2 (95% CI: 3.51–4.34) of land used, 2.26 kg (95% CI: 2.09–2.42)of CO2e emitted, and 159 L (95% CI: 150–168) of freshwater withdrawn. The scope of all impacts is agricultural; transportation, storage, and preparation were not included. These results suggest that the calculator is ready for further development. This calculator can be used to estimate the environmental impact of individual diets in the 5100 studies (as of November 2018) registered with the Automated Self-Administered 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool, in addition to the last two decades of the nationally representative NHANES research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Sustainable Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity of Radiative and Thermal Properties of Building Material in the Urban Atmosphere
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6865; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236865 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 250
Abstract
In the context of the impact of urbanization on climate change, this work aims to evaluate the sensitivity of the thermal and radiative properties of building surfaces in urban areas to the urban heat island intensity, a local scale meteorological phenomenon. For this, [...] Read more.
In the context of the impact of urbanization on climate change, this work aims to evaluate the sensitivity of the thermal and radiative properties of building surfaces in urban areas to the urban heat island intensity, a local scale meteorological phenomenon. For this, variations of albedo values, emissivity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity of roofs, streets and walls were simulated through an urban scheme coupled with the BRAMS mesoscale atmospheric model for the metropolitan area of São Paulo, considering two main urban types. The simulations show that, in general, looking for cold surface situations, the change of building material can contribute to a reduction of up to 3 °C for São Paulo. In addition, the role of orientation and the typological characteristics of constructions should be taken into account. In this sense, it is expected that this work guides civil engineers and builders to search for new materials in order to reduce the effects of urbanization on the local climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Construction and Building Materials for Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Chronological Age, Health, and Basic Psychological Needs for Older Adults’ Travel Intention
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6864; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236864 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 236
Abstract
This study examined how demographic information, chronological age, older adults’ physical and mental health, and basic psychological needs affected travel intention. The survey samples were collected from 577 adults, all over 60 years of age. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to [...] Read more.
This study examined how demographic information, chronological age, older adults’ physical and mental health, and basic psychological needs affected travel intention. The survey samples were collected from 577 adults, all over 60 years of age. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to test the proposed hypotheses. First, demographic information with chronological age was used for primary analysis. The outcome indicated that chronological age was negatively associated with travel intention while all other demographic variables were not. Secondly, when physical and mental health condition variables were added, physical health positively affected travel intention while chronological age still negatively affected travel intention. Thirdly, psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) for travel were included in the final analysis. The outcome showed that all psychological needs variables had a significant impact on travel intention for those with a physical health condition. However, chronological age was not a significant factor in travel intention during this analysis. This study shows that chronological age is not always an important factor that affects older adults’ travel intention when other health and psychological variables are considered. This study provides some practical implications and tips for travel industry managers who are targeting the aging population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Hospitality and Tourism Marketing)
Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Reducing UK Beef Consumption Using a Revised Sustainable Diets Framework
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6863; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236863 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 476
Abstract
The impact of beef consumption on sustainability is a complex and evolving area, as sustainability covers many areas from human nutrient adequacy to ecosystem stability. Three sustainability assessment frameworks have been created to help policy makers unpack the complexities of sustainable food systems [...] Read more.
The impact of beef consumption on sustainability is a complex and evolving area, as sustainability covers many areas from human nutrient adequacy to ecosystem stability. Three sustainability assessment frameworks have been created to help policy makers unpack the complexities of sustainable food systems and healthy sustainable dietary change. However, none of these frameworks have yet to be applied to a case study or individual policy issue. This paper uses a hybrid version of the sustainability assessment frameworks to investigate the impact of reducing beef consumption (with a concurrent increase in consumption of plant-based foods, with a focus on legumes) on sustainability at a UK level. The aim of this paper is to understand the applicability of these overarching frameworks at the scale of an individual policy. Such an assessment is important, as this application of previously high-level frameworks to individual policies makes it possible to summarise, at a glance, the various co-benefits and trade-offs associated with a given policy, which may be of particular value in terms of stakeholder decision-making. We find that many of the proposed metrics found within the sustainability assessment frameworks are difficult to implement at an individual issue level; however, overall they show that a reduction in beef consumption and an increase in consumption of general plant-based foods, with a focus around legumes production, would be expected to be strongly beneficial in five of the eight overarching measures which were assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Sustainable Diets)
Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea Mutation on Physicochemical Properties, Phytochemicals, and Momilactones A and B in Rice
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6862; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236862 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Attempts regarding the improvement and development of novel rice with better quality and higher productivity have been increasing. Among approaches, mutation is a direct alteration on the genome and considered as one of the most beneficial routes to acquire new beneficial traits in [...] Read more.
Attempts regarding the improvement and development of novel rice with better quality and higher productivity have been increasing. Among approaches, mutation is a direct alteration on the genome and considered as one of the most beneficial routes to acquire new beneficial traits in rice. An experiment was carried out to explore the effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) mutation on the antioxidant activities, phytochemical compounds, and momilactones A (MA) and B (MB) in rice. Two rice cultivars, K1 (an original cultivar DT84) and K2 (mutated DT84), were examined. Antioxidant activities, phenolic compounds, and momilactones of the rice grain, husk, and straw portions were measured and quantified. Antioxidant activities were higher in grain and straw of K2, whereas K1 showed greater antioxidant activity in rice husk. Additionally, K2 displayed higher total phenolic contents (TPC) in grain and straw as well as lower of it in the husk, but these variations significantly differed only in the straw portion. An increase in total flavonoid contents (TFC) was observed in the husk of K1, while K2 significantly enhanced TFC in straw. Both MA and MB, two compounds obtaining antidiabetes, anticancer, antimicrobial, antigout, and antiobesity properties, were detected and quantified in grain, husk, and straw of K1 and K2 samples. Generally, the contents of MA were higher than MB in all tested portions of rice crop. MA and MB were higher in straw followed by those in husk and grain, respectively. K2 contained higher amounts of MA and MB in straw and husk, but lower contents in grain compared with those in K1. This study illustrates that MNU mutation can improve grain quality and enhance bioactive compounds in straw, husk, and grain of rice. This approach has the potential to develop functional foods from rice, and therefore help farmers in developing countries to improve value in rice production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Genomics and Sustainable Productivity)
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Open AccessArticle
Analytical and Experimental Investigation of the Critical Length in Casing–Liner Overlap
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6861; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236861 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Offshore drilling operations exhibit various difficulties attributed to shallow flows worldwide. One of the most common practices for drilling offshore wells is to use liners and liner hangers rather than using full casing strings. This reduces the cost of drilling operation. Liners and [...] Read more.
Offshore drilling operations exhibit various difficulties attributed to shallow flows worldwide. One of the most common practices for drilling offshore wells is to use liners and liner hangers rather than using full casing strings. This reduces the cost of drilling operation. Liners and liner hangers are required to pass certain standards prior to their deployment in the field. This ensures their ability to withstand harsh downhole conditions and maintain the integrity of the well. A liner hanger contains an integrated seal assembly that acts as a barrier to prevent fluid migration. The cement that is placed within the casing–liner overlap is also considered a barrier, and it is critical that it maintains the integrity of the well by mitigating fluid migration to other formations and to the surface. The failure of this dual barrier (cement and seal assembly) system to seal the annular space can result in serious problems that might jeopardize a well’s integrity. Typically, in field applications, the length of a casing–liner overlap is chosen arbitrarily. In some cases, shorter overlaps (50 to 200 ft) are chosen because of the lower cost and easy identification of leaks during pressure tests. However, some loss of well control incidents (particularly the incident that motivated this study) have been linked to fluid leakages along the casing–liner overlap. This paper investigates the critical length of the casing–liner overlap by modeling gas leakage through the cement placed within the overlap using analytical and experimental approaches. Leakage scenarios were developed to mimic gas migration within the cement in the casing–liner overlap. The results showed that the longer the casing–liner overlap, the higher the leakage time. The results also showed that the current casing pressure test duration of 30 min may not be adequate to verify the integrity of the cement within the overlap. Based on the results and analyses, it is recommended to increase the pressure test duration to 90 min. In addition, the results suggest that the length of the casing–liner overlap should not be less than 300 ft to maintain the integrity of the well in the case of gas influx. Further details are highlighted in the results section. In practice, the current rationale behind the selection of a casing–liner overlap length is not sustainable. Thus, the major advantage of this study is that with field data, it provides both scientific and research-based evidence that can be used to inform the decision behind the selection of the casing–liner overlap length, especially in gas migration-prone zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies and Process Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Silo-Busting: Overcoming the Greatest Threat to Organizational Performance
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6860; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236860 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Most organizations are set up to operate in some form of silos, such as vertical divisions or horizontal functions. At best, silos offer a practical way for organizations to operate efficiently. At worst, they create a silo mentality where departments do not want [...] Read more.
Most organizations are set up to operate in some form of silos, such as vertical divisions or horizontal functions. At best, silos offer a practical way for organizations to operate efficiently. At worst, they create a silo mentality where departments do not want to exchange knowledge or information, hindering internal collaboration and organizational learning, thus preventing achievement of high performance and organizational sustainability. The silo mentality issue has been recognized for a long time as a real tangible problem that has to be dealt with. On the basis of a questionnaire containing statements on organizational strength, collaboration, and silo-busting techniques applied, which was distributed to a sample of mainly large companies, we found that there are five factors that are important for breaking down silos and increasing the quality of cooperation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Differentiation of Rural Development Driven by Natural Environment and Urbanization: A Case Study of Kashgar Region, Northwest China
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6859; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236859 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 245
Abstract
With the socio-economic transformation, the recombination of regional development factors and the followed reconstruction of the rural development elements system have profoundly changed the rural landscape of the Kashgar region in Northwest China. The factors affecting the rural production and lifestyle interact with [...] Read more.
With the socio-economic transformation, the recombination of regional development factors and the followed reconstruction of the rural development elements system have profoundly changed the rural landscape of the Kashgar region in Northwest China. The factors affecting the rural production and lifestyle interact with each other, shaping different types of rural development. Accordingly, basing on the main factors influencing the rural development ability and long-term development potential, the assessment indicator system of rural comprehensive development (RCD) was established to reveal the differentiation of rural development and identify the dominant factors affecting rural development. The principal component analysis method and the cluster analysis method was used to distinguish the different types. The results show that the high-level rural development areas are mainly concentrated in the center of the region, while the low-level areas are mainly distributed in the periphery, with significant spatial differentiation characteristics. We divided the rural development into three categories and 11 zones for which the basic natural conditions and external challenges are different. The categories reflect three possible results of rural development: grow, decline, and vanish, which is in the industrialization development stage. With the transformation of human society and the change of urban–rural relationship in its mode and content, the external economy, society, and changing environment has put pressures on rural areas. Therefore, according to different rural development types, it is necessary to take measures to strengthen the rural areas to cope with external environmental challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Supply Chain Contracts under New Product Development Uncertainty
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6858; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236858 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 243
Abstract
New product development has been serving as a growth engine for companies; given this background, the innovation of suppliers that possess new technologies for new products has been a significant subject for manufacturers, particularly in high-tech industries. However, the technology uncertainty associated with [...] Read more.
New product development has been serving as a growth engine for companies; given this background, the innovation of suppliers that possess new technologies for new products has been a significant subject for manufacturers, particularly in high-tech industries. However, the technology uncertainty associated with the supplier’s development capability may become a considerable obstacle to new product development projects. In this paper, we further develop an analytical model that has been widely applied in the economics literature and examine two representative supply chain contracts, a revenue-sharing contract and a cost-sharing contract, for new product development through upstream innovation under technology uncertainty. We confirm that the supplier’s development capability has a significant impact on contract feasibility. The revenue-sharing contract helps to attain a higher new product quality level and profit for the supply chain. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between a manufacturer and a supplier concerning the performance of the new product development project. Adopting a Nash bargaining model, we analyze the two supply chain contracts under a cooperative relationship in which the manufacturer and supplier cooperatively determine the sharing portion of the revenue or cost. For both contracts, compared with the unilateral relationship, the cooperative relationship leads to a lower manufacturer profit, but a higher new product quality and a higher supply chain profit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Supply Chain Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
The Scarecrow as an Indicator of Changes in the Cultural Heritage of Rural Poland
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6857; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236857 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Scarecrows were commonly featuredin rural landscapes until recently. There are numerous rituals associated with creating a scarecrow and erecting it in the field, with many legends being linked to this character.The scarecrow itself has counterparts in many countries worldwide. However, with civilisation progressingand [...] Read more.
Scarecrows were commonly featuredin rural landscapes until recently. There are numerous rituals associated with creating a scarecrow and erecting it in the field, with many legends being linked to this character.The scarecrow itself has counterparts in many countries worldwide. However, with civilisation progressingand characterised withan emphasis on economic efficiency and agricultural engineering in the present day, scarecrows are disappearing from the rural landscape. Advanced electronic devices replace them, while scarecrows end up in museums and open-air museums calledskansens, as well as beingon display at local village festivals. The goal of this paper is to investigate the past and present functions of the scarecrow in rural areas in Poland as an indicator of changes occurring inthe cultural heritage in these areas. The survey and field studies were carried out in selected localities in Małopolskie Voivodeship that exhibited distinct qualities related to rural cultural heritage. The study involved photographic documentation and a diagnostic survey using the structured direct interview technique. The interview focused on local community leaders. Resultingly, scarecrows were demonstrated to be an essential indicator of changes in Poland’s rural cultural heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Landscape, Nature Conservation and Culture)
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Open AccessArticle
Proposed Green Development Reporting Framework for Enterprises from a Life-Cycle Perspective and a Case Study in China
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6856; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236856 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 211
Abstract
Green development is becoming prioritized in industrial settings and manufacturing. Under the current trend of green development, the status of the green development of enterprises is not clear. Evaluation indicators of green development are required, especially given that China has issued many green [...] Read more.
Green development is becoming prioritized in industrial settings and manufacturing. Under the current trend of green development, the status of the green development of enterprises is not clear. Evaluation indicators of green development are required, especially given that China has issued many green development policies, as well as special funding support. Reporting is an important tool to foster communication among governments, the public, enterprises, and stakeholders, as well as to assess advances in, and provide guidance, toward realizing green development. The purpose of the present study was to establish a green development report framework and green development indicators for enterprises, with an application to a case study of a textile company in China. The green development reporting framework was based on a life-cycle assessment method, which is an index system constructed to combine quantitative and qualitative indicators, process control and outcome-oriented indicators within the scope of both life-cycle and factory boundaries. This index system included definitions and calculations methods of environmental and resource indicators that can comprehensively reflect green development. By using empirical data from 2017 in the case study, the framework and indicators were further described, and the effects of relevant terms were noted. The green development reporting framework and case study herein can help enterprises understand the concept of green development, self-inspection, self-comparison, communicate advancements, and ultimately improve their level of green development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Waste Collection Efficiency in Providing a Cleaner Rural Environment
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6855; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236855 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 230
Abstract
The exposure of rural communities to illegal waste dumping practices associated with the lack of or poor waste collection schemes prior to the closure of rural dumpsites under EU regulations and the role of collection efficiency afterward in reducing this critical environmental threat [...] Read more.
The exposure of rural communities to illegal waste dumping practices associated with the lack of or poor waste collection schemes prior to the closure of rural dumpsites under EU regulations and the role of collection efficiency afterward in reducing this critical environmental threat constitutes a key issue in rural Romania. The present study reveals huge amounts of household uncollected waste released into the natural environment outside the official statistics of rural dumpsites. Despite the expansion of waste collection coverage towards rural areas since 2010, the problem of illegal dumping practice is difficult to solve. The improvement of collection efficiency, better law enforcement, and surveillance of environmental authorities coupled with educational and environmental awareness are necessary steps to combat this bad practice. A circular economy paradigm must be enacted in rural regions through separate collection schemes and to improve cost-efficient alternatives, such as home composting, and traditional and creative reuse practices, particularly in less developed regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Key Drivers behind the Adoption of Electric Vehicle in Korea: An Analysis of the Revealed Preferences
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6854; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236854 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Electrification of passenger cars is one of the most popular ways to decarbonize the transportation sector and to reduce local air pollutants. Many researches have tried to examine what will be the driving factors to achieve the widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). [...] Read more.
Electrification of passenger cars is one of the most popular ways to decarbonize the transportation sector and to reduce local air pollutants. Many researches have tried to examine what will be the driving factors to achieve the widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). In this study, we analyzed the factors for EV adoption with the data of revealed preference from 2013 to 2017 in Korea. Analyses showed that the driving range of EVs and financial incentives have a positive impact on EV deployment. Also, the driving range is found to be the most critical factor explaining the market growth of EVs. The results suggest that technical improvement increases the value of EVs and in turn raises the probability of consumers’ decision to purchase EVs. Financial incentive as well can encourage consumers to buy EVs, however, is not strong enough to create transitions from internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to EVs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Experimental and Field Data Sources in a Prediction Model for Corrosion Rate under Insulation
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6853; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236853 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is one of the increasing industrial problems, especially in chemical plants that have been running for an extended time. Prediction modeling, which is one of the solutions for this issue, has attracted increasing attention and has been considered for [...] Read more.
Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is one of the increasing industrial problems, especially in chemical plants that have been running for an extended time. Prediction modeling, which is one of the solutions for this issue, has attracted increasing attention and has been considered for several industrial applications. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of combined data input in prediction modeling, which could be applied to improve the existing CUI rate prediction model. Experimental data and field historical data were gathered and simulated using an artificial neural network separately. To analyze the effect of data sources on the final corrosion rate under the insulation prediction model, both sources of data from experiment and field data were then combined and simulated again using an artificial neural network. Results exhibited the advantages of combined input data type from the experiment and field in the final prediction model. The model developed clearly shows the occurrence of corrosion by phases, which are uniform corrosion at the early phases and pitting corrosion at the later phases. The prediction model will enable better mitigation actions in preventing loss of containment due to CUI, which in turn will improve overall sustainability of the plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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