Special Issue "Innovation by Linking through Life Cycle Thinking: Practices and Challenges from EcoBalance"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jun Nakatani
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Urban Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Interests: life-cycle assessment; life-cycle impact assessment; material flow analysis; supply chain risk management; plastic recycling; consumer preference assessment; conjoint analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Matthias Finkbeiner
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Technology, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Interests: water footprint; life cycle assessment; resource efficiency and availability; life cycle sustainability assessment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Shabbir H. Gheewala
Website
Guest Editor
The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi Environment, 126 Pracha Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru 10140 Bangkok, Thailand
Interests: life-cycle assessment; carbon footprint; water footprint; life-cycle sustainability assessment; environmental labeling
Dr. Sonia Valdivia
Website
Guest Editor
1. Faculty of Sustainability, University of Lueneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg, Germany
2. World Resources Forum, Lerchenfeldstr. 5. 9014, St. Gallen, Switzerland
Interests: life-cycle sustainability assessment, life-cycle management, circular economy, sustainable consumption and production
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Tao Wang

Guest Editor
Circular Economy Research Institute, Tongji University
Interests: material flow analysis; waste management; circular economy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to submit articles for a Special Issue on “Innovation by Linking through Life Cycle Thinking: Practices and Challenges from EcoBalance” by August 31, 2019.

Recently, issues relevant to sustainability have become diversified, while individual study areas have become highly specialized. The focus of this Special Issue covers discussions on innovation by linking ideas from different research fields through life cycle thinking towards unraveling sustainability issues which are highly intertwined, which include but are not limited to:

  • Supply chain risks and resource efficiency
  • Green technologies and material criticality
  • Hotspot analysis and global supply chains
  • Circular economy and sustainable design
  • Circular economy and behavioral science
  • Local sustainability and renewable energy
  • Food–energy–water nexus
  • Policy design and sustainability analysis

We would like to invite you to share a wide range of studies, experiences and knowledge that helps to promote innovation towards unraveling sustainability issues (not limited only to environmental aspects but also covering social and economic aspects). In recognition of the fact that research fields relevant to sustainability are diverse, contributions from various sectors are welcome to highlight advantages by linking ideas from different research fields through life cycle thinking.

This issue welcomes important studies in the abovementioned context from all researchers and practitioners. Special encouragement goes to the papers that extend the presentations from EcoBalance 2018, the 13th Biennial International Conference on EcoBalance. The EcoBalance conference has been offering precious opportunities for the researchers and practitioners who examine how life cycle thinking can actually make practical steps forward towards sustainability. Its uniqueness has always lied on the presence of various industrial sectors and participants from the non-OECD countries, especially from Asia. Recognizing that the problems currently being encountered in developed regions are the ones that will be faced by the developing regions, this Special Issue hopes to respond to the practices and needs both in developed and developing regions worldwide.

Prof. Matthias Finkbeiner
Dr. Jun Nakatani
Prof. Shabbir H. Gheewala
Dr. Sonia Valdivia
Dr. Tao Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • life cycle assessment/management
  • environmental footprint
  • supply chain management
  • resource resilience/efficiency
  • circular economy
  • Sustainable Development Goals
  • consumption and production

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Projection of National Carbon Footprint in Japan with Integration of LCA and IAMs
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6875; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236875 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In order to achieve target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, such as those proposed by each country by nationally determined contributions (NDCs), GHG emission projections are receiving attention around the world. Generally, integrated assessment models (IAMs) are used to estimate future GHG emissions considering [...] Read more.
In order to achieve target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, such as those proposed by each country by nationally determined contributions (NDCs), GHG emission projections are receiving attention around the world. Generally, integrated assessment models (IAMs) are used to estimate future GHG emissions considering both economic structure and final energy consumption. However, these models usually do not consider the entire supply chain, because of differences in the aims of application. In contrast, life cycle assessment (LCA) considers the entire supply chain but does not cover future environmental impacts. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the national carbon footprint projection in Japan based on life cycle thinking and IAMs, using the advantages of each. A future input–output table was developed using the Asia-Pacific integrated model (AIM)/computable general equilibrium (CGE) model (Japan) developed by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). In this study, we collected the fundamental data using LCA databases and estimated future GHG emissions based on production-based and consumption-based approaches considering supply chains among industrial sectors. We targeted fiscal year (FY) 2030 because the Japanese government set a goal for GHG emissions in 2030 in its NDC report. Accordingly, we set three scenarios: FY2005 (business as usual (BAU)), FY2030 (BAU), and FY2030 (NDC). As a result, the carbon footprint (CFP) in FY2030 will be approximately 1097 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2eq), which is 28.5% lower than in FY2005. The main driver of this reduction is a shift in energy use, such as the introduction of renewable energy. According to the results, the CFP from the consumption side, fuel combustion in the use stage, transport and postal services, and electricity influence the total CFP, while results of the production side showed the CFP of the energy and material sectors, such as iron and steel and transport, will have an impact on the total CFP. Moreover, carbon productivity will gradually increase and FY2030 (NDC) carbon productivity will be higher than the other two cases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
People’s Tendency Toward Norm-Interventions to Tackle Waste Disposal in Public Open Spaces in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6603; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236603 - 22 Nov 2019
Abstract
Waste disposal at undesignated sites in public open spaces causes hygiene problems, city landscape deterioration, and urban flooding in many developing countries. We used different types of norms—subjective norms, perception about government pressure as one injunctive norm, and personal norms—as interventions to promote [...] Read more.
Waste disposal at undesignated sites in public open spaces causes hygiene problems, city landscape deterioration, and urban flooding in many developing countries. We used different types of norms—subjective norms, perception about government pressure as one injunctive norm, and personal norms—as interventions to promote people’s intentions to avoid disposing of waste in public open spaces. Six different statements focusing on these three norms were designed, and the residents’ tendencies to follow each statement were investigated using 15 pair-wise comparisons in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. In addition, the likely effectiveness of each statement to encourage the residents’ intentions was asked of national and local government officials using the same pair-wise questions. The results showed that residents were most likely to follow an intervention focusing on personal norms, especially when touching on people’s responsibility, and this was also perceived to be the most effective by the government officials. Social pressure from the government, either in a strict way with punishments or in a soft way with recommendations, were the least preferred and thought to be ineffective by both the residents and government officials in avoiding waste disposal in public open spaces. The result suggests that future policy implication should be more focused on bottom-up approaches rather than top-down counterparts. Voluntary civic engagement is more vital in dealing with waste disposal in public open space than government interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Knowledge about or Experience with Hydrogen Fueling Stations Improves Their Public Acceptance
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6339; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226339 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hydrogen, which is expected to be a popular type of next-generation energy, is drawing attention as a fuel option for the formation of a low-carbon society. Because hydrogen energy is different in nature from existing energy technologies, it is necessary to promote sufficient [...] Read more.
Hydrogen, which is expected to be a popular type of next-generation energy, is drawing attention as a fuel option for the formation of a low-carbon society. Because hydrogen energy is different in nature from existing energy technologies, it is necessary to promote sufficient social recognition and acceptability of the technology for its widespread use. In this study, we focused on the effect of initiatives to improve awareness of hydrogen energy technology, thereby investigating the acceptability of hydrogen energy to those participating in either several hydrogen energy technology introduction events or professional seminars. According to the survey results, participants in the technology introduction events tended to have lower levels of hydrogen and hydrogen energy technology knowledge than did participants in the hydrogen-energy-related seminars, but confidence in the technology and acceptability of the installation of hydrogen stations near their own residences tended to be higher. It was suggested that knowledge about hydrogen and technology could lead to improved acceptability through improved levels of trust in the technology. On the other hand, social benefits, such as those for the environment, socioeconomics, and energy security, have little impact on individual levels of acceptance of new technology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Footprints and Consumer Lifestyles: An Analysis of Lifestyle Factors and Gap Analysis by Consumer Segment in Japan
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 5983; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11215983 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Addressing the prevailing mode of high-carbon lifestyles is crucial for the transition towards a net-zero carbon society. Existing studies fail to fully investigate the underlining factors of unsustainable lifestyles beyond individual determinants nor consider the gaps between current footprints and reduction targets. This [...] Read more.
Addressing the prevailing mode of high-carbon lifestyles is crucial for the transition towards a net-zero carbon society. Existing studies fail to fully investigate the underlining factors of unsustainable lifestyles beyond individual determinants nor consider the gaps between current footprints and reduction targets. This study examines latent lifestyle factors related to carbon footprints and analyzes gaps between decarbonization targets and current lifestyles of major consumer segments through exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis. As a case study on Japanese households, it estimates carbon footprints of over 47,000 households using expenditure survey microdata, and identifies high-carbon lifestyle factors and consumer segments by multivariate regression analysis, factor analysis, and cluster analysis. Income, savings, family composition, house size and type, ownership of durables and automobiles, and work style were confirmed as determinants of high-footprint Japanese households, with eight lifestyles factors, including long-distance leisure, materialistic consumption, and meat-rich diets, identified as the main contributory factors. The study revealed a five-fold difference between lowest and highest footprint segments, with all segments overshooting the 2030 and 2050 decarbonization targets. The findings imply the urgent need for policies tailored to diverse consumer segments and to address the underlying causes of high-carbon lifestyles especially of high-carbon segments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water, Energy and Food Nexus in Rice Production in Thailand
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5852; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205852 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This research introduces an approach to analyze the nexus of water, energy and rice production system at the watershed scale. The nexus relationship equations, developed to suit the local scale facilitating analysis in the rice production sector, were integrated with a Material Flow [...] Read more.
This research introduces an approach to analyze the nexus of water, energy and rice production system at the watershed scale. The nexus relationship equations, developed to suit the local scale facilitating analysis in the rice production sector, were integrated with a Material Flow Analysis tool to expand the visualization capability. Moreover, the nexus flow was linked with the selected resource security, eco-efficiency and economic indicators, taking into account the spatial and temporal effect of water availability. The study covers the nexus resource flows not only in the rice production sector but also all other sectors in the whole watershed to assess local resource security. The tool covers wider implications, trade-offs and synergy impacts that were not much covered in previous studies. The tool was applied to evaluate the trade-offs and synergies of the impacts from proposed scenarios of alternative agricultural practices and land-use change options. The scenarios applying land-use change, and changing non-suitable and low-suitable rice cultivation areas to sugarcane and cassava, can reduce water use significantly resulting in reducing the nexus energy while the impact on economics, food security and direct energy use is small. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Incorporating External Effects into Project Sustainability Assessments: The Case of a Green Campus Initiative Based on a Solar PV System
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5786; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205786 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
We demonstrated that a green campus initiative can reduce the carbon footprint of a university and improve the disaster resilience of the local community. A project sustainability assessment framework was structured to support the initiative. First, an on-campus solar photovoltaic (PV) system was [...] Read more.
We demonstrated that a green campus initiative can reduce the carbon footprint of a university and improve the disaster resilience of the local community. A project sustainability assessment framework was structured to support the initiative. First, an on-campus solar photovoltaic (PV) system was designed. The project performance in terms of financial cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was assessed using life cycle cost analysis (LCC) and a life cycle assessment (LCA), respectively. Then, we explored the incorporation of positive social impacts on the local community in the context of natural disaster-prone Japan. Indicators for improving the disaster resilience of the residents were defined based on the Sendai Framework. Our results showed that the proposed solar PV system could provide an electricity self-sufficiency rate of 31% for the campus. Greenhouse gas emissions of 0.0811 kg CO2-eq/kWh would decrease the annual emissions from campus electricity use by 27%. Considering the substituted daytime electricity purchase, a payback period of 12.9 years was achievable. This solar PV system could serve as an emergency power source to 4666–8454 nearby residents and 8532 smart city residents. This external effect would encourage stakeholders like local government and developers to participate in the project. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Sustainability of Food Consumption in Asia
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5749; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205749 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study assesses the environmental sustainability of food consumption in Thailand, India, China, Japan, and Saudi Arabia by using a life cycle assessment. These five Asian countries were selected according to the differences in surface area, population density, GDP, and food consumption patterns. [...] Read more.
This study assesses the environmental sustainability of food consumption in Thailand, India, China, Japan, and Saudi Arabia by using a life cycle assessment. These five Asian countries were selected according to the differences in surface area, population density, GDP, and food consumption patterns. The data were obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization food balance sheets, Ecoinvent 3.4 and Agri-footprint 4.0 databases, and scientific publications. The environmental impact categories chosen were global warming, terrestrial acidification, eutrophication, eco-toxicity, human toxicity, and fossil resource scarcity. The impact assessment was carried out by using the ReCiPe2006 v1.1 method. Based on the analysis, the highest environmental impacts for all categories (except eutrophication) were from the food consumption in China, followed by the consumption in Japan, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, and India. The major contributors to these impacts were meat, cereals, animal products, and alcoholic beverages. Meat was the highest contributor in all countries except India, because of low meat consumption in India. A calorie intake analysis was also conducted, which showed reductions in environmental impacts by shifting towards calorie-adequate and non-environmentally intensive diets in Thailand, China, Japan, and Saudi Arabia. Therefore, a reduction in the consumption of meat, cereals, animal products, and alcoholic beverages could therefore enhance the environmental sustainability of food consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Willingness to Pay for Home Energy Management Systems: A Survey in New York and Tokyo
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4790; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174790 - 02 Sep 2019
Abstract
This study evaluates the acceptability of home energy management systems (HEMS) in New York and Tokyo using a questionnaire survey. We investigated three basic functions of HEMS: money saving, automatic control, and environmental impact, and then quantified people’s propensity to accept each of [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the acceptability of home energy management systems (HEMS) in New York and Tokyo using a questionnaire survey. We investigated three basic functions of HEMS: money saving, automatic control, and environmental impact, and then quantified people’s propensity to accept each of these three functions by measuring their willingness to pay. Using the willingness to pay results, we estimated the demand probability under a given usage price for each of the three functions of home energy management systems and analyzed how socio-economic and demographic factors influence the demand probability. The demand probability related to a home energy management system function decreases as the usage price of the function increases. However, depending on people’s socio-economic characteristics, the rate of decrease in demand probability relative to the rate of increase in usage price varies. Among the three functions of home energy management systems, we found that the automatic control function showed the highest demand probability in New York and Tokyo, emphasizing the significance of an automatic control function. In New York, when the home energy management system has an automatic control function, its demand probability increases, which is further enhanced if people trust their utility company. In Tokyo, when a home energy management system has an environmental impact function, its demand probability increases at a given price. People in Tokyo have anxieties related to new technologies such as home energy management systems. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance their comprehension of a home energy management systems to address this anxiety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Laundry Habits in Bangkok: Use Patterns of Products and Services
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4486; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164486 - 19 Aug 2019
Abstract
This study aimed to define the use of product–service system (PSS) associated with laundry businesses, such as coin-operated self-service laundromats (CL) and laundry services (LS), in order to get a better understanding of the environmental implications of PSS in laundry habits in Bangkok, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to define the use of product–service system (PSS) associated with laundry businesses, such as coin-operated self-service laundromats (CL) and laundry services (LS), in order to get a better understanding of the environmental implications of PSS in laundry habits in Bangkok, Thailand. The motivation to use PSS could vary according to the specific consumer needs often defined by cultures, and therefore the environmental impacts from the PSS use would result differently from country to country. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted with Bangkok residents to determine the laundry habits related to the use of PSS. As a result, the use of private washing machines (PW) was found to be the main option, and CL and LS were used as an additional option in the laundry habits. The most widely observed use pattern in Bangkok was the use of CL as an alternative to PW instead of buying a new machine for a new life in dormitories or other residences away from home. At that time, hand washing (HW) was also used for saving money and for the cleanliness. Regarding the environmental potential, the relationship between the PSS users and laundry habits was specifically analyzed. The group who uses PSS frequently tended to do laundry less often than those who only use PW. Meanwhile, the need for even more services is also expected to increase among the PSS users. The need to improve the quality of laundry is expected to increase with the improvement of quality of living in Bangkok in the near future. However, at the same time, these observations imply that a change of consumer behaviors related to the use of PSS determines the resulting energy consumption and environmental burdens. To further clarify sustainable consumption and production systems, a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact of the laundry habits remains as a future task. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Which Time Slots Can People Save Power? An Analysis Using a Japanese Survey on Time Use
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4444; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164444 - 16 Aug 2019
Abstract
Residential demand-side management (DSM) of electricity has been gaining attention as a way to reduce energy consumption at home and as a way of maximizing the utilization of fluctuating solar power generation. To promote the smooth introduction of DSM into homes, power usage [...] Read more.
Residential demand-side management (DSM) of electricity has been gaining attention as a way to reduce energy consumption at home and as a way of maximizing the utilization of fluctuating solar power generation. To promote the smooth introduction of DSM into homes, power usage trends according to the time of the day should be examined for individuals in relation to their lifestyles. The analyses of power usage trends can identify the types of home appliances that should be utilized differently in order to increase energy efficiency. Such analyses can also predict the individual behavioral changes that should result in home appliances being used in the time slots in which solar power is more conveniently available. The purpose of this research was to estimate and observe the amount of power saving potential for each daily time slot with respect to an individual’s particular attributes, and to derive the power saving potential of the whole country by accumulating these data on individuals. This was achieved by using the Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities (STULA) and Energy-Saving Performance Catalog (ESPC) in Japan. According to the results of our estimation, a meaningful power saving potential is sufficient to address a power supply shortage after a disaster such as an earthquake. It is possible to save power by replacing existing home appliances with more energy efficient ones, by making environmentally conscious choices when using home appliances, and by discontinuing the use of home appliances during electricity shortages within the community as a whole. Using the estimated power saving potentials, we examined the effects of two DSMs: (1) adjusting the time for which home appliances are used; and (2) aggregating the power demand of households with different attributes. The results showed that these DSMs would contribute to a more stable power system operation. Future research might address the rapid penetration of community energy management systems and demand response systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Effect of Incorporating Environmental Water Requirement in the Water Stress Index for Thailand
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010152 - 28 Dec 2018
Abstract
Human and environmental demands for water are both important; therefore, two approaches are proposed for assessing water scarcity using the water stress index. In one of them, the human demand for water explicitly includes environmental water as one of the components (WSIe1 [...] Read more.
Human and environmental demands for water are both important; therefore, two approaches are proposed for assessing water scarcity using the water stress index. In one of them, the human demand for water explicitly includes environmental water as one of the components (WSIe1), whereas in the other, environmental water is explicitly reserved by subtracting it from the water availability (WSIe2). The results obtained from using the two approaches in the case of Bang Pakong watershed correspondingly contribute to the explanation of the existing stress situation, especially in the dry season. The stressful results were noticed during December to February for both approaches as a result of less available water and higher environmental water requirement. The assessment of environmental water requirement (EWR) in this study was quantified according to low and high flow periods. The two approaches perform well for assessing water scarcity in the Bang Pakong watershed; however, the result interpretation using the WSIe1 approach is more serious than the WSIe2 approach in terms of water scarcity potential beyond the critical threshold. In conclusion, priority of water allocation is the key consideration for selecting the approach. Higher priority for the environment favors the use of WSIe2 for policy making whereas for a lower priority, the use of WSIe1. In case of Thailand, the WSIe2 approach would be recommended in order to put the EWR as the first priority. Then, water allocation priorities can be rearranged only for human demands for water while the EWR is already safeguarded by setting it aside. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles in Small Islands: The Case of Kinmen, Taiwan
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4377; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124377 - 23 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The abandoned end-of-life vehicle (ELV) problem in small islands has negative effects on local sustainable development, and the treatment of ELVs in island scale is usually difficult. This study presents the investigation of the material flows and economic analysis on the ELVs in [...] Read more.
The abandoned end-of-life vehicle (ELV) problem in small islands has negative effects on local sustainable development, and the treatment of ELVs in island scale is usually difficult. This study presents the investigation of the material flows and economic analysis on the ELVs in small islands by the case study of Kinmen, Taiwan. The ELVs generation amount is estimated using the population balance model (PBM) and the results showed a steep increase in the future for both automobiles and motorcycles. The insufficient ELV treatment capacity has resulted in the significant informal treatment flow, which will be the total weight of 1906 tons of items with market value, with a potential economic gain of 16.9 million TWD in 2050. The results of the economic characterization of the local dismantling business clarified that profitability is the main hindrance for the development of new dismantling business due to high transportation costs. Our results suggested that implementation of the different subsidy rate according to the treatment area under the current policy or creation of a new treatment flow with a direct shipment of ELVs for treatment is necessary to improve the utilization of the stocked materials from untreated ELVs. Full article
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