Special Issue "Sustainability in Leadership and Education"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Osman Titrek
Website
Guest Editor
Sakarya University Faculty of Education Educational Sciences Department Educational Administration and Supervision Program Postal Code: 54300 Hendek, Sakarya, Turkey
Interests: lifelong learning; leadership; education; entrepreneurship; creativity; innovation; sustainability; development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Defined as the ability of being permanent, sustainability is addressed with many different topics in ecologic, economic and social fields. Therefore, it can be claimed that sustainability is an important term which embraces the requirements of today’s world. Nowadays, there are efforts to keep living in each field all over world. Some of these fields which have concerns about maintaining their lifespans are education and leadership. Education provides people to maintain their lives, and covers all human lifetime. Therefore, it is expected that lifelong learning, defined as learning from the cradle to the grave, and sustainability are related to each other. One the other hand, leadership gives opportunity people to gather others around a specific purpose. In this context, it guides people and maintains their lives. Therefore, it can be claimed that leadership in all different fields can be in relationship between sustainability.

This Special Issue aims to shed light on the relationships between sustainability and education, and administration. In this respect, this issue directly focuses on sustainability from the viewpoint of lifelong education and leadership. Authors from different speciality fields, such as education, psychology, social sciences, ecology, business administration etc. are invited to submit their studies about the possible relationships between lifelong education, leadership and sustainability. All the theoretical and practical studies are accepted in this issue. The importance of this study is to enlighten sustainability in terms of both maintaining and managing lives. For this reason, different studies from different specialty fields are welcomed in this issue.

Prof. Dr. Osman Titrek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • leadership
  • lifelong education
  • sustainability

Published Papers (30 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Principal Leadership Styles and Teacher Job Performance: Viewpoint of Middle Management
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083390 - 21 Apr 2020
Abstract
Achievement-oriented leaders let their followers know their expectations. They regularly set clear goals with potential high-performance standards, they trust in the capabilities of their subordinates, and they encourage the continued performance improvement of their subordinates. This investigation studied the effects of private secondary [...] Read more.
Achievement-oriented leaders let their followers know their expectations. They regularly set clear goals with potential high-performance standards, they trust in the capabilities of their subordinates, and they encourage the continued performance improvement of their subordinates. This investigation studied the effects of private secondary school principals’ leadership styles on teachers’ job performance. Four leadership styles outlined in the path–goal theory and five key performance indicators (KPIs) of teacher job performance were chosen for the present research. Numerous prior studies have documented this subject. However, they reported on teacher job performance as a single unit. Therefore, a concerted effort was required to examine the effects of adopted principal leadership styles on each of the five key performance indicators of teacher job performance. A total of 253 middle management personnel took part in this empirical study. The correlation findings from the structural equation modeling revealed that the directive leadership style had a significant effect on teacher job performance in the studied schools, followed by the supportive and achievement-oriented leadership styles. Conversely, although participative leadership was identified as a significant predictor, it was not considered a promising predictor of teacher job performance. This research was conducted in a non-Western culture, where directive leadership is beneficial for encouraging teacher job performance; this claim is greatly supported by the available rigorous literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Leading Schools towards Sustainability. Fields of Action and Management Strategies for Principals
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 3031; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12073031 - 09 Apr 2020
Abstract
Education is expected to support the development of a more sustainable way of thinking, working, and living. Although there is a broad range of literature on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), the role of principals in the implementation of sustainability and ESD in [...] Read more.
Education is expected to support the development of a more sustainable way of thinking, working, and living. Although there is a broad range of literature on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), the role of principals in the implementation of sustainability and ESD in schools has rarely been taken into consideration. However, based on the results of school effectiveness research, one can assume that school principals exert a significant influence on ESD. Sustainability is a leadership issue. When a school aims at integrating sustainability and ESD, the principal plays a pivotal role. She or he has to support the endeavor wholeheartedly and credibly, organize a participative process of school development, emphasize sustainability and ESD in the daily life of the school, support teaching staff in the application of ESD, and offer students opportunities to launch their own initiatives. This article for the special issue on “Sustainability in leadership and education” is a theoretical concept paper based on a literature review and the authors’ conceptual work. It offers a model and seeks to support principals in leading their schools towards sustainability. Therefore, a framework of four stages of the integration of sustainability and ESD in a school is defined. For each of these stages, a number of practical actions and management strategies are suggested and explained in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
School Principals in Spain: Interplay of Leaders, Teachers and Context
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041469 - 16 Feb 2020
Abstract
This paper analyzes the Spanish school principal figures and their future patterns of leadership and development, according to educational policies in Europe. The first part presents a comprehensive overview of the situation of school principals in Spain, according to the Spanish policy; in [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the Spanish school principal figures and their future patterns of leadership and development, according to educational policies in Europe. The first part presents a comprehensive overview of the situation of school principals in Spain, according to the Spanish policy; in the second part, its real practice in a secondary school is evidenced based on the results of a conducted research. The tensions and dilemmas currently faced by school principals in Spain will be analyzed: pedagogical leadership versus management-oriented principals. The interviews carried out reveal the meaning that the different agents give to “leadership”. A climate of trust and collaboration has been established between the management team, middle leaders and teaching staff, necessary conditions for the development of a shared school project and ensure its sustainability for achieve school improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurship Education through Successful Entrepreneurial Models in Higher Education Institutions
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031267 - 10 Feb 2020
Abstract
In higher education institutions, entrepreneurship learning based on successful entrepreneurial role models may promote education for sustainable development. Several theoretical perspectives, such as the human capital theory, the entrepreneurial self-efficacy and self-determination theory, argue that entrepreneurship education is positively correlated with entrepreneurial intentions [...] Read more.
In higher education institutions, entrepreneurship learning based on successful entrepreneurial role models may promote education for sustainable development. Several theoretical perspectives, such as the human capital theory, the entrepreneurial self-efficacy and self-determination theory, argue that entrepreneurship education is positively correlated with entrepreneurial intentions of students, as it provides adequate know-how and skills and motivates them to develop their entrepreneurial careers. In entrepreneurship education programmes, exposure to successful entrepreneurial models could be a significant factor for stimulating students’ confidence in their ability to start a business and for improving their attitudes towards entrepreneurship. This study aims (i) to identify characteristics viewed by students as being specific to a successful entrepreneur, (ii) to establish the influence of exposure to successful entrepreneurial role models (chosen by students) during entrepreneurship education classes on student entrepreneurial intentions, and (iii) to assess how such exposure influences the attitudes of students towards entrepreneurship. For this purpose, the authors ran a pilot experiment with 30 graduate students enrolled in a Business Creation course using a research methodology that combined qualitative techniques with quantitative measures. Content and statistical analyses were utilised to examine differences in student entrepreneurial intentions and attitudes towards entrepreneurship after being exposed to successful entrepreneurial models. Our study provides evidence that entrepreneurship education based on successful entrepreneurial role models may positively influence the entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions of students and could lead to higher orientation of student perception towards social benefits of entrepreneurship (new jobs) compared to financial ones (high income). However, our findings stress that if educators want to improve the efficiency of education focused on developing entrepreneurial skills, graduate programmes should be designed differently for business and non-business students, since studying successful entrepreneurial stories impacts these two groups differently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Relationships between Individual Innovation and Sustainable Education Beliefs
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020447 - 07 Jan 2020
Abstract
The concept of sustainable education has seven main features: being holistic and interdisciplinary, focusing on values, directing to critical thinking and problem solving, requiring the use of multiple teaching methods, encouraging participatory decision-making, highlighting applicability and locality. The knowledge and beliefs of the [...] Read more.
The concept of sustainable education has seven main features: being holistic and interdisciplinary, focusing on values, directing to critical thinking and problem solving, requiring the use of multiple teaching methods, encouraging participatory decision-making, highlighting applicability and locality. The knowledge and beliefs of the people, who will start teaching as a vocation, have an important role for both teachers and students in terms of being in an innovative understanding and attitude. Describing the attitudes of prospective teachers with the potential to raise future generations is important for reviewing teacher training policies. For this purpose, two scales were used in the study. The first one, “The Beliefs for Sustainable Development Education Scale”, consists of 32 items and three sub-factors. The other is the “Individual Innovation Scale”; this 20-item 5-point Likert scale has five sub-dimensions as Innovative, Pioneer, Questioner, Sceptic, and Traditionalist. The data obtained were subjected to correlation and regression statistics and discussed in the light of literature. All in all, it can be seen that there are significant relationships between personal innovativeness and the dimensions of sustainable development education. According to findings, it was observed that as long as the willingness and openness-to-experience of teacher candidates’ taking risk increases in the context of personal innovativeness, their beliefs regarding sustainable development increase concordantly. Teacher candidates can resist change with the concern over whether the current knowledge and efforts will be valuable in the new situation afterwards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
Open AccessArticle
Citizenship Education for Adults for Sustainable Democratic Societies
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010056 - 19 Dec 2019
Abstract
Adults have a key role in ensuring that society is democratic and sustainable, by making decisions about the permanence and continuity of the world/society, and as role models to the new participants in a democratic society. In this context, the purpose of this [...] Read more.
Adults have a key role in ensuring that society is democratic and sustainable, by making decisions about the permanence and continuity of the world/society, and as role models to the new participants in a democratic society. In this context, the purpose of this research is to determine the citizenship education needs of adults in a sustainable democratic society. The study was designed in a qualitative research pattern and was carried out using the case study method. The study group consisted of adults, who were determined by criteria sampling method. Demographic data, a semi-structured interview form, and scenario texts were used to obtain data. The data obtained were analysed by using the content analysis method. Perspectives on adult citizenship education were presented according to the themes created. It was found that participants have a citizenship tendency in line with the traditional national citizenship approach and behaved accordingly. In conclusion, this study proposes that citizenship education should be organized for adults, who are today’s decision makers and role models for tomorrow’s decision makers, in order to improve their political literacy, legal literacy, and political, social, civic engagement and democratic values, which will contribute to the goal of a sustainable democracy in society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Lifelong Learning Centers in Higher Education: A Sustainable Leadership Perspective
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010022 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Technological developments that have taken place in the 21st century have also affected higher education institutions. These changes have created an obligation to respond to the effects and needs of globalization. In response to these developments, the emphasis on lifelong learning and individuals [...] Read more.
Technological developments that have taken place in the 21st century have also affected higher education institutions. These changes have created an obligation to respond to the effects and needs of globalization. In response to these developments, the emphasis on lifelong learning and individuals who “learn how to learn” in higher education institutions has become more and more important in order to educate individuals to fulfill the needs of the century. In general, studies on topics such as the development of lifelong learning in higher education and the role of leaders are limited in Turkey. Regarding this point of view, the current study aims at examining the perceptions of sustainability leaders studying in the higher education sector in Turkey in terms of the lifelong learning provided, the strategies applied, the difficulties faced, the experiences shared, and the sustainability practiced. Therefore, the study uses a descriptive phenomenological pattern under a qualitative research method. The study group was established with maximum diversity, using a purposeful sampling technique. The study group consisted of 10 middle-level managers working at the universities in the Marmara region. The topic was discussed with the study group members in depth. In this study, the data were collected with a semi-structured interview form created by the researchers. In the analysis of data, a content analysis method was used. As a result of the research, it was found out about those observed that administrators in higher education institutions define lifelong learning in a similar way to the definitions in the literature. In addition, the strategies of administrators for lifelong learning, their views concerning their experiences, and their views on the difficulties they encountered are revealed in the research. In the last part, practical recommendations suggestions are made using with regard to the results of the research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
Open AccessArticle
The Roles of Interest and Pressure Groups in Developing Sustainable Educational Policies in Turkey
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7052; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247052 - 10 Dec 2019
Abstract
The main aim of this research was to determine the roles of interest and pressure groups in the development of sustainable educational policies in Turkey. To that end, the research was conducted with a qualitative research design. The data were gathered by using [...] Read more.
The main aim of this research was to determine the roles of interest and pressure groups in the development of sustainable educational policies in Turkey. To that end, the research was conducted with a qualitative research design. The data were gathered by using a semi-structured interview technique and analyzed with content analysis technique. For this purpose, seven teachers and six school principals determined with a maximum variation sampling technique were interviewed. Results of this research reveal that, in general, interest and pressure groups were classified into three categories as: business and self-interest groups, professional groups and identity groups. When the development of educational policy in Turkey is concerned, it was indicated that especially self-interest groups have some political agendas, and they provide support and work with the government closely in order to realize their political agendas and their own memebers’ interests. It was also remarked that these groups are necessary and have influences on the development of sustainable educational policies and leadership. It can be recommended that although interest and pressure groups are essential in the current system, the effects of these groups should be limited for the sake of educational and scientific principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Development in Teacher Education in Terms of Being Solution Oriented and Self-Efficacy
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6878; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236878 - 03 Dec 2019
Abstract
In this study, the correlation between 526 prospective teachers’ beliefs about education for sustainable development (ESD) and their perceptions of self-efficacy and abilities to focus on solutions was addressed. This descriptive study found that prospective teachers had strong beliefs about ESD. In terms [...] Read more.
In this study, the correlation between 526 prospective teachers’ beliefs about education for sustainable development (ESD) and their perceptions of self-efficacy and abilities to focus on solutions was addressed. This descriptive study found that prospective teachers had strong beliefs about ESD. In terms of the “beliefs about the implementation of sustainable development” and “beliefs about the limitation of sustainable development”, the prospective teachers who are studying at the faculty of education had stronger beliefs than those enrolled in the Pedagogical Formation Certificate Program. In addition, fourth-year prospective teachers and those perceiving themselves as showing good academic performance had stronger beliefs about ESD. Also, participants’ beliefs about ESD were found to be related to their abilities to focus on solutions and their perceptions of self-efficacy. Additionally, our study found that perceptions of self-efficacy significantly predicts the ability to focus on solutions and beliefs about ESD (29%). One of the limitations of our study is that our findings can be generalized only to a limited extent. Furthermore, further research is needed to validate the predictive variables that have arisen. Finally, longitudinal and experimental research that use qualitative analysis techniques is needed to investigate the implications of the results for professional improvement and to find out what sort of sustainable education practices there are in different education levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of University Students’ Individual Innovation and Lifelong Learning Trends on Entrepreneurship Orientation
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6201; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226201 - 06 Nov 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects that personality characteristics (PC) of university students, as potential entrepreneurs, have on their entrepreneurship intentions (which are an important indicator of whether or not they will start new initiatives), and to determine the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects that personality characteristics (PC) of university students, as potential entrepreneurs, have on their entrepreneurship intentions (which are an important indicator of whether or not they will start new initiatives), and to determine the mediating role of lifelong learning tendencies. The study’s population consisted of approximately 4000 students at Erciyes University who had relatively high chances of becoming entrepreneurs in total, 924 students were reached. In the research, it was found that the participants’ personality characteristics and sub-dimensions had a significant but positive relationship with their entrepreneurial intentions. In the final findings of this study, it was found that lifelong learning tendencies have a partial mediating role in the relationship between the students’ personality characteristics and entrepreneurship tendencies. At this point, it was observed that the personality characteristics of individuals affect their entrepreneurship intentions; with the introduction of lifelong learning tendencies to the model, the effect of personality characteristics on entrepreneurial intentions decreased but remained significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Authentic Leadership on Authentic Followership, Positive Psychological Capital, and Project Performance: Testing for the Mediation Effects
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 6028; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216028 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
This study proposes that leaders and followers in university team projects should have authentic leadership (AL) themselves in order to improve the overall performance of the team project. While previous studies have focused mainly on achieving performance through AL on the firm level, [...] Read more.
This study proposes that leaders and followers in university team projects should have authentic leadership (AL) themselves in order to improve the overall performance of the team project. While previous studies have focused mainly on achieving performance through AL on the firm level, this study endeavored to examine the relationship between university students who are expected to serve in an organization’s human resources department in the future and followers’ project performance (FPP). This study also considers both followers’ positive psychological capital (FPPC) and their authentic followership (AF), which can be affected by the degree of AL. In order to verify the hypotheses, we adopted a partial least square-structural equation model (PLS-SEM) with 175 samples of valid data from two universities in South Korea. Results showed that all four hypotheses, including the direct and indirect effects, were significantly corroborated. In compliance with these results, this study suggests that a leader’s AL should be a prerequisite to improve FPP. Furthermore, this study establishes the importance of FPPC through the fact that when a leader is authentic, FPPC and FPP can be cultivated. Having compared our findings with previous research, we predict that if students develop AL at university before becoming part of an organization, they will contribute to the performance of the university as well as to attaining the organization’s sustainable performance as a member. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Education for Sustainable Leadership: Fostering Women’s Empowerment at the University Level
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5555; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205555 - 09 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Education is imperative to driving sustainability and gender equity. Moreover, it is extremely important to develop initiatives in sustainable leadership education for women in order for them to acquire skills and competencies in leadership and to improve their self-perception of their capabilities. The [...] Read more.
Education is imperative to driving sustainability and gender equity. Moreover, it is extremely important to develop initiatives in sustainable leadership education for women in order for them to acquire skills and competencies in leadership and to improve their self-perception of their capabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess a Women’s Leadership Program for university students. The sample consisted of 50 students enrolled in the program. A mixed-method approach was applied. Quantitative methods with a survey were conducted to evaluate the training and attainment of leadership skills. In the data analysis, a descriptive statistics variance analysis, using a Welch statistic and T2 Dunnett test, was applied. Qualitative research methods were conducted through three focus groups to evaluate changes in their perceptions of themselves and their self-confidence. The results suggest that the female students in the program obtained a level of leadership knowledge with practical tools for their future. The program inspired them and confirmed changes in their self-confidence and view of their personal capacities, including reflection on facing challenges in the work environment. The findings support the effectiveness of specific education in breaking two barriers, identified in the literature, for women in managerial positions: lack of training and self-confidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Toward Sustainable Schools: A Mixed Methods Approach to Investigating Distributed Leadership, Organizational Happiness, and Quality of Work Life in Preschools
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5489; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195489 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Previous research shows that sustainable organization conditions are associated with high levels of teacher well-being. Organizational happiness and quality of work life, two indicators of teacher well-being in an organization, impact the outcomes of teachers and organizations. Determining ways to support the organizational [...] Read more.
Previous research shows that sustainable organization conditions are associated with high levels of teacher well-being. Organizational happiness and quality of work life, two indicators of teacher well-being in an organization, impact the outcomes of teachers and organizations. Determining ways to support the organizational happiness and quality of work life variables in the organizational environment are gaining significance. Distributed leadership has attracted attention in the literature with its principles. Adopting a sequential explanatory design, qualitative data were collected after quantitative data. In the quantitative component, it was hypothesized that organizational happiness could play a mediating role in the relation between distributed leadership and quality of work life. This was tested through structural equation modeling, and the findings indicated that organizational happiness had a full mediation effect. In the qualitative component, the opinions of administrators regarding the effects of their behaviors on organizational happiness and quality of work life of teachers were investigated within the scope of distributed leadership. The results indicated that administrators’ own behaviors in the school context displayed distributed leadership characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability in Lifelong Learning: Learners’ Perceptions from a Turkish Distance Language Education Context
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5284; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195284 - 25 Sep 2019
Abstract
This descriptive study, which adopts a mixed-methods approach, investigates whether the language learning component of the distance education program at a vocational school of higher education contributes to the students’ lifelong learning propensities, 21st-century skills and sustainability of their language education. A questionnaire [...] Read more.
This descriptive study, which adopts a mixed-methods approach, investigates whether the language learning component of the distance education program at a vocational school of higher education contributes to the students’ lifelong learning propensities, 21st-century skills and sustainability of their language education. A questionnaire eliciting answers from four standpoints were administered to students receiving English language instruction in the program. As for the qualitative side of the study, group interviews were held with volunteers. The quantitative data were analyzed by a statistical program while the interview data were subjected to content analysis. The findings reveal that although the students have a positive attitude toward language learning in a distance education program, they frequently refer to the need for the presence of a teacher for a variety of reasons. On the other hand, it appears that the requirements of the language component of the program contributed to the students’ plans for sustainability of their education after graduation. The results further indicate a need for more interaction and collaboration to be incorporated in the activities and that the philosophy underpinning the program, curriculum and materials need to be reconsidered to equip the students to compete with the dynamics of the educational world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Opinions of Preschool Teachers and Pre-Service Teachers on Environmental Education and Environmental Awareness for Sustainable Development in the Preschool Period
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 4925; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11184925 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This research is a qualitative study to determine the opinions of preschool teachers and pre-service teachers on environmental education and environmental awareness for sustainable development. The phenomenology approach, which focuses on individuals’ own experiences and the meaning of a phenomenon, was used in [...] Read more.
This research is a qualitative study to determine the opinions of preschool teachers and pre-service teachers on environmental education and environmental awareness for sustainable development. The phenomenology approach, which focuses on individuals’ own experiences and the meaning of a phenomenon, was used in this direction. The study group of the research consisted of 68 preschool teachers and 72 pre-service preschool teachers. In the study, a semi-structured interview form consisting of open-ended questions was used as a data collection tool. The content analysis technique was used in the analysis of the data obtained from the interview form. According to the research results, it can be said that pre-service teachers have more theoretical knowledge than teachers and teachers have more practical knowledge than pre-service teachers. This can be explained by the fact that the knowledge that pre-service teachers obtain at university is quite new, they spend more limited time with children within the scope of applied courses, teachers communicate much more with children every day and they are more distant from theoretical knowledge. Furthermore, it can be said that teachers and pre-service teachers are sensitive towards environmental problems, interested in environmental education, willing and open to development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
Open AccessArticle
Ethical Leadership, Affective Commitment, Work Engagement, and Creativity: Testing a Multiple Mediation Approach
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4489; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164489 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 18
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the relationships among ethical leadership (EL), affective commitment (AC), work engagement (WE), and employees’ creativity (EC). In total, 233 Chinese public sector employees completed the survey in three phases. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the relationships among ethical leadership (EL), affective commitment (AC), work engagement (WE), and employees’ creativity (EC). In total, 233 Chinese public sector employees completed the survey in three phases. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the data. The paper found positive relationships between EL and WE and with EL and EC. The results further revealed that AC partially mediates the EL-WE relationship, while both AC and WE fully mediate the relationship between EL and EC. Testing these relationships via a multiple-mediated approach significantly contributed to the existing research on leadership. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
A Sustainable Approach to Mental Health Education: An Empirical Study Using Zhuangzi’s Self-Adaptation
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133677 - 04 Jul 2019
Abstract
No one can avoid feeling frustrated, and contemporary schools should take the lead in supporting mental health. A sustainable approach to such education can be found in Zhuangzi (ca 369–ca 286 BCE), a representative of Taoist schools who is credited with writing the [...] Read more.
No one can avoid feeling frustrated, and contemporary schools should take the lead in supporting mental health. A sustainable approach to such education can be found in Zhuangzi (ca 369–ca 286 BCE), a representative of Taoist schools who is credited with writing the Zhuangzi, a philosophical and literary text. The first section of this study uses qualitative research methods to identify 70 concepts regarding self-adaptation in the Zhuangzi and classifies them into 11 categories. The individual sentences from which these concepts originated are then logically reordered by category to create texts that aid a reader’s understanding of Zhuangzi’s philosophy. The second section of this study uses purposive sampling through an online questionnaire to consider university student feedback on self-adaptation philosophy. Overall, 84.12% of students agreed or strongly agreed that self-adaptation could help them deal with frustration, and 40.80% of students identified the category “mental state” as the most helpful. Furthermore, 88.91% of students reported that thinking about their mental state was most helpful in interpersonal relationship situations. Thus, self-adaptation offers individuals a sustainable, healthy means of dealing with life’s challenges. The findings of this study may have far-reaching impacts on European and American society by cultivating the general public’s interest in Zhuangzi’s philosophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Barriers to Implementing Education for Sustainable Development among Korean Teachers
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092532 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The objective of this study was to identify whether there are any homogeneous subclasses of teachers exhibiting different profiles of barriers to implementing ESD among Korean secondary teachers, and to examine whether teachers’ experiences of taking an ESD course in their pre-service teacher [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to identify whether there are any homogeneous subclasses of teachers exhibiting different profiles of barriers to implementing ESD among Korean secondary teachers, and to examine whether teachers’ experiences of taking an ESD course in their pre-service teacher education and in their in-service training on ESD are predictive of membership in subclasses of perceived barriers to implementing ESD. Korean secondary teachers from various subjects were selected as a sample. I carried out latent class analysis (LCA) on barrier variables and assessed the association of both the experiences of taking an ESD course in their pre-service teacher education and in-service training on ESD with membership in the latent subclasses using multi-nominal logistic regression. These analyses were performed using PROC LCA. Research results are as follows: Firstly, four latent classes were identified: the few barrier, the individual barrier, the combination of individual and class-driven structural barrier, and the combination of individual and structural barrier. Secondly, both the experiences of taking an ESD course in their pre-service teacher education and in-service training on ESD were significant predictors of latent class membership. The current study could potentially assist both pre-service teacher educational institutions and in-service teacher training organizations with strategies designed to improve ESD competency among teachers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Project Children’s University Increase Academic Self-Efficacy in 6th Graders? A Weak Experimental Design
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030778 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to determine whether students’ academic self-efficacy levels increase through a 20 week of education that is based on the problem-based learning theory and transmitted in an inter-disciplinary manner in Project Children’s University. The project aimed to teach [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether students’ academic self-efficacy levels increase through a 20 week of education that is based on the problem-based learning theory and transmitted in an inter-disciplinary manner in Project Children’s University. The project aimed to teach students to learn how to learn. Eventually, students will be life-long learners and gain sustainable learning skills. In order to observe the effect of Project Children’s University, academic self-efficacy levels are measured in terms of “self-efficacy in ability”, “context”, and “education quality domains”. Changes in treatment group students’ academic self-efficacy levels are modeled in growth curve modeling framework throughout three waves. Then, they are compared with those of control group students using Welch’s t test. Results have shown that the levels of academic self-efficacy throughout the research have fallen significantly for the treatment group students. In addition, the levels of self-efficacy in ability of the treatment group students were significantly higher than the levels of the control group students. On the other hand, the levels of context of the treatment group students were significantly lower than the levels of the control group students. In conclusion, Project Children’s University has failed to increase students’ academic self-efficacy levels, but entitled them to understand what academic self-efficacy really means, to socialize, to be self-confident students, and to criticize themselves more rationally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability of Cooperative Professional Development: Focused on Teachers’ Efficacy
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030585 - 23 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, we aim to gain critical insights into how cooperative professional development affects teachers’ efficacy. To this end, the purpose of this study is to identify cooperative professional development types (CPD-type) and to reveal the relationship between CPD-type and teachers’ efficacy [...] Read more.
In this study, we aim to gain critical insights into how cooperative professional development affects teachers’ efficacy. To this end, the purpose of this study is to identify cooperative professional development types (CPD-type) and to reveal the relationship between CPD-type and teachers’ efficacy in Korean middle schools, controlling for gender, age, years of experience and school climate. The data of this study are derived from the 2013 Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) conducted by the OECD. The K-mean cluster analysis was used to identify distinct clusters of middle school teachers based on CPD. This process identified four specific groups: the disengaged group (36.8%), the collaborative group (11.3%), the activity-focused group (24.8%), and the coordinative group (27.1%). Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that all dummy variables of CPD-type were statistically significant, controlling for gender, age, years of experience, and school climate. Comparing the relative importance of each variable on teachers’ efficacy, the CPD1 (1 = the collaborative group) variable was most important. The results of this study provide a rationale for teachers to participate in collaborative professional development actively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Examination of Teacher Candidates’ Lifelong Learning Competence and Basic Motivation Resources as Parts of Sustainability
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010023 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to determine the level of teacher candidates’ lifelong learning competence and basic motivation resources and to examine the lifelong learning competence and basic motivation of teacher candidates in terms of some variables (gender and to be a [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to determine the level of teacher candidates’ lifelong learning competence and basic motivation resources and to examine the lifelong learning competence and basic motivation of teacher candidates in terms of some variables (gender and to be a university student or not). For this purpose, a quantitative study was designed. The research was conducted with 382 teacher candidates being educated in the pedagogical formation program at Trakya University. In this research, “Key Competences for Lifelong Learning Scale” and “Basic Motivation Resources Scale” were used as tools for measurement. As a result of the analyses, it was determined that the basic motivation resources of teacher candidates in all of the dimensions of the scale and lifelong learning competence of teacher candidates except from “communicative competence at a foreign language/s” sub-dimension of the scale are above average. In terms of gender variables, significant difference was found in the “communicative competence at a foreign language/s” sub-dimension of “Key Competences for Lifelong Learning Scale” in favor of male teacher candidates and, on the other hand, significant differences were found in the “the competence of learning to learn” and “the competence of cultural awareness and expression” sub-dimension of “Key Competences for Lifelong Learning Scale” in favor of female teacher candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
Open AccessArticle
The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Level of the Undergraduate Students of Midwife and Nurse in Terms of Sustainability in Nursing and Midwifery Education
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3574; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103574 - 07 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Self-directed learning is a necessary skill for students and workers to remain lifelong learners. Being self-directed in learning allows nurses to stay elastic, open to change and sustain their, professional development. The aim of this study was to determine the level of self-directed [...] Read more.
Self-directed learning is a necessary skill for students and workers to remain lifelong learners. Being self-directed in learning allows nurses to stay elastic, open to change and sustain their, professional development. The aim of this study was to determine the level of self-directed learning readiness of undergraduate students of nursing and midwifery. This study also investigated whether there were associations between the level of self-directed learning readiness and selected demographic variables such as gender, department, academic level and monthly income in the undergraduate students. Quantitative research method was used in this research. A total of 398 students participated in this survey conducted at the Faculty of Health Sciences of University of Amasya. The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) that was developed by Fisher et al., was used. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics, Kruskal Wallis H test and Mann Whitney U test were applied. In this study, it was revealed that nursing and midwifery students had relatively high self-directed learning readiness. However, students received the lowest score for the self-management dimension, which indicates that students need support in self-management skills. As a result of the Mann Whitney U test, it was put forward that there were statistically significant differences in level of self-directed learning readiness based on gender and department. As a result of the Kruskal Wallis H test, it was found that there was no difference in level of self-directed learning readiness based on monthly income variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
Open AccessArticle
Role of Healthy Work Environments in Sustainability of Goal Achievement; Ethical Leadership, Intention to Sabotage, and Psychological Capital in Jordanian Universities
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103559 - 04 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
(1) Background: Long-term competitiveness and sustainability of goal achievement are constantly being sought out by organizations. This study examined the link between ethical leadership, intention to sabotage, and psychological capital in Jordanian universities and how they provide a healthy environment conducive to goal [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Long-term competitiveness and sustainability of goal achievement are constantly being sought out by organizations. This study examined the link between ethical leadership, intention to sabotage, and psychological capital in Jordanian universities and how they provide a healthy environment conducive to goal achievement sustainability. The literature indicated gaps in knowledge regarding the correlation between these variables in non-western countries, which this study intends to fill. The study drew from social learning theory and self-control theory. (2) Methods: Data was obtained by collecting survey questionnaires from a sample of 376 employees in different universities in the north of Jordan, and was analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Structural Equation Modeling. (3) Results: A significant and direct negative relationship was found between both ethical leadership and psychological capital on employees’ intention to sabotage. Also, a significant and direct positive effect was found between ethical leadership and psychological capital. Furthermore, it was found that psychological capital mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and employees’ intention to sabotage. (4) Conclusions: Leaders have a critical role in increasing employee psychological capital and decreasing intention to sabotage. Many implications indicated by the study’s findings, both theoretical and practical, were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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The Sustainability of Teaching Personification in Language Education: A Qualitative Analysis Using Kwang-Chung Yu’s Free Verse
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3517; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103517 - 30 Sep 2018
Abstract
Many scholars consider Kwang-Chung Yu (1928–2017) a prominent practitioner of free verse. The poetic quality of his work shows considerable ingenuity, and a key feature is his use of personification to create a humorous style. Collection of Humorous Free Verses by Kwang-Chung Yu [...] Read more.
Many scholars consider Kwang-Chung Yu (1928–2017) a prominent practitioner of free verse. The poetic quality of his work shows considerable ingenuity, and a key feature is his use of personification to create a humorous style. Collection of Humorous Free Verses by Kwang-Chung Yu contains the most representative examples of his work. As there are no existing studies on how Yu’s personification technique could be used for language education, the present study takes a qualitative approach to explore this topic. Of the verses featured in the collection, 88% of them use personification, and 102 personified themes were found overall. The discussion consists of four parts that serve as references for language education: (1) an analysis of examples representing the six categories of personified themes, (2) eight major reflection shortcuts for personification; (3) the association and application of eight types of situations for personification; and (4) a review of an online questionnaire and its positive results. The concluding section summarises Yu’s use of personification and presents a comprehensive model of personification for language education based on a pragmatic analysis. This model is a study of a master poet and is sure to be of interest to anyone who wants to know how personification techniques are crafted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Supporting Theoretical Courses through Application
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3439; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103439 - 27 Sep 2018
Abstract
Ecological crises have affected the architecture discipline, and different techniques, technologies, and design approaches have flourished. A theory about the effect of ecology on architectural design, formulated as ecological design, and its education has started in institutes. However, it is important that the [...] Read more.
Ecological crises have affected the architecture discipline, and different techniques, technologies, and design approaches have flourished. A theory about the effect of ecology on architectural design, formulated as ecological design, and its education has started in institutes. However, it is important that the practice of architecture is reflected through theoretical knowledge in its outputs, and the discipline is conscious about its theoretical knowledge when designing a building, including how much can be understood in the concrete project. This study tries to discern the role of theoretical knowledge in practice and in final projects in the context of ecological design by estimating masters students’ experiences, perceptions, and attitudes. The research method of this study is a qualitative approach, and in-depth interviews have been done with masters-level students. The results of this study showed that the theoretical knowledge given in the lectures could change the opinions of a designer regarding ecological design. Based on the results, ecological design courses can increase the popularity of ecological building design strategies, which offers potential for more sustainable living environments and more environmentally friendly buildings, and their spread into human environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
Open AccessArticle
Relationships between Student Personality Traits, Mobbing, and Depression within the Context of Sustainable Tourism Education: The Case of a Faculty of Tourism
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3418; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103418 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Sustainable education has the target of improving skills that encourage students or life-long learners to reflect on actions realized by themselves. Its main concern is considering their actual and future cultural, socio-economic, and environmental impacts. Such a paradigm to evaluate these impacts is [...] Read more.
Sustainable education has the target of improving skills that encourage students or life-long learners to reflect on actions realized by themselves. Its main concern is considering their actual and future cultural, socio-economic, and environmental impacts. Such a paradigm to evaluate these impacts is to bring about a local and a global perspective. Sustainability, as a means of qualified education, is a consequence of lifelong learning philosophy. All levels and all kinds of education should deal with the issues of sustainability and create holistic and transformational skills in this topic. In this context, pedagogy and learning environment is of great importance. Concerning learning environment, mobbing cases have frequently coincided in educational organizations. Mobbing has been regarded as an important business disease of contemporary work-life. Besides, mobbing might be coincided not only in the businesses but also in the organizations providing educational services. In schools and universities, mobbing leads to physiological, sociological, and psychological harms for the students. Recent studies have shown that in the school environment, students are exposed to a possible mobbing behavior and that their academic performance and achievement, as well as their mental and physical health, are negatively influenced. In addition, many academic studies indicate that the personality traits students have are an important predictor of exposure to mobbing and depression. This study aimed to determine the levels of mobbing and depression perceptions of students (type A, type B) who are studying tourism education at undergraduate level. In this context, within the groups of personality traits, the levels of depression in the process of mobbing were examined. Research data were collected from 524 students surveyed in a tourism faculty of a state university. In order to realize the data collection, Personality Traits, Mobbing, and Depression scales were used. Correlation, t-test, and regression analysis were performed as well as descriptive statistics (frequencies, mean, and standard deviation) in the process of data analysis. As a consequence of the research, it was determined that mobbing influenced psychological conditions of all students showing the features of A and B type as personality traits. Nevertheless, mobbing and depression perceptions differ upon their personality groups. It was found that the mean scores of mobbing and depression perceptions of students’ having A type personality traits were comparatively higher than the ones having B type personality traits. In addition, it has been revealed that there is a positive relationship between mobbing and depression perceptions of students. Mobbing explained 14% of the change in the depression levels of the students. As a result of the findings, it was determined that personality trait is an important and significant factor in the impact levels of students from mobbing and depression. Incorporation of personality traits into the transformational learning process in the education system as well as teaching and supporting of students with applied social education can be an effective element of sustainable education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Critical Thinking Development—A Necessary Step in Higher Education Transformation towards Sustainability
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3366; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103366 - 20 Sep 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
Education for sustainable development has been addressed by professionals, authorities, and a number of research studies in the last decades, and yet the results are not clearly visible. Teachers as agents of a new mindset do not seem to understand the ways of [...] Read more.
Education for sustainable development has been addressed by professionals, authorities, and a number of research studies in the last decades, and yet the results are not clearly visible. Teachers as agents of a new mindset do not seem to understand the ways of approaching raising awareness of the issues of global challenges. This study investigated the possibility of raising the extent of applying critical thinking to the problem-solving issues of a group of student teachers in their initial training. The sample consisted of 48 student teachers. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used: namely, a questionnaire, content analysis, and focus group interviews. An archive of the students’ materials was also used for content analysis. In the data analysis, inter-rater reliability, as well as parametric (t-test) and non-parametric tests (Mann–Whitney U test) were applied. The results of the study provide evidence of the positive impact of the use of case studies in teaching pre-service teachers on the development of their critical thinking skills. It can be concluded that it should not be taken for granted that teachers automatically know how to develop the competencies that are necessary for sustainable development (SD). Instead, teacher education institutions need to incorporate thorough training that focusses on education for sustainable development (ESD) into the entire teacher programme in order to make sure that the teachers leave their initial training well prepared for guaranteeing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Observation of the Effect of Gender on Children’s Concept of Motion; Sustainability Issue
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3076; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093076 - 29 Aug 2018
Abstract
Determination of the parameters of motion of the surrounding objects, and in particular their speed, is one of the basic skills of a human being. Studies on the development of basic concepts of motion have been carried out for years, exploiting various methods [...] Read more.
Determination of the parameters of motion of the surrounding objects, and in particular their speed, is one of the basic skills of a human being. Studies on the development of basic concepts of motion have been carried out for years, exploiting various methods and in different contexts. In our research, we analyzed the effect of school education on the understanding of the phenomenon of motion. We tried to determine its possible short- and long-term cognitive consequences. To achieve this goal, we used the survey method. Our studies show that children differentiate two specific concepts: average speed and instantaneous velocity. In the present work we present how the gender context is superimposed on the general picture. We found that the initial, genuine pre-school concept of speed is different for girls and boys. Our analysis shows also that this gender effect vanishes quickly along with the introduction of physical definitions of kinematical quantities by physics/science curricula. We discuss the methodological aspect of the statistical gender gap measure and we calculate the gender effect chance probability, p-value, to be slightly less than 0.001. The importance of the observed effect for the sustainable science teaching processes is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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The Mediating Role of Perception in the Relationship between Expectation and Satisfaction in Terms of Sustainability in Tourism Education
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072253 - 29 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Education plays a central role in shaping individual and social change toward sustainability. Sustainable tourism education provided by the higher education institutions which offer education at the undergraduate level has an important role in training candidate managers and meeting the need for qualified [...] Read more.
Education plays a central role in shaping individual and social change toward sustainability. Sustainable tourism education provided by the higher education institutions which offer education at the undergraduate level has an important role in training candidate managers and meeting the need for qualified labor in the tourism sector in terms of sustainable tourism. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship among expectation, perception, and satisfaction of the undergraduate students receiving tourism education at the tertiary level. It is also aimed to reveal the mediating role of perception between expectation and satisfaction. One of the quantitative methods used in the research process was the causative and correlational model. A total of 675 students participated in this survey conducted at the Tourism Faculty of Akdeniz University. To collect data, expectation of tourism education, perception of tourism education, and satisfaction of academic education scales were used. In the data analysis, parametric tests, t-test, ANOVA, correlation, and regression analyses were applied. In this study, it was revealed that 675 students receiving tourism education at the undergraduate level came to school with moderate-level expectations, their perceptions fulfilled their expectations with the experience they had, and their satisfaction levels that emerged as a result of their perceptions were at a moderate level as well. As a result of the t-test performed, it was put forward that there was no difference in their level of satisfaction based on the gender variable; however, a significant difference was determined based on the high school type from which a subject graduated, the current department, class, and age variables. As a result of the correlation analysis, a positive relation was identified between the expectation, perception, and satisfaction variables. The multiple regression analysis indicated that expectation positively affected perception and satisfaction; therewithal, perception affected satisfaction and its sub-dimensions positively. It was also found that the perception had a partial mediating role between expectation and satisfaction in education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Algan, E.K.; Ummanel, A. Toward Sustainable Schools: A Mixed Methods Approach to Investigating Distributed Leadership, Organizational Happiness, and Quality of Work Life in Preschools. Sustainability 2019, 11, 5489
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020519 - 10 Jan 2020
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following corrections in the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Leadership and Education)
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