Current resident lifestyles pose a significant threat to urban sustainable development. Therefore, low-carbon behavior is receiving increasing attention from scholars and policy makers. Ascertaining residential self-selection is essential in order to study the relationship between the built environment and travel behavior. While several studies have explored the relationship between the urban form, socioeconomic factors, and travel behavior, only a few of them have studied the impact of self-selection on household energy consumption and other forms of consumption, which are also contribute to household carbon emissions. Using large-scale field surveys of 1,485 households and high-resolution images, sourced from Google Maps in 2018, of Zhengzhou city, the present study estimated the low-carbon level of three kinds of behavior: daily energy use at home, daily travel, and daily consumption. The study investigated the influence factors on low-carbon behavior using the hierarchical linear model. We found that residential self-selection impacts both energy use and daily travel. Residents in some built environments consumed less energy at home and contributed less CO2
emissions through daily travel than others. In particular, individual-level variables significantly affected the low-carbon energy use behavior. The female, elderly, highly educated, married, and working-class residents with children had higher levels of low-carbon energy use. Community-level variables significantly affected the level of low-carbon travel and low-carbon consumption. If residents lived in areas with high density, mixed land use, and high accessibility, their travel mode and consumption behavior would entail low carbon emissions. There is a relationship between individual variables and community variables. Different individual attributes living in the same built environment have different impacts on low-carbon behaviors.
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