Mobility from Renewable Electricity: Infrastructure Comparison for Battery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
2. Infrastructure Specifications to Couple EV Charging with Renewables
2.1. Battery Electric Vehicle Infrastructure
2.2. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Infrastructure
- A hydrogen production unit: A variety of techniques is used to produce hydrogen, but the only one currently available and directly related to renewable electricity at a large scale is water electrolysis, with two mature technologies at low temperatures: alkaline or proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers. Additionally, if the hydrogen is not produced on-site, it has to be transported in gaseous form, typically in tube trailers at 20 MPa.
- A hydrogen storage system (supply storage): usually gaseous hydrogen at 4–20 MPa in steel cylinders.
- A hydrogen compression system: Several compressor technologies are available such as diaphragm or reciprocating compressors, comprising, for example, gas booster or ionic compressors, similar to the one developed by Linde .
- A hydrogen buffer or fueling storage: usually organized in a cascade system up to 90 MPa according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recommendations .
- A dispenser: includes a fueling nozzle to connect to the car and a cooling block to precool the hydrogen. Indeed, the hydrogen in the vehicle tank is subjected to a rapid recompression throughout the fill, which generates heat, in addition to the Joule–Thomson effect at the fueling nozzle . High temperatures can lead to an under filling of the tank, but also can damage the composite layer of the hydrogen tank. According to the fueling protocol SAE J2601 , a precooling temperature of −40 C is recommended. Finally, in order to release the pressure in the fueling nozzle at the end of the refilling, the hydrogen contained in the hose between the last valve of the HRS and the entry point of the vehicle is vented into the air.
2.3. Summary of Required Layouts
3. Novel Method for Grid to Mobility Assessments
3.1. Literature Review
3.2. Grid to Mobility Approach
- Grid to useful electricity:Useful electricity is considered as electricity compatible with the main equipment of the refilling infrastructure. Electrochemical devices, either batteries or electrolyzers, operate on DC currents; therefore, preliminary AC/DC conversion is usually required, except in the case when a direct DC coupling with solar panels is feasible or if the ESS includes the converter.
- Useful electricity to energy carrier:Two different energy carriers are commercially investigated for EVs: electricity stored in batteries or hydrogen. We define the energy carrier as the energy stored in large quantities at the station for grid independent refueling at any point in time. It covers the use of megabatteries (MW/MWh), and the operation of electrolyzers and first compression steps for the bulk storage of hydrogen.
- Energy carrier to on-board storage:Refilling and recharging events were often neglected for ICEVs due to the very simple equipment required and the insignificant energy consumption in that case. However, for EVs, this step can be particularly challenging. For example, both BEVs and FCEVs require thermal management systems.
- On-board storage to mobility:After all the conversions occurring prior to and during charging events, the energy transferred is ultimately converted into a mobility service for the driver. The energy stored on-board is converted into km driven, which is assessed on standardized driving cycles such as those conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
4. Case Study and Data Collection
4.1.1. Stationary Storage
4.1.2. Dispenser and Charging Events
4.1.3. Vehicle Efficiency
- 95% for 20 MPa (nominal pressure of supply storage systems) starting from the outlet pressure of the electrolyzer, corresponding to 1.8 kWh/kg H2.
4.2.3. Precooling and Refilling Event
4.2.4. Vehicle Efficiency
4.3. Results and Discussion
4.3.2. Sensitivity Analysis
Conflicts of Interest
|BEV||Battery electric vehicle|
|BMS||Battery management system|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency|
|ESS||Energy storage system|
|FCEV||Fuel cell electric vehicle|
|HRS||Hydrogen refilling station|
|ICEV||Internal combustion engine vehicle|
|LCA||Life cycle assessment|
|PEM||Proton exchange membrane|
|SAE||Society of Automotive Engineers|
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|Charging mode||Home charging||Fast charging||HRS||Conventional refilling station|
|ine Energy carrier flow rate||2–6 kW||50 kW up to 150 kW||up to 2||35|
|ine Autonomy flow rate||0.2–0.6||3–5 (50 kW) 9–15 (150 kW)||160–220||370–430|
|Step||BEV Slow||BEV Fast||FCEV 35 MPa and 70 MPa|
|Grid to useful electricity||No conversion required||AC/DC conversion||AC/DC conversion|
|Useful electricity to energy carrier||Storage in stationary battery AC coupled||Storage in stationary battery DC coupled||Variable load electrolysis Purification 20 MPa compression|
|Energy carrier to on-board storage||On-board AC/DC conversion||DC/DC conversion Battery thermal management||50-MPa cascade compression 90-MPa cascade compression −40 C precooling Dispenser vent|
|On-board storage to mobility||EPA combined cycle||EPA combined cycle||EPA combined cycle|
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Ligen, Y.; Vrubel, H.; Girault, H.H. Mobility from Renewable Electricity: Infrastructure Comparison for Battery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles. World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010003
Ligen Y, Vrubel H, Girault HH. Mobility from Renewable Electricity: Infrastructure Comparison for Battery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles. World Electric Vehicle Journal. 2018; 9(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010003Chicago/Turabian Style
Ligen, Yorick, Heron Vrubel, and Hubert H. Girault. 2018. "Mobility from Renewable Electricity: Infrastructure Comparison for Battery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles" World Electric Vehicle Journal 9, no. 1: 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9010003