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Application of Driverless Electric Automated Shuttles for Public Transport in Villages: The Case of Appelscha

Department of Transport and Planning, Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
Researchcentre Sustainable Port Cities, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences, RDM-kade 59, 3089 JR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(1), 15;
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
PDF [1130 KB, uploaded 22 June 2018]


This paper reports on the application of electric automated vehicles in the city of Appelscha, The Netherlands. Appelscha is challenged with a predicted decline of inhabitants and an already shrinking public transport network. To preserve the region’s accessibility, the municipality started a pilot with electric automated vehicles. These vehicles drove on a separate cycle lane for six weeks in 2016. This pilot has shown that a pilot is possible, with little infrastructural changes. Even though the maximum speed of 15 km/h might suggest that automated vehicles are suitable to share the road with cyclists, the cycle lane in Appelscha was not sufficient due to the width of the cycle lane. No accidents occurred during the pilot. View Full-Text
Keywords: Automated; autonomous; demonstration; EV (Electric Vehicle); public transport Automated; autonomous; demonstration; EV (Electric Vehicle); public transport

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Boersma, R.; Van Arem, B.; Rieck, F. Application of Driverless Electric Automated Shuttles for Public Transport in Villages: The Case of Appelscha. World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9, 15.

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World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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