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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2013) , Pages 1-244

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Open AccessArticle
E-Bus for Akita Prefecture, Japan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 241-244; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010241 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 239
Abstract
With the aim to improve technologies for EV or new energy industries and to create society with low environmental impact, Akita Prefecture has carried out the “EV Bus Technology Improvement Project”. The project developed an Akita-original electric bus and it further aims to [...] Read more.
With the aim to improve technologies for EV or new energy industries and to create society with low environmental impact, Akita Prefecture has carried out the “EV Bus Technology Improvement Project”. The project developed an Akita-original electric bus and it further aims to operate the E-Bus on regular bus routes throughout the year. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Identification of EV use patterns, based on large scale EV monitoring data
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 230-240; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010230 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 294
Abstract
This paper presents a methodology to analyse electric vehicle (EV) monitoring data to identify use patterns. The methodology is applied to the monitored data of a fleet of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). The methodology introduces a link of the travel [...] Read more.
This paper presents a methodology to analyse electric vehicle (EV) monitoring data to identify use patterns. The methodology is applied to the monitored data of a fleet of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). The methodology introduces a link of the travel behaviour and characterisation with the range of the electric vehicle. To identify use patterns a number of indicators are defined: reset points, extra range potential, daily distance driven, average distance between reset points and maximum distance between two reset points. These indicators are calculated on monitored data of EVs, and the first results and observations are presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Single wheel drives for wheel slip control
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 223-229; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010223 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Ever-increasing electrification of the drive train offers new possibilities for the power train layouts as well as for vehicle dynamics control. For a single-wheel driven electric vehicle, one should utilize the advantages of the electric engines compared to conventional components. Within this contribution, [...] Read more.
Ever-increasing electrification of the drive train offers new possibilities for the power train layouts as well as for vehicle dynamics control. For a single-wheel driven electric vehicle, one should utilize the advantages of the electric engines compared to conventional components. Within this contribution, an optimized arrangement regarding installation space of the drive train with single rear wheel drive was investigated. The electric motors were used for acceleration and deceleration, hence regenerative braking. Often, for brake situations with excessive wheel slip, electric engines are switched off and conventional components as the hydraulic wheel brakes are used to control the wheel speed. A control scheme for a rearwheel driven electric vehicle with single wheel drives is presented, where only the rear engines and no friction brakes are used for all driving and braking torques. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme has been proven in real vehicle tests for acceleration as well as for braking situations on low friction coefficient surface (snow). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Smart and Green ACC series: A city and highway specific approach towards a safe and efficient eDAS
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 214-222; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010214 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 173
Abstract
The successful transition of fully electric vehicle into automotive market is plagued with expensive product prices and limited drive range. While manufacturers point to fuel saving benefits, the actual cost savings after the first battery replacement presents negative economics. Hence it is necessary [...] Read more.
The successful transition of fully electric vehicle into automotive market is plagued with expensive product prices and limited drive range. While manufacturers point to fuel saving benefits, the actual cost savings after the first battery replacement presents negative economics. Hence it is necessary to maximise the fuel saving costs and to prolong the battery life as much as possible. The situation calls for an assistant system which takes into consideration the inherent propulsion system dynamics of electric vehicle in two typical situations – namely city and highway. Here we propose a combination of two systems, first a dynamic programming based acceleration controller for city cycle and second, an eHorizon based ACC system for maximum recuperation on highways. This paper is an extension of papers [1,2] and forms a series which is attributed to the development of a partial or complete “Safe and energy efficient longitudinal vehicle controller”. Such a controller is named “SAGA” - Smart and Green Automated Cruise Control. It is an ecological driver assistance system (eDAS) that adapts the vehicle speed over all its speed range according to a forward vehicle and to road events in a near horizon (legal speed, curves, etc…) with an aim to reduce the energy consumption without compromising on safety. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Model-Based Remaining Driving Range Prediction in Electric Vehicles by using Particle Filtering and Markov Chains
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 204-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010204 - 29 Mar 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 274
Abstract
The remaining driving range (RDR) has been identified as one of the main obstacles for the success of electric vehicles. Offering the driver accurate information about the RDR reduces the range anxiety and increases the acceptance of electric vehicles. The RDR is a [...] Read more.
The remaining driving range (RDR) has been identified as one of the main obstacles for the success of electric vehicles. Offering the driver accurate information about the RDR reduces the range anxiety and increases the acceptance of electric vehicles. The RDR is a random variable that depends not only on deterministic factors like the vehicle’s weight or the battery’s capacity, but on stochastic factors such as the driving style or the traffic situation. A reliable RDR prediction algorithm must account the inherent uncertainty given by these factors. This paper introduces a model-based approach for predicting the RDR by combining a particle filter with Markov chains. The predicted RDR is represented as a probability distribution which is approximated by a set of weighted particles. Detailed models of the battery, the electric powertrain and the vehicle dynamics are implemented in order to test the prediction algorithm. The prediction is illustrated by means of simulation based experiments for different driving situations and an established prognostic metric is used to evaluate its accuracy. The presented approach aims to provide initial steps towards a solution for generating reliable information regarding the RDR which can be used by driving assistance systems in electric vehicles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Realistic estimates of EV range based on extensive laboratory and field tests in Nordic climate conditions
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 192-203; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010192 - 29 Mar 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 217
Abstract
Shortage of range is by far the greatest flaw in current electric vehicle technology. Furthermore, energy use is also highly dependent on duty cycles, driving conditions and traffic situation. Additionally, cabin heating in an EV will not be supported by energy losses as [...] Read more.
Shortage of range is by far the greatest flaw in current electric vehicle technology. Furthermore, energy use is also highly dependent on duty cycles, driving conditions and traffic situation. Additionally, cabin heating in an EV will not be supported by energy losses as in an ICE-car. Therefore, actual range can differ sub-stantially in real-life situations, and can be much shorter than the official figures given by the manufactur-ers. Project RekkEVidde is aiming at drafting a testing scheme to address EV driving in Nordic conditions, and produce realistic range estimates for the consumers to help them understand this raising technology and make successful purchase decisions. Both in-laboratory and field testing in actual winter weather condi-tions has been performed with almost all publicly available electric vehicles. The outcome of the project is a confirmation that in Nordic climate the adverse driving conditions and especially thermal management of the cabin for adequate driving comfort will seriously shorten the range. Therefore, additional testing to re-flect this is definitely needed to complement the official regulatory test. However, it may not have to be very complex, as the testing workshop held in Northern Sweden proved. Already steady-speed driving with heater on and logging the cabin temperatures and energy consumption from the CAN-bus can provide val-uable information on how the vehicle can perform in cold climate Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Braking Performance by Electro-Hydraulic ABS and Motor Torque Control for In-wheel Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 186-191; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010186 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 275
Abstract
In this study, a slip control algorithm using motor torque control during the braking of the in-wheel electric vehicle was proposed and an anti-lock brake system (ABS) simulator was developed on the basis of the test results for electro-hydraulic ABS. The slip control [...] Read more.
In this study, a slip control algorithm using motor torque control during the braking of the in-wheel electric vehicle was proposed and an anti-lock brake system (ABS) simulator was developed on the basis of the test results for electro-hydraulic ABS. The slip control algorithm using motor torque control limits the in-wheel motor torque according to road friction coefficient and slip ratio while the ABS prevents locking of the wheel by lowering or raising the brake pressure through solenoid valve control. A MATLAB/Simulink model and a CarSim vehicle model were developed, and the motor torque control and ABS simulator were applied to the MATLAB/Simulink-CarSim co-simulator and compared braking performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modeling and thermal simulation of a PHEV battery module with cylindrical LFP cells
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 175-185; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010175 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Generally a part of electric vehicle diffusion is still based on marketing of cars and vans suitable for specific use like work vehicles. A flexible design methodology is required to support rapid prototyping and product customization in the market of tailored EV/PHEV. The [...] Read more.
Generally a part of electric vehicle diffusion is still based on marketing of cars and vans suitable for specific use like work vehicles. A flexible design methodology is required to support rapid prototyping and product customization in the market of tailored EV/PHEV. The research focuses the cooling simulation for a PHEV Li-Ion battery. The thermal analysis is based on the physical parameters of the single cell and on the experimental data. The proposed methodology concerns firstly an analytical approach which evaluates the average heat generated by a single cell during working condition. Then the proposed virtual prototyping analysis has been divided into two levels: the thermal simulation of one cell, and the CFD analysis of a battery module. This workflow has been applied to support the design of a battery pack for a prototypal ecological hybrid vehicle. That test case vehicle is a small van, used for the curbside collection, which has in parallel an internal combustion engine and an electric motor supplied by a LFP battery with small cylindrical cells. The analysis concerns one of the four module which constitutes the whole battery pack. The virtual model has been parameterized and the behavior of air cooling system has been evaluated through virtual tools. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Potential of an electric brake resistor to increase the efficiency of electric vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 165-174; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010165 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Electric brake resistors are well known in the domain of power electronics, railway or elevator technology to guarantee electric braking or to damp high electric power peaks. The generated heat energy, however, is usually dissipated. This work deals with the potential of an [...] Read more.
Electric brake resistors are well known in the domain of power electronics, railway or elevator technology to guarantee electric braking or to damp high electric power peaks. The generated heat energy, however, is usually dissipated. This work deals with the potential of an automotive application of the electric brake resistor to enable brake energy regeneration (recuperation) also at low temperatures and high state of charge when the charge performance of the traction battery is limited. By reusing the excess recuperation energy to support the vehicle’s cabin heating, the overall energy efficiency can be increased. In this paper three classes of battery electric vehicles are simulated with different driving environments and start pa-rameters to assess the influences on the efficiency potential of this application. It is shown that, depending on the start conditions and drive cycle, the total energy demand can be reduced by up to 12% with the use of a 6kW rated brake resistor. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Model Based Engineering and Realization of the KAYOOLA Electric City Bus Powertrain
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 155-164; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010155 - 29 Mar 2013
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 214
Abstract
In the race to decrease the well-to-wheels fuel consumption and improve environmental stewardship, auto-makers and researchers worldwide have moved to electrify the vehicle powertrain for personal and public transportation. The Center for Research in Transportation Technologies at Makerere University is exploring electric vehicle [...] Read more.
In the race to decrease the well-to-wheels fuel consumption and improve environmental stewardship, auto-makers and researchers worldwide have moved to electrify the vehicle powertrain for personal and public transportation. The Center for Research in Transportation Technologies at Makerere University is exploring electric vehicle transportation technology as a plausible solution to traffic issues in Uganda’s urban centers and cities. Electric vehicle transportation in Africa’s cities is a practical solution due to the fact that most of these cities are on a relatively small area; distances involved are small. This paper presents the technical, operational and functional aspects that were considered in the design of the KAYOOLA Electric City Bus, which has a drive cycle that suits the public transport system in Kampala City in Uganda. Since Battery Electric Vehicles have specific on-board energy, the powertrain for the KAYOOLA electric city bus was designed following the specific road-load requirements of typical city drive cycle from data obtained from actual road measurements in Kampala city. For range extension, On-board solar charging is incorporated. To accurately predict performance, Autonomie-Modeling and simulation tool kit for light and heavy duty vehicles developed by Argonne National Laboratory was used to model and simulate the entire powertrain, noting effects of the grades, range, speed and drive cycles on the battery SOC and voltage. Design iterations are made to meet performance targets. This approach was employed to reduce time between concept development and prototyping while maximizing efficiency. The results shall inform the integration of key powertrain technologies into the KAYOOLA Electric City Bus. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Design considerations for fast AC battery chargers
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 147-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010147 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) is tightly associated to the fast charging of their batteries. Both high-power DC and AC supply options are envisaged for the fast charging of the EV batteries, each of them having different features. This paper considers the AC [...] Read more.
Proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) is tightly associated to the fast charging of their batteries. Both high-power DC and AC supply options are envisaged for the fast charging of the EV batteries, each of them having different features. This paper considers the AC supply option and deals with the main issues that it poses like an onboard high-power battery charger and its impact on the grid. To face with these issues, a possible arrangement for the battery chargers consists in the integral use of the inverter bound to supply the traction motor and in the proper conditioning of the current absorbed from the grid. In the paper, design considerations for this arrangement are given and applied to the case study of a purely electric, mid-size car. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Real-time electric vehicle mass identification
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 141-146; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010141 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 213
Abstract
A technique capable of identifying electric vehicle (EV) mass in real-time has been a topic of research for several years due to the advantages it presents, such as the ability to dramatically improve range estimates, perform more effective torque vectoring for ABS/ESC, track [...] Read more.
A technique capable of identifying electric vehicle (EV) mass in real-time has been a topic of research for several years due to the advantages it presents, such as the ability to dramatically improve range estimates, perform more effective torque vectoring for ABS/ESC, track delivery vehicle weight, etc.. Some crucial issues in mass identification impede an easy implementation of such an algorithm, however, and this work introduces a simple method to calculate EV mass on-the-fly using standard data available on most CAN buses and therefore without the need of additional sensors. The results presented here are achieved using an eight step technique suitable for accurate mass estimations during wide-open-throttle acceleration events. The algorithm’s instantaneous error is less than 10%, and converges to better than 3% absolute accuracy performance with subsequent measurements. A preliminary analysis of trips lacking hard acceleration presented in this paper show an inability to differentiate between loaded and unloaded conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of Intelligent Electric Vehicle for Study of Unmanned Autonomous Driving Algorithm
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 135-140; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010135 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 266
Abstract
World-class automakers such as BMW, Audi, GM and even IT Company Google are giving much effort in developing unmanned autonomous vehicles. As it can be seen from IEEE report that 3 of every 4 vehicles in 2040 will be unmanned, the studies on [...] Read more.
World-class automakers such as BMW, Audi, GM and even IT Company Google are giving much effort in developing unmanned autonomous vehicles. As it can be seen from IEEE report that 3 of every 4 vehicles in 2040 will be unmanned, the studies on future unmanned vehicles have become very important issues these days. This report proposes an intelligent electric vehicle, developed for unmanned autonomous driving algorithm study. This intelligent electric vehicle directly controls traditional steering device and acceleration/brake pedals through electrical signals with electronic actuators which were equipped at each component. Also, various sensors were utilized to recognize surrounding situations, obstacles, and road boundary instead of human. The obtained sensor data and vehicle state are used for performing of unmanned autonomous driving, evaluating the performance of intelligent vehicles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Plug-to-wheel energy balance - Results of a two years experience behind the wheel of electric vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 130-134; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010130 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 303
Abstract
In this paper, a plug-to-wheel energy balance is made of battery electrical vehicles. The study is based on real data from a two years continuous monitoring of five Peugeot iOn cars, that was performed in Belgium since June 2011, with the financing and [...] Read more.
In this paper, a plug-to-wheel energy balance is made of battery electrical vehicles. The study is based on real data from a two years continuous monitoring of five Peugeot iOn cars, that was performed in Belgium since June 2011, with the financing and support of Electrabel. Different driving styles, trip profiles, type and intensity of use were observed, leading to different energy patterns. The AC/DC vehicle (slow) charge efficiency and brake energy recovering are considered, as well as battery efficiency and auxiliary consumption. In particular, seasonal impacts on battery efficiency and auxiliary consumption are taken into account. This gives valuable information that cannot be obtained from theoretical, e.g. NEDC measuring conditions. A broad range of values is obtained for the average plug-to-wheel efficiency. The resulting well-to-wheel efficiency is slightly better than the one of classical cars, but can still be significantly improved. The consumption of the auxiliaries is of particular importance in the total balance. Because of a higher impact of the auxiliary consumption, cars with a higher urban use show a globally lower plug-to-wheel efficiency. This is an important result when considering the urban trips as the primary segment for EV, and should encourage the EV manufacturers to focus on the reduction of auxiliary consumption. On a yearly basis, regenerative braking can be sufficient to compensate, and even over-compensate the plug-to-battery losses. The average battery losses are limited, even if they can be significant during the cold days. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Drivetrain design for an ultra light electric vehicle with high efficiency
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 124-129; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010124 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 332
Abstract
The complete drivetrain for a single person ultra light electric vehicle (EV) is optimized towards a minimal total weight and a maximal average efficiency for different driving cycles. The EV is named ELBEV, which is an acronym for Ecologic Low Budget Electric Vehicle. [...] Read more.
The complete drivetrain for a single person ultra light electric vehicle (EV) is optimized towards a minimal total weight and a maximal average efficiency for different driving cycles. The EV is named ELBEV, which is an acronym for Ecologic Low Budget Electric Vehicle. The single person ultra light EV is a tricycle, with two driven and steering front wheels and one rear wheel. The drivetrain of each front wheel consists of an outer rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a single-stage gearbox and the power electronics with converter and controller print. The drivetrain is optimized for the New European Driving Cycle, the New York City Cycle and the Federal Test Procedure. For the optimization of the drivetrain analytical models are used to calculate the losses and the efficiency. The optimized parameters of the motor are: the number of pole pairs, the number of stator slots and the outer rotor radius of the motor. Furthermore, an analytical model for the single-stage gearbox is implemented for different gear ratios (GRs). The optimized parameters for the gearbox are: the number of teeth and the module of each gear combination and the total mass of the gearbox for each GR. The analytical models are fast, and useful for designing a good PMSM in combination with a single-stage gearbox. The optimization of the complete drivetrain is always a compromise between total average efficiency over the drive cycle and the total mass of the drivetrain. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of EVs energy consumption influencing factors, driving conditions, auxiliaries use, driver's aggressiveness
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 112-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010112 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 301
Abstract
This paper presents a simulation study dealing with the influence of different factors on the energy consumption of an electric vehicle (EV). Due to the limited quantity of energy embedded in the battery, EVs are very sensitive to parameters which can influence their [...] Read more.
This paper presents a simulation study dealing with the influence of different factors on the energy consumption of an electric vehicle (EV). Due to the limited quantity of energy embedded in the battery, EVs are very sensitive to parameters which can influence their energy consumption and then can induce huge variations in their actual range. Among all these factors, driving conditions, auxiliaries' impact, driver's aggressiveness and braking energy recovery strategy are to be considered as the main factors influencing the EV energy consumption. The objective of this paper is thus to simulate and quantify the influence of each factor independently. For this, a virtual EV simulator has been created and validated through EVs experiments on a climatic 4WD chassis dyno in the frame of a project sponsored by the French ADEME and with the help of PSA, Renault and Tazzari car manufacturers. This simulator, validated thanks to a limited number of experimental results, has been then used on a very large range of operating conditions and hypotheses to extrapolate experimental results and help the analyses of influencing factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis and assessment of the electrification of urban road transport based on real-life mobility data
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 100-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010100 - 29 Mar 2013
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 216
Abstract
Assessing the potential of electric vehicles against actual user needs is a key-issue to integrate individual e-mobility in sustainable transport. An extensive analysis of real-life mobility has been carried out, in view of deriving and quantifying the potential of introducing electric vehicles in [...] Read more.
Assessing the potential of electric vehicles against actual user needs is a key-issue to integrate individual e-mobility in sustainable transport. An extensive analysis of real-life mobility has been carried out, in view of deriving and quantifying the potential of introducing electric vehicles in urban environment. A large activity data set collected with GPS black boxes mounted on approximately 16,000 vehicles monitored for a one-month period in the Italian province and city of Modena has been purchased and post-processed in order to characterise vehicles’ driving patterns. The ability of different types of electric vehicles to cover the real mobility needs of the users has been then investigated, estimating the percentage of individual trips which might be suitable to be performed by electric vehicles, as well as their potential impact on the electric energy distribution grid depending on different recharging behavioural models. The results show that more than 80% of these trips might be driven electric and that a fleet share lying between 10% and 25% can be immediately converted to battery electric vehicles, being not affected by their limited range. The quantitative key-insights based on real-life mobility data enable to address several issues, ranging from technological aspects, policy impacts and interoperability possibilities offered by the integration of electromobility with the energy distribution grid Full article
Open AccessArticle
Advanced VDC simulations of In-wheel electric vehicle using Carsim and Simulink
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 95-99; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010095 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Conventional engine based vehicles inevitably have complicated structures due to lots of elements. Because of this characteristic, research, development, and also marketing are mainly conducted by the conglomerate, like GM, BMW, Honda, and Hyundai motors, etc. But environmental pollution and fuel exhaustion by [...] Read more.
Conventional engine based vehicles inevitably have complicated structures due to lots of elements. Because of this characteristic, research, development, and also marketing are mainly conducted by the conglomerate, like GM, BMW, Honda, and Hyundai motors, etc. But environmental pollution and fuel exhaustion by the stated vehicle increase the necessity of EV(Electric Vehicle) as a representative of green car. First of all, the structure of EV is relatively simple, and energy transmission ratio of electric motor is more efficient than the engine based power train system. In addition to these, inwheel EV can estimate exact wheel torque, which is the most fundamental information for slip control, such as VDC(Vehicle dynamics control)/TCS(Traction control system)/ABS(Anti-lock brake system). Various kinds of expectable situations during EV’s navigation have been simulated through the coordination between ‘Carsim’ and ‘Simulink’. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Control Systems for High Performance Electric Cars
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 88-94; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010088 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Electric vehicle technology opens doors to a wide range of research and improvement possibilities which can be used to develop a High Performance Full Electric Competition Car. However, in our modern-day society, there are numerous prejudices against electric vehicles which lead to their [...] Read more.
Electric vehicle technology opens doors to a wide range of research and improvement possibilities which can be used to develop a High Performance Full Electric Competition Car. However, in our modern-day society, there are numerous prejudices against electric vehicles which lead to their slow introduction in the market. In this context, IDIADA has been commissioned to build Volar-e with the aim to help overcoming the current technological and social barriers of electric vehicles and to set new standards in their behaviour. In order to achieve this target, Volar-e incorporates four independently controlled electric motors. What is more, a central concept to the vehicle is the integration of an intelligent torque distribution strategy to enhance road holding, handling and performance. Applus IDIADA’s knowledge of torque vectoring technologies has led to further developments and, thus, to the incorporation of four active systems in the prototype: iTORQ+, iTORQ-, Traction Control and Launch Control. These systems have been designed with the objective of both maximizing lateral acceleration while maintaining vehicle stability and drivability and, in the overall, minimizing lap time around IDIADA’s tracks. This paper highlights the improvement of Volar-e’s behaviour thanks to implementing in it the previous mentioned control systems. A detailed model of Volar-e has been parameterized in CarSim©, encompassing not only a thorough powertrain model obtained from testing Volar-e’s electric motors on a test-bench, but also a complete suspension model defined from K&C tests. By means of different simulation manoeuvres, the systems have been finely developed and adapted to fulfil the premise of achieving a high performance electric vehicle and to define the best initial set of parameters before passing from theory to practice. Last but not least, some conclusions are presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An overview of electric and solar boats market in France
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 75-87; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010075 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Electric boats (EBoats)1 have a major role to play for the transportation of passengers, and even goods, into the centre of the cities endowed with seaborne or fluvial paths or in each places to fit the environmental rules decided by local authorities [...] Read more.
Electric boats (EBoats)1 have a major role to play for the transportation of passengers, and even goods, into the centre of the cities endowed with seaborne or fluvial paths or in each places to fit the environmental rules decided by local authorities to limit the access to protected water areas. Waterways accessing downtown are identified in many cities as relevant commuting solutions. Three market segments are emerging based on the boat uses: spare-time activities, public transportation services and goods or services applications. These boats have been developed for inland as well as maritime waters: they exist in pure electrical or hybrid versions depending on needs. They use lead acid, NiCad or lithium batteries technology. The French Electric Boats Association (AFBE), including 60 members, has identified to key levers for the development of this market: strengthening the industry position and boosting the governmental incentives. This document offers a description of the most significant electric boats applications in France, while providing the technical key points that allowed such efficient services to be reached. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Performance of a newly developed plug-in hybrid boat
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 71-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010071 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 231
Abstract
We have produced a new-type of plug-in hybrid boat. This boat has excellent environment characteristics running by electricity, while having the ability of long-distance cruising and long distance reliability because of the diesel engine. The excellent performances of this plug-in hybrid boat system [...] Read more.
We have produced a new-type of plug-in hybrid boat. This boat has excellent environment characteristics running by electricity, while having the ability of long-distance cruising and long distance reliability because of the diesel engine. The excellent performances of this plug-in hybrid boat system are described. Full article
Open AccessArticle
econnect Germany – performance and evaluation of an electrically propelled minibus for public transportation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 64-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010064 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 223
Abstract
Within the econnect project and its predecessor project SmartWheels, which are both funded by the German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), a battery electric passenger bus on the basis of a Mercedes Sprinter City 65 has been developed and tested on public [...] Read more.
Within the econnect project and its predecessor project SmartWheels, which are both funded by the German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), a battery electric passenger bus on the basis of a Mercedes Sprinter City 65 has been developed and tested on public roads. Driving without local emissions, high energy efficiency and reduced energy costs for driving are the main advantages of electric drivetrains compared to conventional ones. Otherwise the limited energy content of the battery reduces range and availability of electric propelled vehicles. Passenger buses in public transportation systems are usually driving on specified inner-urban routes and have an average driving speed of ca. 20 km/h. Next to that the breaks at the end of service offer the possibility to recharge the battery so that the average daily driving distance can be easily covered by the developed electric bus. At the EVS 26 in 2012 ika has presented the design and concept of the electric bus [1]. This paper presents the results of test drives on urban and extra-urban bus routes. Some of the routes have also a significant elevation profile. A second bus with a conventional diesel engine was also used on the same routes so that a detailed comparison and evaluation of the electric and the diesel propelled bus has been made. All test drives have been carried out in or near the city of Aachen. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An E.Bike Design for the Fourth Generation Bike-Sharing Services
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 58-63; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010058 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 240
Abstract
Bicycle sharing systems have proven their value towards urban sustainable mobility. Appropriate design of bikes for this application is fundamental for bike-sharing systems viability. A new e.Bike was designed for the specific application of bike-sharing. This bike model has a significant number of [...] Read more.
Bicycle sharing systems have proven their value towards urban sustainable mobility. Appropriate design of bikes for this application is fundamental for bike-sharing systems viability. A new e.Bike was designed for the specific application of bike-sharing. This bike model has a significant number of new features that improve the user experience through an adequate position of motor, as well as the addition of new functions such as the locking of the bike and rider safety. At the same time the reduction of number of parts and the use of new materials, contribute to the viability of this e.Bike model and the associated bike-sharing system. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of low power electric vehicles in demanding urban conditions: an application to Lisbon
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 48-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010048 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 264
Abstract
This research paper analyses the use of four electric vehicles, two motorcycles (EM) and two small low powered electric vehicles (EV) in an urban environment with demanding topography and driving profile. The vehicles were compared with conventional technologies using a methodology that was [...] Read more.
This research paper analyses the use of four electric vehicles, two motorcycles (EM) and two small low powered electric vehicles (EV) in an urban environment with demanding topography and driving profile. The vehicles were compared with conventional technologies using a methodology that was developed to estimate its drive cycle (EV-DC) as well as the corresponding energy consumption, in a life-cycle approach. This methodology uses real-world driving cycles as input performed with conventional vehicles, in this case, on representative routes in Lisbon, and estimates the impacts on the driving cycle considering that an electric vehicle was used. The deviation between the original and the estimated driving cycles for electric vehicles was quantified considering the power and speed limitations of the electric vehicles and the average speed and trip time impacts were quantified. The results indicate up to 13% longer trip time for the vehicles and up to 25% longer trip time for motorcycles, resulting of reductions in average trip speed of up to 11 and 20% respectively. In terms of fuel efficiency, the electric technologies considered may reduce the Tank-to-Wheel (TTW) energy consumption in average 10 times for the vehicles and 4 times for the motorcycles. However, the reductions in a Well-to-Wheel (WTW) approach are reduced to a 5 times reduction in energy consumption for vehicles and a 2 times reduction for motorcycles. In all, this methodology corresponds to an innovative way of understanding how low-powered electric technologies, both vehicles and motorcycles, would perform in specific applications to replace conventional technologies, both in terms of trips statistics and of energy and environmental performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Implementing electric vehicles in urban distribution: A discrete event simulation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 38-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010038 - 29 Mar 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 313
Abstract
Urban freight transport becomes increasingly important with the development of cities. However, it generates also inefficiencies on social, economic and environmental aspects. A possible solution is the use of urban distribution centres in order to rationalise the deliveries and to operate the last [...] Read more.
Urban freight transport becomes increasingly important with the development of cities. However, it generates also inefficiencies on social, economic and environmental aspects. A possible solution is the use of urban distribution centres in order to rationalise the deliveries and to operate the last miles with clean vehicles. Electric vehicles are gaining attention lately but some barriers remain. Since costs barriers were already investigated, the paper aimed at evaluating the difference of performances between a centre using a diesel truck and a centre using an electric vehicle. In order to do so, the operations of an urban distribution centre were modelled in a discrete event simulation and different scenarios were evaluated. The results showed that replacing a conventional truck by an electric van generates more traffic due to the limited payload of the van. However, the limited range does not entail the daily operations of the vehicle since a single night charge is sufficient. Better, the depth of discharge is found to be limited to a minimum of 60%. The results on the battery are similar in the second scenario where the conventional truck is replaced by an electric truck. In that scenario though, no influences are identified on the logistics performances of the urban distribution center Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electric Vehicle Performance and Consumption Evaluation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 30-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010030 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 257
Abstract
In this article, the driving performance of two electric vehicles of the latest generation clean powertrain cars is evaluated. The vehicles under test are an electric Peugeot iOn, and an AGV electric version of the Ford Transit Connect. For different torque-speed operating conditions [...] Read more.
In this article, the driving performance of two electric vehicles of the latest generation clean powertrain cars is evaluated. The vehicles under test are an electric Peugeot iOn, and an AGV electric version of the Ford Transit Connect. For different torque-speed operating conditions at wheel level, the vehicles are evaluated for their battery to wheel - electrical to mechanical - power conversion performance, with the help of chassis dynamometer testing. This generates an insight in the mapping of the consumption and efficiency value ranges for electric driving. The vehicles are also tested in real life on-road conditions, by following a pre-set representative track on public roads. Charging efficiency and consumption of auxiliaries is considered too. These tests give insight and realistic values to judge consumption, driving range and efficiency. With these results, further calculations and accurate simulations of realistic scenarios are possible Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fuel Efficiency Benefit for Electrified Vehicles from Advanced Spark-ignition Engine Technologies
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 21-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010021 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Worldwide fuel consumption regulations are becoming more and more stringent. As a result, car companies are looking at a wide portfolio of component technologies, including engines, transmissions, and electrification. This study examined fuel consumption reductions offered by a collection of advanced spark-ignition (SI) [...] Read more.
Worldwide fuel consumption regulations are becoming more and more stringent. As a result, car companies are looking at a wide portfolio of component technologies, including engines, transmissions, and electrification. This study examined fuel consumption reductions offered by a collection of advanced spark-ignition (SI) engine technologies using full-vehicle simulations. High-fidelity engine models were developed to simulate Variable Valve Lift (VVL), Turbocharging and Downsizing (T), and Gasoline Direct Injection (DI) technologies in an incremental manner through an accumulative technology pathway. Measurements from these models were used to build full-vehicle simulations for each of the technologies across a spectrum of vehicle powertrain configurations with increased electrification. Each vehicle component was algorithmically sized to meet common performance criteria to ensure uniformity and comparability. The effects of vehicle hybridization and electrification on the technology fuel reductions while transitioning from conventional to mild, full, and plug-in hybrid configurations were investigated. Conventional vehicles were found to attain the highest overall benefits, while mild and full hybrid vehicles attained lower benefits. A negative correlation was found between engine technology benefit and vehicle hybridization. Over the pathway, cycles, and configurations investigated, average benefits for DI were found to be 8.0%; VVL, 3.4%; Turbocharging and downsizing, 9.7%; and downsizing from 1.6 L to 1.2 L, 2.7%. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Trends in Vehicle Concept and Key Technology Development for Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 9-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010009 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 510
Abstract
This paper examines the state-of-the-art and trends in vehicle concept as well as key technology development in the context of electric mobility in a time frame from 2002 until 2012. Thus, an extensive vehicle concept database was designed, covering detailed technical specifications of [...] Read more.
This paper examines the state-of-the-art and trends in vehicle concept as well as key technology development in the context of electric mobility in a time frame from 2002 until 2012. Thus, an extensive vehicle concept database was designed, covering detailed technical specifications of more than 200 electrified vehicles in 3 different world regions, also considering different stages in vehicle development. By analyzing and comparing over 75 different market- and technology-oriented parameters per vehicle, sophisticated statements for the state-of-the-art and development trends of Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles are identified. Results in this paper illustrate trends for Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicle concept development with a focus on vehicle development stages, vehicle segments and powertrain architectures. On the other hand, state-of-the-art and trends for the development of two electric mobility key technologies are pointed out: Batteries and electric machines. Statements here are made for developments in terms of battery and electric machine technology, installation place, as well as technical parameters like energy capacity and power density. Key results illustrate e.g. a trend towards the use of front and rear axle motors, a more than doubled average electric machine power density with over 1,0kW/kg and an average BEV battery capacity of 19Wh per kg vehicle mass in 2012. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of electromobility on automotive architectures
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010001 - 29 Mar 2013
Viewed by 270
Abstract
The introduction of alternative powertrain technologies has brought increased design freedom in spaces within a vehicle that were previously constrained by traditional ones. Such freedom will affect the overall architecture and appearance of future alternative cars. However, these vehicles require the design, development, [...] Read more.
The introduction of alternative powertrain technologies has brought increased design freedom in spaces within a vehicle that were previously constrained by traditional ones. Such freedom will affect the overall architecture and appearance of future alternative cars. However, these vehicles require the design, development, and integration of new specific components that are not relevant in conventional combustiondriven cars. This paper is a short review of challenges and methodological approaches regarding the design for changeability in future alternative vehicle production and design, and in particular, of methods coping with interchangeability. Modularity is seen as an appealing design approach that supports vehicle manufacturers for a wider spectrum of different interchangeable technologies, involving both production processes and products. The concepts of modularity in production, modularity in design, modularity in use, and technical modularity are here presented. Full article
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