Next Article in Journal
Development for Hybrid MPV Control Strategy
Previous Article in Journal
Electrochemical model and its parameters identification tool for the follow up of batteries ageing
World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of low power electric vehicles in demanding urban conditions: an application to Lisbon

IDMEC - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 - 1049-001 Lisboa – Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 48-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj6010048
Published: 29 March 2013
PDF [780 KB, uploaded 17 May 2018]

Abstract

This research paper analyses the use of four electric vehicles, two motorcycles (EM) and two small low powered electric vehicles (EV) in an urban environment with demanding topography and driving profile. The vehicles were compared with conventional technologies using a methodology that was developed to estimate its drive cycle (EV-DC) as well as the corresponding energy consumption, in a life-cycle approach. This methodology uses real-world driving cycles as input performed with conventional vehicles, in this case, on representative routes in Lisbon, and estimates the impacts on the driving cycle considering that an electric vehicle was used. The deviation between the original and the estimated driving cycles for electric vehicles was quantified considering the power and speed limitations of the electric vehicles and the average speed and trip time impacts were quantified. The results indicate up to 13% longer trip time for the vehicles and up to 25% longer trip time for motorcycles, resulting of reductions in average trip speed of up to 11 and 20% respectively. In terms of fuel efficiency, the electric technologies considered may reduce the Tank-to-Wheel (TTW) energy consumption in average 10 times for the vehicles and 4 times for the motorcycles. However, the reductions in a Well-to-Wheel (WTW) approach are reduced to a 5 times reduction in energy consumption for vehicles and a 2 times reduction for motorcycles. In all, this methodology corresponds to an innovative way of understanding how low-powered electric technologies, both vehicles and motorcycles, would perform in specific applications to replace conventional technologies, both in terms of trips statistics and of energy and environmental performance.
Keywords: electric motorcycles and small low-powered electric vehicles; drive cycle simulation; on-road monitoring; energy and efficiency impacts electric motorcycles and small low-powered electric vehicles; drive cycle simulation; on-road monitoring; energy and efficiency impacts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Baptista, P.; Duarte, G.; Gonçalves, G.; Farias, T. Evaluation of low power electric vehicles in demanding urban conditions: an application to Lisbon. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 48-57.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top