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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Drivetrain design for an ultra light electric vehicle with high efficiency

Dept. Industrial Technology & Construction, Electrical Energy Research Group, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
Dept. Electrical Energy, Systems & Automation, Electrical Energy Laboratory, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 124-129;
Published: 29 March 2013
PDF [2108 KB, uploaded 17 May 2018]


The complete drivetrain for a single person ultra light electric vehicle (EV) is optimized towards a minimal total weight and a maximal average efficiency for different driving cycles. The EV is named ELBEV, which is an acronym for Ecologic Low Budget Electric Vehicle. The single person ultra light EV is a tricycle, with two driven and steering front wheels and one rear wheel. The drivetrain of each front wheel consists of an outer rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a single-stage gearbox and the power electronics with converter and controller print. The drivetrain is optimized for the New European Driving Cycle, the New York City Cycle and the Federal Test Procedure. For the optimization of the drivetrain analytical models are used to calculate the losses and the efficiency. The optimized parameters of the motor are: the number of pole pairs, the number of stator slots and the outer rotor radius of the motor. Furthermore, an analytical model for the single-stage gearbox is implemented for different gear ratios (GRs). The optimized parameters for the gearbox are: the number of teeth and the module of each gear combination and the total mass of the gearbox for each GR. The analytical models are fast, and useful for designing a good PMSM in combination with a single-stage gearbox. The optimization of the complete drivetrain is always a compromise between total average efficiency over the drive cycle and the total mass of the drivetrain.
Keywords: Integrated design; Drivetrain; Ultra light electric vehicle Integrated design; Drivetrain; Ultra light electric vehicle
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Hofman, I.; Sergeant, P.; Van den Bossche, A. Drivetrain design for an ultra light electric vehicle with high efficiency. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 124-129.

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World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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