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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Realistic estimates of EV range based on extensive laboratory and field tests in Nordic climate conditions

VTT, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo, Finland
TSS:LSP SE-402 78 Göteborg, Sweden
GreenNet Finland, FI-01510 Vantaa, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 192-203;
Published: 29 March 2013
PDF [1108 KB, uploaded 17 May 2018]


Shortage of range is by far the greatest flaw in current electric vehicle technology. Furthermore, energy use is also highly dependent on duty cycles, driving conditions and traffic situation. Additionally, cabin heating in an EV will not be supported by energy losses as in an ICE-car. Therefore, actual range can differ sub-stantially in real-life situations, and can be much shorter than the official figures given by the manufactur-ers. Project RekkEVidde is aiming at drafting a testing scheme to address EV driving in Nordic conditions, and produce realistic range estimates for the consumers to help them understand this raising technology and make successful purchase decisions. Both in-laboratory and field testing in actual winter weather condi-tions has been performed with almost all publicly available electric vehicles. The outcome of the project is a confirmation that in Nordic climate the adverse driving conditions and especially thermal management of the cabin for adequate driving comfort will seriously shorten the range. Therefore, additional testing to re-flect this is definitely needed to complement the official regulatory test. However, it may not have to be very complex, as the testing workshop held in Northern Sweden proved. Already steady-speed driving with heater on and logging the cabin temperatures and energy consumption from the CAN-bus can provide val-uable information on how the vehicle can perform in cold climate
Keywords: EV (electric vehicle); range; data aquisition; cold climate; energy label EV (electric vehicle); range; data aquisition; cold climate; energy label
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Laurikko, J.; Granström, R.; Haakana, A. Realistic estimates of EV range based on extensive laboratory and field tests in Nordic climate conditions. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 192-203.

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