Next Article in Journal
A State-of-Charge and Capacity Estimation Algorithm for Lithium-ion Battery Pack Utilizing Filtered Terminal Voltage
Previous Article in Journal
Design considerations for fast AC battery chargers
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Model Based Engineering and Realization of the KAYOOLA Electric City Bus Powertrain

Center for Research in Transportation Technologies, Makerere University, P.O Box 7062, Uganda
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(1), 155-164;
Published: 29 March 2013
PDF [527 KB, uploaded 17 May 2018]


In the race to decrease the well-to-wheels fuel consumption and improve environmental stewardship, auto-makers and researchers worldwide have moved to electrify the vehicle powertrain for personal and public transportation. The Center for Research in Transportation Technologies at Makerere University is exploring electric vehicle transportation technology as a plausible solution to traffic issues in Uganda’s urban centers and cities. Electric vehicle transportation in Africa’s cities is a practical solution due to the fact that most of these cities are on a relatively small area; distances involved are small. This paper presents the technical, operational and functional aspects that were considered in the design of the KAYOOLA Electric City Bus, which has a drive cycle that suits the public transport system in Kampala City in Uganda. Since Battery Electric Vehicles have specific on-board energy, the powertrain for the KAYOOLA electric city bus was designed following the specific road-load requirements of typical city drive cycle from data obtained from actual road measurements in Kampala city. For range extension, On-board solar charging is incorporated. To accurately predict performance, Autonomie-Modeling and simulation tool kit for light and heavy duty vehicles developed by Argonne National Laboratory was used to model and simulate the entire powertrain, noting effects of the grades, range, speed and drive cycles on the battery SOC and voltage. Design iterations are made to meet performance targets. This approach was employed to reduce time between concept development and prototyping while maximizing efficiency. The results shall inform the integration of key powertrain technologies into the KAYOOLA Electric City Bus.
Keywords: KAYOOLA Electric City Bus; Model Based Engineering; Powertrain; City Drive Cycle KAYOOLA Electric City Bus; Model Based Engineering; Powertrain; City Drive Cycle
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Madanda, R.; Musasizi, P.I.; Asiimwe, A.T.; Matovu, F.; Africa, J.; Tickodri-Togboa, S.S. Model Based Engineering and Realization of the KAYOOLA Electric City Bus Powertrain. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 155-164.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top