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Future Internet, Volume 12, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 18 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The vision of cooperative, connected, and automated mobility (CCAM) across Europe can only be [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Future Internet in 2019
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010018 - 20 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Steganalysis of Quantization Index Modulation Steganography in G.723.1 Codec
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010017 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Steganalysis is used for preventing the illegal use of steganography to ensure the security of network communication through detecting whether or not secret information is hidden in the carrier. This paper presents an approach to detect the quantization index modulation (QIM) of steganography [...] Read more.
Steganalysis is used for preventing the illegal use of steganography to ensure the security of network communication through detecting whether or not secret information is hidden in the carrier. This paper presents an approach to detect the quantization index modulation (QIM) of steganography in G.723.1 based on the analysis of the probability of occurrence of index values before and after steganography and studying the influence of adjacent index values in voice over internet protocol (VoIP). According to the change of index value distribution characteristics, this approach extracts the distribution probability matrix and the transition probability matrix as feature vectors, and uses principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensionality. Through a large amount of sample training, the support vector machine (SVM) is designed as a classifier to detect the QIM steganography. The speech samples with different embedding rates and different durations were tested to verify their impact on the accuracy of the steganalysis. The experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the accuracy and reliability of the steganalysis. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Geocentric Spherical Surfaces Emulating the Geostationary Orbit at Any Latitude with Zenith Links
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010016 (registering DOI) - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 189
Abstract
According to altitude, the orbits of satellites constellations can be divided into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), medium Earth orbit (MEO), and low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations. We propose to use a Walker star constellation with polar orbits, at any altitude, to emulate the [...] Read more.
According to altitude, the orbits of satellites constellations can be divided into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), medium Earth orbit (MEO), and low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations. We propose to use a Walker star constellation with polar orbits, at any altitude, to emulate the geostationary orbit with zenith paths at any latitude. Any transmitter/receiver will be linked to a satellite as if the site were at the equator and the satellite at the local zenith. This constellation design can have most of the advantages of the current GEO, MEO, and LEO constellations, without having most of their drawbacks. Doppler phenomena are largely minimized because the connected satellite is always seen almost at the local zenith. The extra free-space loss, due to the fixed pointing of all antennas, is at most 6 dBs when the satellite enters or leaves the service area. The connections among satellites are easy because the positions in the orbital plane and in adjacent planes are constant, although with variable distances. No steering antennas are required. The tropospheric propagation fading and scintillations are minimized. Our aim is to put forth the theoretical ideas about this design, to which we refer to as the geostationary surface (GeoSurf) constellation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Authority Revocable Access Control Method Based on CP-ABE in NDN
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010015 (registering DOI) - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 238
Abstract
For the future of the Internet, because information-centric network (ICN) have natural advantages in terms of content distribution, mobility, and security, it is regarded as a potential solution, or even the key, to solve many current problems. Named Data Network (NDN) is one [...] Read more.
For the future of the Internet, because information-centric network (ICN) have natural advantages in terms of content distribution, mobility, and security, it is regarded as a potential solution, or even the key, to solve many current problems. Named Data Network (NDN) is one of the research projects initiated by the United States for network architecture. NDN is a more popular project than ICN. The information cache in the NDN separates content from content publishers, but content security is threatened because of the lack of security controls. Therefore, a multi-authority revocable access control method based on CP-ABE needs to be proposed. This method constructs a proxy-assisted access control scheme, which can implement effective data access control in NDN networks, and the scheme has high security. Because of the partial decryption on the NDN node, the decryption burden of the consumer client in the solution is reduced, and effective user and attribute revocation is achieved, and forward security and backward security are ensured, and collusion attacks are prevented. Finally, through the other security and performance analysis of the scheme of this paper, it proves that the scheme is safe and efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Named Data Networking Architecture)
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Open AccessCommunication
Twitter-Based Safety Confirmation System for Disaster Situations
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010014 (registering DOI) - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 190
Abstract
In the aftermath of disastrous events in Japan, safety information and rescue requests, as well as emergency alerts and damage situations, have been shared on Twitter. However, even victims who are familiar with smartphones or similar devices and social media cannot easily share [...] Read more.
In the aftermath of disastrous events in Japan, safety information and rescue requests, as well as emergency alerts and damage situations, have been shared on Twitter. However, even victims who are familiar with smartphones or similar devices and social media cannot easily share detailed information, such as the coordinates or address of their current location, which are essential components of safety information and rescue requests. Moreover, local governments and rescue experts have difficulty in gathering such tweets from Twitter. In this paper, we propose a novel system to enable the victims to share their safety information, make rescue requests, and enable quick information gathering for decision making by local government staff or rescue experts. The proposed system is a Twitter-based safety confirmation system named [email protected] Using the proposed application, the users can easily submit their safety information and send rescue requests on Twitter. The users who want to confirm the safety information can check it quickly on Twitter or via this system. Furthermore, the registered safety information is displayed on an online map to support rescue and assistance activities by local governments and rescue experts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Web-Based Communities and Social Media)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Long-Range Wireless Radio Technologies: A Survey
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010013 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Wireless networks are now a part of the everyday life of many people and are used for many applications. Recently, new technologies that enable low-power and long-range communications have emerged. These technologies, in opposition to more traditional communication technologies rather defined as "short [...] Read more.
Wireless networks are now a part of the everyday life of many people and are used for many applications. Recently, new technologies that enable low-power and long-range communications have emerged. These technologies, in opposition to more traditional communication technologies rather defined as "short range", allow kilometer-wide wireless communications. Long-range technologies are used to form Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWAN). Many LPWAN technologies are available, and they offer different performances, business models etc., answering different applications’ needs. This makes it hard to find the right tool for a specific use case. In this article, we present a survey about the long-range technologies available presently as well as the technical characteristics they offer. Then we propose a discussion about the energy consumption of each alternative and which one may be most adapted depending on the use case requirements and expectations, as well as guidelines to choose the best suited technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Featured Reviews of Future Internet Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Mitigating Webshell Attacks through Machine Learning Techniques
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010012 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 294
Abstract
A webshell is a command execution environment in the form of web pages. It is often used by attackers as a backdoor tool for web server operations. Accurately detecting webshells is of great significance to web server protection. Most security products detect webshells [...] Read more.
A webshell is a command execution environment in the form of web pages. It is often used by attackers as a backdoor tool for web server operations. Accurately detecting webshells is of great significance to web server protection. Most security products detect webshells based on feature-matching methods—matching input scripts against pre-built malicious code collections. The feature-matching method has a low detection rate for obfuscated webshells. However, with the help of machine learning algorithms, webshells can be detected more efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we propose a new PHP webshell detection model, the NB-Opcode (naïve Bayes and opcode sequence) model, which is a combination of naïve Bayes classifiers and opcode sequences. Through experiments and analysis on a large number of samples, the experimental results show that the proposed method could effectively detect a range of webshells. Compared with the traditional webshell detection methods, this method improves the efficiency and accuracy of webshell detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Social Networks and Solutions)
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Open AccessArticle
WLAN Aware Cognitive Medium Access Control Protocol for IoT Applications
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010011 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT)-based devices consist of wireless sensor nodes that are battery-powered; thus, energy efficiency is a major issue. IEEE 802.15.4-compliant IoT devices operate in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band of 2.4 GHz and are subject to interference caused [...] Read more.
Internet of Things (IoT)-based devices consist of wireless sensor nodes that are battery-powered; thus, energy efficiency is a major issue. IEEE 802.15.4-compliant IoT devices operate in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band of 2.4 GHz and are subject to interference caused by high-powered IEEE 802.11-compliant Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) users. This interference causes frequent packet drop and energy loss for IoT users. In this work, we propose a WLAN Aware Cognitive Medium Access Control (WAC-MAC) protocol for IoT users that uses techniques, such as energy detection based sensing, adaptive wake-up scheduling, and adaptive backoff, to reduce interference with the WSN and improve network lifetime of the IoT users. Results show that the proposed WAC-MAC achieves a higher packet reception rate and reduces the energy consumption of IoT nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Internet of Things for Smart Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
An Architecture for Biometric Electronic Identification Document System Based on Blockchain
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010010 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 359
Abstract
This paper proposes an architecture for biometric electronic identification document (e-ID) system based on Blockchain for citizens identity verification in transactions corresponding to the notary, registration, tax declaration and payment, basic health services and registration of economic activities, among others. To validate the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an architecture for biometric electronic identification document (e-ID) system based on Blockchain for citizens identity verification in transactions corresponding to the notary, registration, tax declaration and payment, basic health services and registration of economic activities, among others. To validate the user authentication, a biometric e-ID system is used to avoid spoofing and related attacks. Also, to validate the document a digital certificate is used with the corresponding public and private key for each citizen by using a user’s PIN. The proposed transaction validation process was implemented on a Blockchain system in order to record and verify the transactions made by all citizens registered in the electoral census, which guarantees security, integrity, scalability, traceability, and no-ambiguity. Additionally, a Blockchain network architecture is presented in a distributed and decentralized way including all the nodes of the network, database and government entities such as national register and notary offices. The results of the application of a new consensus algorithm to our Blockchain network are also presented showing mining time, memory and CPU usage when the number of transactions scales up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities, Innovation, and Multi-Dimensionality)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Bridge Displacement Monitoring Algorithms Based on Multi-Targets Tracking
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010009 - 08 Jan 2020
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Bridge displacement measurement is an important area of bridge health monitoring, which can directly reflect whether the deformation of bridge structure exceeds its safety permission. Target tracking technology and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) are two fast-developing and well-known methods for non-contact bridge displacement [...] Read more.
Bridge displacement measurement is an important area of bridge health monitoring, which can directly reflect whether the deformation of bridge structure exceeds its safety permission. Target tracking technology and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) are two fast-developing and well-known methods for non-contact bridge displacement monitoring in Digital Image Processing (DIP) methods. The former’s cost of erecting detection equipment is too large for bridges with a large span that need to locate more multi-targets because of its tracking only one target on a camera while the latter is not suitable for remote detection because it requires very high detection conditions. After investigating the evolution of bridge displacement monitoring, this paper proposes a bridge displacement monitoring algorithm based on multi-target tracking. The algorithm takes full account of practical application and realizes accuracy, robustness, real-time, low-cost, simplicity, and self-adaptability, which sufficiently adapts the bridge displacement monitoring in theory. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Resource Allocation Scheme in NOMA-Based Cellular Network with D2D Communications
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010008 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has become a promising technology for 5G. With the support of effective resource allocation algorithms, it can improve the spectrum resource utilization and system throughput. In this article, a new resource allocation algorithm in the NOMA-enhanced cellular network with [...] Read more.
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has become a promising technology for 5G. With the support of effective resource allocation algorithms, it can improve the spectrum resource utilization and system throughput. In this article, a new resource allocation algorithm in the NOMA-enhanced cellular network with device-to-device (D2D) communications is proposed, in which we use two new searching methods and an optimal link selection scheme to maximize the system throughput and limit the interferences of the NOMA-based cellular network. In the proposed joint user scheduling, tree-based search power allocation and link selection algorithm, we simplify the solving process of previous methods and set up the optimization function, which does not need to be derivable. With successive interference cancellation (SIC) technology, we give conditions for the D2D devices accessing into the network. We also propose a suboptimal scheme to schedule cellular users and D2D devices into multiple subchannels, which reduces the complexity of the exhaustive search method. Through consistent tree-based searching for the power allocation coefficients, we can get the maximum arithmetic average of the system sum rate. Meanwhile, for the existence of the part of interferences from larger power users which can be canceled by the SIC in NOMA systems, the search options are decreased for increasing the search rate of the power allocation algorithm. Moreover, we propose a distance-aware link selection scheme to guarantee the quality of communications. In summary, the proposed algorithm can improve the system throughput, has a low complexity cost and potentially increases spectral utilization. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves a higher data transmission rate than some of the traditional methods and we also investigate the convergence and the computational complexity cost of the joint algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV)
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010007 - 02 Jan 2020
Viewed by 337
Abstract
The role of Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) have been instrumental in realizing the transition and vision “from black boxes to a white box towards facilitating 5G network architectures”. Though significant research results and several deployments have occurred and [...] Read more.
The role of Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) have been instrumental in realizing the transition and vision “from black boxes to a white box towards facilitating 5G network architectures”. Though significant research results and several deployments have occurred and realized over the last few years focusing on the NFV and SDN technologies, several issues—both of theoretical and practical importance—remain still open. Accordingly, the papers of this special issue are significant contributions samples within the general ecosystem highlighted above, ranging from SDN and NFV architectures and implementations, to SDN-NFV integration and orchestration approaches, while considering issues associated with optimization, network management and security aspects. In particular, a total of nine excellent articles (one review and eight original research articles) have been accepted, following a rigorous review process, and addressing many of the aforementioned challenges and beyond. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Search Engine Optimization
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010006 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 434
Abstract
The introduction of the World Wide Web (WWW), 25 years ago, has considerably altered the manner in which people obtain information [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Search Engine Optimization)
Open AccessArticle
5G Cross-Border Operation for Connected and Automated Mobility: Challenges and Solutions
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010005 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 499
Abstract
The vision of cooperative, connected and automated mobility (CCAM) across Europe can only be realized when harmonized solutions that support cross-border traffic exist. The possibility of providing CCAM services along different countries when vehicles drive across various national borders has a huge innovative [...] Read more.
The vision of cooperative, connected and automated mobility (CCAM) across Europe can only be realized when harmonized solutions that support cross-border traffic exist. The possibility of providing CCAM services along different countries when vehicles drive across various national borders has a huge innovative business potential. However, the seamless provision of connectivity and the uninterrupted delivery of services along borders also poses interesting technical challenges. The situation is particularly innovative given the multi-country, multi-operator, multi-telco-vendor, and multi-car-manufacturer scenario of any cross-border layout. This paper introduces the challenges associated to a cross-border deployment of communication technologies through the analysis of three use cases: tele-operated driving, high-definition map generation and distribution for autonomous vehicles, and anticipated cooperative collision avoidance. Furthermore, a set of 5G solutions have been identified to ensure that CCAM services can be supported efficiently in cross-border scenarios. Faster handover of a data connection from one operator to another, generalized inter-mobile edge computing (MEC) coordination, and quality of service (QoS) prediction are some of the solutions that have been introduced to reduce the uncertainties of a real 5G cross-border deployment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transactive Energy to Thwart Load Altering Attacks on Power Distribution Systems
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010004 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 399
Abstract
The automatic generation control mechanism in power generators comes into operation whenever an over-supply or under-supply of energy occurs in the power grid. It has been shown that the automatic generation control mechanism is highly vulnerable to load altering attacks. In this type [...] Read more.
The automatic generation control mechanism in power generators comes into operation whenever an over-supply or under-supply of energy occurs in the power grid. It has been shown that the automatic generation control mechanism is highly vulnerable to load altering attacks. In this type of attack, the power consumption of multiple electric loads in power distribution systems is remotely altered by cyber attackers in such a way that the automatic generation control mechanism is disrupted and is hindered from performing its pivotal role. The existing literature on load altering attacks has studied implementation, detection, and location identification of these attacks. However, no prior work has ever studied design of an attack-thwarting system that can counter load altering attacks, once they are detected in the power grid. This paper addresses the above shortcoming by proposing an attack-thwarting system for countering load altering attacks. The proposed system is based on provoking real-time adjustment in power consumption of the flexible loads in response to the frequency disturbances caused by the load altering attacks. To make the adjustments in-proportion to the frequency disturbances, the proposed attack-thwarting system uses a transactive energy framework to establish a coordination between the flexible loads and the power grid operator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
Decoupling-Based Channel Access Mechanism for Improving Throughput and Fairness in Dense Multi-Rate WLANs
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010003 - 23 Dec 2019
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Legacy IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) adopts the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) mechanism, which provides the same access opportunity for all contenders. However, in dense multi-rate Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), the pure distributed control mechanism will cause high collision rate and [...] Read more.
Legacy IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) adopts the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) mechanism, which provides the same access opportunity for all contenders. However, in dense multi-rate Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), the pure distributed control mechanism will cause high collision rate and performance anomaly, which results in low network utilization and wasting valuable channel resources. In this paper, we present a decoupling MAC mechanism (DMAC) based on the idea of contention/reservation to reduce collision and realize collision free data transmission. In proposed mechanism, the channel access time is partitioned into channel contention process and data transmission process. The proposed algorithm makes full use of the distributed random channel access mechanism and performs a centralized collision-free data transmission. Wherein, we also design an adaptive algorithm to adjust the length of the contention period to improve the channel utilization. Furthermore, we further propose two airtime fairness algorithms Improve-DMAC1 (I-DMAC1) and Improve-DMAC2 (I-DMAC2) for delay sensitive network and high throughput network scenarios, respectively, to solve the performance anomaly in multi-rate WLANs, based on DMAC. We verify the effectiveness of these decoupling algorithms through extensive simulations. Moreover, the simulation results show that the proposed algorithms achieve better performance than the 802.11 standard and other protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Differential Protection and Fast Auto-Closing System for 10 kV Distribution Networks Based on 4G LTE Wireless Communication
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010002 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 416
Abstract
With the development of wireless communication technology and computer technology, more and more smart technologies have been applied in electricity distribution networks. This paper presents an adaptive current differential protection and fast auto-closing system for application in 10 kV distribution networks in China [...] Read more.
With the development of wireless communication technology and computer technology, more and more smart technologies have been applied in electricity distribution networks. This paper presents an adaptive current differential protection and fast auto-closing system for application in 10 kV distribution networks in China Southern Power Grid. The current differential protection can adaptively change its settings according to the topology change of the primary distribution networks, thus the system effectively reduces the operation and maintenance cost of the power distribution network. In order to restore the power supply for the healthy part of the 10 kV networks quickly after a power system fault is cleared, the protection and control system provides wide area control function for automatic fault isolation and automatic switching. The traditional overcurrent protection and control system have no fault location function, it may take several minutes or even hours to manually locate a fault and then restore the power supply. Compared with the protection and control system of the traditional 10 kV distribution networks, the system developed can locate and isolate faults within 900 ms (assuming that the operating time of the load switch is 700 ms), and can quickly restore power supply in less than one second after a power system fault is cleared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
Coverage and Energy Efficiency Analysis for Two-Tier Heterogeneous Cellular Networks Based on Matérn Hard-Core Process
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010001 - 19 Dec 2019
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Due to the dense deployment of base stations (BSs) in heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs), the energy efficiency (EE) of HCN has attracted the attention of academia and industry. Considering its mathematical tractability, the Poisson point process (PPP) has been employed to model HCNs [...] Read more.
Due to the dense deployment of base stations (BSs) in heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs), the energy efficiency (EE) of HCN has attracted the attention of academia and industry. Considering its mathematical tractability, the Poisson point process (PPP) has been employed to model HCNs and analyze their performance widely. The PPP falls short in modeling the effect of interference management techniques, which typically introduces some form of spatial mutual exclusion among BSs. In PPP, all the nodes are independent from each other. As such, PPP may not be suitable to model networks with interference management techniques, where there exists repulsion among the nodes. Considering this, we adopt the Matérn hard-core process (MHCP) instead of PPP, in which no two nodes can be closer than a repulsion radius from one another. In this paper, we study the coverage performance and EE of a two-tier HCN modelled by Matérn hard-core process (MHCP); we abbreviate this kind of two-tier HCN as MHCP-MHCP. We first derive the approximate expression of coverage probability of MHCP-MHCP by extending the approximate signal to interference ratio analysis based on the PPP (ASAPPP) method to multi-tier HCN. The concrete SIR gain of the MHCP model relative to the PPP model is derived through simulation and data fitting. On the basis of coverage analysis, we derive and formulate the EE of MHCP-MHCP network. Simulation results verify the correctness of our theoretical analysis and show the performance difference between the MHCP-MHCP and PPP modelled network. Full article
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