Special Issue "Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities"

A special issue of Future Internet (ISSN 1999-5903).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Om P. Malik
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Interests: power systems control and protection; adaptive and intelligent control; renewable generation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This issue is dedicated to the 3rd International Conference on Smart Grid and Smart Cities (ICSGSC 2019), devoted to topics related to recent trends and progress made in the field of smarter grid, green energy and smart cities. ICSGSC 2019 will take place at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, 25–28 June 2019. However, the issue will not be limited to papers presented at the conference. Original and innovative contributions that include enhanced reliability and resilience, higher intelligence and optimized control, decentralized operation, higher operational efficiency, efficient demand management and better power quality are also invited.

For the past few years, research and development at the academic, industry, business and government levels has been devoted to make the power grid smarter as envisaged, to be the next generation electric grid for smart cities. It will enable the smart integration of conventional power generation, renewable generation, distributed generation, energy storage, transmission, distribution and demand management. However, all these prospective transformations also bring with them numerous challenges and opportunities. This is an open call for contributions to both ICSGSC 2019 and this issue.

Prof. Dr. Om P. Malik
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Future Internet is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Technologies for Smarter Grid
  • Smart Cities
  • Integration of Renewable and Conventional Generation
  • Enhanced Reliability and Resiliency
  • Intelligent and Optimized Control
  • Demand Management
  • Operational Efficiency

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities
Future Internet 2020, 12(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12020037 - 14 Feb 2020
Abstract
Taking advantage of new developing technologies, power systems are being developed into smarter grids with the vision of becoming the next-generation electric grid for smart cities. Some of the emerging issues and challenges associated with the development of technologies for smarter grids and [...] Read more.
Taking advantage of new developing technologies, power systems are being developed into smarter grids with the vision of becoming the next-generation electric grid for smart cities. Some of the emerging issues and challenges associated with the development of technologies for smarter grids and smart cities are highlighted in this special issue of the Future Internet journal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Transactive Energy to Thwart Load Altering Attacks on Power Distribution Systems
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010004 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The automatic generation control mechanism in power generators comes into operation whenever an over-supply or under-supply of energy occurs in the power grid. It has been shown that the automatic generation control mechanism is highly vulnerable to load altering attacks. In this type [...] Read more.
The automatic generation control mechanism in power generators comes into operation whenever an over-supply or under-supply of energy occurs in the power grid. It has been shown that the automatic generation control mechanism is highly vulnerable to load altering attacks. In this type of attack, the power consumption of multiple electric loads in power distribution systems is remotely altered by cyber attackers in such a way that the automatic generation control mechanism is disrupted and is hindered from performing its pivotal role. The existing literature on load altering attacks has studied implementation, detection, and location identification of these attacks. However, no prior work has ever studied design of an attack-thwarting system that can counter load altering attacks, once they are detected in the power grid. This paper addresses the above shortcoming by proposing an attack-thwarting system for countering load altering attacks. The proposed system is based on provoking real-time adjustment in power consumption of the flexible loads in response to the frequency disturbances caused by the load altering attacks. To make the adjustments in-proportion to the frequency disturbances, the proposed attack-thwarting system uses a transactive energy framework to establish a coordination between the flexible loads and the power grid operator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Differential Protection and Fast Auto-Closing System for 10 kV Distribution Networks Based on 4G LTE Wireless Communication
Future Internet 2020, 12(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12010002 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
With the development of wireless communication technology and computer technology, more and more smart technologies have been applied in electricity distribution networks. This paper presents an adaptive current differential protection and fast auto-closing system for application in 10 kV distribution networks in China [...] Read more.
With the development of wireless communication technology and computer technology, more and more smart technologies have been applied in electricity distribution networks. This paper presents an adaptive current differential protection and fast auto-closing system for application in 10 kV distribution networks in China Southern Power Grid. The current differential protection can adaptively change its settings according to the topology change of the primary distribution networks, thus the system effectively reduces the operation and maintenance cost of the power distribution network. In order to restore the power supply for the healthy part of the 10 kV networks quickly after a power system fault is cleared, the protection and control system provides wide area control function for automatic fault isolation and automatic switching. The traditional overcurrent protection and control system have no fault location function, it may take several minutes or even hours to manually locate a fault and then restore the power supply. Compared with the protection and control system of the traditional 10 kV distribution networks, the system developed can locate and isolate faults within 900 ms (assuming that the operating time of the load switch is 700 ms), and can quickly restore power supply in less than one second after a power system fault is cleared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
IoT Based Smart City Bus Stops
Future Internet 2019, 11(11), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11110227 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The advent of smart sensors, single system-on-chip computing devices, Internet of Things (IoT), and cloud computing is facilitating the design and development of smart devices and services. These include smart meters, smart street lightings, smart gas stations, smart parking lots, and smart bus [...] Read more.
The advent of smart sensors, single system-on-chip computing devices, Internet of Things (IoT), and cloud computing is facilitating the design and development of smart devices and services. These include smart meters, smart street lightings, smart gas stations, smart parking lots, and smart bus stops. Countries in the Gulf region have hot and humid weather around 6–7 months of the year, which might lead to uncomfortable conditions for public commuters. Transportation authorities have made some major enhancements to existing bus stops by installing air-conditioning units, but without any remote monitoring and control features. This paper proposes a smart IoT-based environmentally - friendly enhanced design for existing bus stop services in the United Arab Emirates. The objective of the proposed design was to optimize energy consumption through estimating bus stop occupancy, remotely monitor air conditioning and lights, automatically report utility breakdowns, and measure the air pollution around the area. In order to accomplish this, bus stops will be equipped with a WiFi-Based standalone microcontroller connected to sensors and actuators. The microcontroller transmits the sensor readings to a real-time database hosted in the cloud and incorporates a mobile app that notifies operators or maintenance personnel in the case of abnormal readings or breakdowns. The mobile app encompasses a map interface enabling operators to remotely monitor the conditions of bus stops such as the temperature, humidity, estimated occupancy, and air pollution levels. In addition to presenting the system’s architecture and detailed design, a system prototype is built to test and validate the proposed solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
Operation Scheduling Optimization for Microgrids Considering Coordination of Their Components
Future Internet 2019, 11(11), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11110223 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Operation scheduling is one of the most practical optimization problems to efficiently manage the electric power supply and demand in microgrids. Although various microgrid-related techniques have been developed, there has been no established solution to the problem until now. This is because the [...] Read more.
Operation scheduling is one of the most practical optimization problems to efficiently manage the electric power supply and demand in microgrids. Although various microgrid-related techniques have been developed, there has been no established solution to the problem until now. This is because the formulated problem becomes a complicated mixed-integer programming problem having multiple optimization variables. The authors present a framework for this problem and its effective solution to obtain an operation schedule of the microgrid components considering their coordination. In the framework, trading electricity with traditional main power grids is included in the optimization target, and uncertainty originating from variable renewable energy sources is considered. In the solution, the formulated problem is reformulated to reduce the dimensions of its solution space, and, as a result, a combined algorithm of binary particle swarm optimization and quadratic programming is applicable. Through numerical simulations and discussions of their results, the validity of the authors’ proposal is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Techno-Economic Benefits of Flexible Demand Resources Scheduling for Renewable Energy–Based Smart Microgrid Planning
Future Internet 2019, 11(10), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11100219 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The need for innovative pathways for future zero-emission and sustainable power development has recently accelerated the uptake of variable renewable energy resources (VREs). However, integration of VREs such as photovoltaic and wind generators requires the right approaches to design and operational planning towards [...] Read more.
The need for innovative pathways for future zero-emission and sustainable power development has recently accelerated the uptake of variable renewable energy resources (VREs). However, integration of VREs such as photovoltaic and wind generators requires the right approaches to design and operational planning towards coping with the fluctuating outputs. This paper investigates the technical and economic prospects of scheduling flexible demand resources (FDRs) in optimal configuration planning of VRE-based microgrids. The proposed demand-side management (DSM) strategy considers short-term power generation forecast to efficiently schedule the FDRs ahead of time in order to minimize the gap between generation and load demand. The objective is to determine the optimal size of the battery energy storage, photovoltaic and wind systems at minimum total investment costs. Two simulation scenarios, without and with the consideration of DSM, were investigated. The random forest algorithm implemented on scikit-learn python environment is utilized for short-term power prediction, and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) on MATLAB® is used for optimum configuration optimization. From the simulation results obtained here, the application of FDR scheduling resulted in a significant cost saving of investment costs. Moreover, the proposed approach demonstrated the effectiveness of the FDR in minimizing the mismatch between the generation and load demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Trends and Advances Towards a Smarter Grid and Smart Cities)
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