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Future Internet, Volume 11, Issue 7 (July 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Various reference models and guidelines have been created in order to define the Industrial [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Platform Economy and Techno-Regulation—Experimenting with Reputation and Nudge
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070163
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
In the cloud-based society, where the vast majority of social, economic and personal interactions is mediated by information communication technology (ICT), technology is no longer simply a subject of regulation but is becoming an integral part of the regulatory process. Techno-regulation, the “intentional [...] Read more.
In the cloud-based society, where the vast majority of social, economic and personal interactions is mediated by information communication technology (ICT), technology is no longer simply a subject of regulation but is becoming an integral part of the regulatory process. Techno-regulation, the “intentional influencing of individuals’ behavior by building norms into technological devices,” is inspiring new ways to support legal safeguards through hardware and software tools, technical solutions allowing the creation of legal relations, hampering breaches of law and even promoting norm compliance. This paper touches on these issues by focusing on Digital Labor Platforms, one of the most relevant phenomena in the gig economy. We present a research project exploring innovative techno-regulatory solutions to protect gig economy workers. The idea is to integrate, in the same strategy, legal principles, regulatory objectives and software solutions. Our attention focuses on two results of our activity—a techno-regulatory model relying on reputational mechanisms to affect the behavior of digital labor market operators and GigAdvisor, a cross-platform experimental application implementing the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Forensic Triage Efficiency through Cyber Threat Intelligence
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070162
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
The complication of information technology and the proliferation of heterogeneous security devices that produce increased volumes of data coupled with the ever-changing threat landscape challenges have an adverse impact on the efficiency of information security controls and digital forensics, as well as incident [...] Read more.
The complication of information technology and the proliferation of heterogeneous security devices that produce increased volumes of data coupled with the ever-changing threat landscape challenges have an adverse impact on the efficiency of information security controls and digital forensics, as well as incident response approaches. Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI)and forensic preparedness are the two parts of the so-called managed security services that defendants can employ to repel, mitigate or investigate security incidents. Despite their success, there is no known effort that has combined these two approaches to enhance Digital Forensic Readiness (DFR) and thus decrease the time and cost of incident response and investigation. This paper builds upon and extends a DFR model that utilises actionable CTI to improve the maturity levels of DFR. The effectiveness and applicability of this model are evaluated through a series of experiments that employ malware-related network data simulating real-world attack scenarios. To this extent, the model manages to identify the root causes of information security incidents with high accuracy (90.73%), precision (96.17%) and recall (93.61%), while managing to decrease significantly the volume of data digital forensic investigators need to examine. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it indicates that CTI can be employed by digital forensics processes. Second, it demonstrates and evaluates an efficient mechanism that enhances operational DFR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Information and Communication Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Leveraging the Internet of Things and Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Management
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070161
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Modern supply chains have evolved into highly complex value networks and turned into a vital source of competitive advantage. However, it has become increasingly challenging to verify the source of raw materials and maintain visibility of products and merchandise while they are moving [...] Read more.
Modern supply chains have evolved into highly complex value networks and turned into a vital source of competitive advantage. However, it has become increasingly challenging to verify the source of raw materials and maintain visibility of products and merchandise while they are moving through the value chain network. The application of the Internet of Things (IoT) can help companies to observe, track, and monitor products, activities, and processes within their respective value chain networks. Other applications of IoT include product monitoring to optimize operations in warehousing‚ manufacturing, and transportation. In combination with IoT, Blockchain technology can enable a broad range of different application scenarios to enhance value chain transparency and to increase B2B trust. When combined, IoT and Blockchain technology have the potential to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of modern supply chains. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we illustrate how the deployment of Blockchain technology in combination with IoT infrastructure can streamline and benefit modern supply chains and enhance value chain networks. Second, we derive six research propositions outlining how Blockchain technology can impact key features of the IoT (i.e., scalability, security, immutability and auditing, information flows, traceability and interoperability, quality) and thus lay the foundation for future research projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud Computing and Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle
Crossing the Borders: Re-Use of Smart Learning Objects in Advanced Content Access Systems
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070160
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Researchers in many disciplines are developing novel interactive smart learning objects like exercises and visualizations. Meanwhile, Learning Management Systems (LMS) and eTextbook systems are also becoming more sophisticated in their ability to use standard protocols to make use of third party smart learning [...] Read more.
Researchers in many disciplines are developing novel interactive smart learning objects like exercises and visualizations. Meanwhile, Learning Management Systems (LMS) and eTextbook systems are also becoming more sophisticated in their ability to use standard protocols to make use of third party smart learning objects. But at this time, educational tool developers do not always make best use of the interoperability standards and need exemplars to guide and motivate their development efforts. In this paper we present a case study where the two large educational ecosystems use the Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI) standard to allow cross-sharing of their educational materials. At the end of our development process, Virginia Tech’s OpenDSA eTextbook system became able to import materials from Aalto University’s ACOS smart learning content server, such as python programming exercises and Parsons problems. Meanwhile, University of Pittsburgh’s Mastery Grids (which already uses the ACOS exercises) was made to support CodeWorkout programming exercises (a system already used within OpenDSA). Thus, four major projects in CS Education became inter-operable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Opportunities in Online Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation and Evaluation of Activity-Based Congestion Management Using P4 (P4-ABC)
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070159
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Activity-Based Congestion management (ABC) is a novel domain-based QoS mechanism providing more fairness among customers on bottleneck links. It avoids per-flow or per-customer states in the core network and is suitable for application in future 5G networks. However, ABC cannot be configured on [...] Read more.
Activity-Based Congestion management (ABC) is a novel domain-based QoS mechanism providing more fairness among customers on bottleneck links. It avoids per-flow or per-customer states in the core network and is suitable for application in future 5G networks. However, ABC cannot be configured on standard devices. P4 is a novel programmable data plane specification which allows defining new headers and forwarding behavior. In this work, we implement an ABC prototype using P4 and point out challenges experienced during implementation. Experimental validation of ABC using the P4-based prototype reveals the desired fairness results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Network Virtualization and Edge/Fog Computing)
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Open AccessArticle
Distributed Uniform Streaming Framework: An Elastic Fog Computing Platform for Event Stream Processing and Platform Transparency
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070158
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
The increase of Internet of Things devices and the rise of more computationally intense applications presents challenges for future Internet of Things architectures. We envision a future in which edge, fog, and cloud devices work together to execute future applications. Because the entire [...] Read more.
The increase of Internet of Things devices and the rise of more computationally intense applications presents challenges for future Internet of Things architectures. We envision a future in which edge, fog, and cloud devices work together to execute future applications. Because the entire application cannot run on smaller edge or fog devices, we will need to split the application into smaller application components. These application components will send event messages to each other to create a single application from multiple application components. The execution location of the application components can be optimized to minimize the resource consumption. In this paper, we describe the Distributed Uniform Stream (DUST) framework that creates an abstraction between the application components and the middleware which is required to make the execution location transparent to the application component. We describe a real-world application that uses the DUST framework for platform transparency. Next to the DUST framework, we also describe the distributed DUST Coordinator, which will optimize the resource consumption by moving the application components to a different execution location. The coordinators will use an adapted version of the Contract Net Protocol to find local minima in resource consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Attention Network for Aspect-Level Sentiment Analysis
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070157
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
Aspect-level sentiment analysis (ASA) aims at determining the sentiment polarity of specific aspect term with a given sentence. Recent advances in attention mechanisms suggest that attention models are useful in ASA tasks and can help identify focus words. Or combining attention mechanisms with [...] Read more.
Aspect-level sentiment analysis (ASA) aims at determining the sentiment polarity of specific aspect term with a given sentence. Recent advances in attention mechanisms suggest that attention models are useful in ASA tasks and can help identify focus words. Or combining attention mechanisms with neural networks are also common methods. However, according to the latest research, they often fail to extract text representations efficiently and to achieve interaction between aspect terms and contexts. In order to solve the complete task of ASA, this paper proposes a Multi-Attention Network (MAN) model which adopts several attention networks. This model not only preprocesses data by Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), but a number of measures have been taken. First, the MAN model utilizes the partial Transformer after transformation to obtain hidden sequence information. Second, because words in different location have different effects on aspect terms, we introduce location encoding to analyze the impact on distance from ASA tasks, then we obtain the influence of different words with aspect terms through the bidirectional attention network. From the experimental results of three datasets, we could find that the proposed model could achieve consistently superior results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Network Virtualization and Edge/Fog Computing)
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Open AccessArticle
A Game Theoretic Interference Management Scheme in Full Duplex Cellular Systems under Infeasible QoS Requirements
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070156
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
Several emerging mobile applications and services (e.g., autonomous cars) require higher wireless throughput than ever before. This demand stresses the need for investigating novel methods that have the potential to dramatically increase the spectral efficiency (SE) of wireless systems. An evolving approach is [...] Read more.
Several emerging mobile applications and services (e.g., autonomous cars) require higher wireless throughput than ever before. This demand stresses the need for investigating novel methods that have the potential to dramatically increase the spectral efficiency (SE) of wireless systems. An evolving approach is the Single-channel full duplex (SCFD) communication where each node may simultaneously receive and transmit over the same frequency channel, and, hence, this could potentially double the current SE figures. In an earlier research work, we derived a model of the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) in an SCFD-based cellular system with imperfect self interference cancellation, and investigated interference management under feasible QoS requirements. In this paper, game theoretic results are exploited to investigate the intercell interference management in SCFD-based cellular networks under infeasible QoS requirements. The investigation starts with a game formulation that captures two different cases. Then, the existence and uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium point are established. After that, a computationally efficient distributed algorithm, which realizes best effort and fair wireless services, is designed. The merit of this scheme is that, when the QoS requirements are feasible, they will be achieved with minimum energy consumption. Results of extensive simulation experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Network Virtualization and Edge/Fog Computing)
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Open AccessArticle
Stacking-Based Ensemble Learning of Self-Media Data for Marketing Intention Detection
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070155
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
Social network services for self-media, such as Weibo, Blog, and WeChat Public, constitute a powerful medium that allows users to publish posts every day. Due to insufficient information transparency, malicious marketing of the Internet from self-media posts imposes potential harm on society. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Social network services for self-media, such as Weibo, Blog, and WeChat Public, constitute a powerful medium that allows users to publish posts every day. Due to insufficient information transparency, malicious marketing of the Internet from self-media posts imposes potential harm on society. Therefore, it is necessary to identify news with marketing intentions for life. We follow the idea of text classification to identify marketing intentions. Although there are some current methods to address intention detection, the challenge is how the feature extraction of text reflects semantic information and how to improve the time complexity and space complexity of the recognition model. To this end, this paper proposes a machine learning method to identify marketing intentions from large-scale We-Media data. First, the proposed Latent Semantic Analysis (LSI)-Word2vec model can reflect the semantic features. Second, the decision tree model is simplified by decision tree pruning to save computing resources and reduce the time complexity. Finally, this paper examines the effects of classifier associations and uses the optimal configuration to help people efficiently identify marketing intention. Finally, the detailed experimental evaluation on several metrics shows that our approaches are effective and efficient. The F1 value can be increased by about 5%, and the running time is increased by 20%, which prove that the newly-proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of marketing news recognition. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Signatures of the Crypto-Currency Market Decoupling from the Forex
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070154
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
Based on the high-frequency recordings from Kraken, a cryptocurrency exchange and professional trading platform that aims to bring Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies into the mainstream, the multiscale cross-correlations involving the Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Euro (EUR) and US dollar (USD) are studied over [...] Read more.
Based on the high-frequency recordings from Kraken, a cryptocurrency exchange and professional trading platform that aims to bring Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies into the mainstream, the multiscale cross-correlations involving the Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Euro (EUR) and US dollar (USD) are studied over the period between 1 July 2016 and 31 December 2018. It is shown that the multiscaling characteristics of the exchange rate fluctuations related to the cryptocurrency market approach those of the Forex. This, in particular, applies to the BTC/ETH exchange rate, whose Hurst exponent by the end of 2018 started approaching the value of 0.5, which is characteristic of the mature world markets. Furthermore, the BTC/ETH direct exchange rate has already developed multifractality, which manifests itself via broad singularity spectra. A particularly significant result is that the measures applied for detecting cross-correlations between the dynamics of the BTC/ETH and EUR/USD exchange rates do not show any noticeable relationships. This could be taken as an indication that the cryptocurrency market has begun decoupling itself from the Forex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Theory and Its Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Architecting Software for the Internet of Thing Based Systems
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070153
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
Context—Internet of Thing (IoT) based systems support any-time/place computations by interconnecting humans, systems, services, devices, and things that enabling autonomous systems to shape-up digitized societies. Software architecture, as the blue-print of software-intensive systems, abstracts the complexities of modeling, design, development, and evolution [...] Read more.
Context—Internet of Thing (IoT) based systems support any-time/place computations by interconnecting humans, systems, services, devices, and things that enabling autonomous systems to shape-up digitized societies. Software architecture, as the blue-print of software-intensive systems, abstracts the complexities of modeling, design, development, and evolution phases of a software to engineer complex IoT driven systems effectively and efficiently. Objectives and Method—Research and development efforts are required to exploit architectural principle and practices to design and develop IoT systems to go beyond the state-of-the-art for IoTs. The objectives of this research are to empirically investigate and systematically classify the state-of-the-art on architecting IoT based software. We have used the Evidence Based Software Engineering (EBSE) method to conduct a mapping study of the existing IoT solutions by investigating 88 qualitatively selected studies. Results and Implications—The results of the mapping study highlight various research themes that exploit software architecture models to develop IoT systems. The identified research themes include, but are not limited to, cloud-based software ecosystems, software defined networking, autonomous, and adaptive software and agent-based systems that IoTs drive. The mapping study suggests that futuristic research on architecting IoT software is focused on architectural languages and patterns that support reusability, automation, and human decision support to develop and dynamically adapt IoT software. The mapping study represents a concentrated knowledge regarding architectural principle and practices to facilitate knowledge transfer—benefiting researchers and practitioners—on the role of software architecture for IoT systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle
A Next-Generation Core Network Architecture for Mobile Networks
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070152
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Over the years, the cellular mobile network has evolved from a wireless plain telephone system to a very complex system providing telephone service, Internet connectivity and many interworking capabilities with other networks. Its air interface performance has increased drastically over time, leading to [...] Read more.
Over the years, the cellular mobile network has evolved from a wireless plain telephone system to a very complex system providing telephone service, Internet connectivity and many interworking capabilities with other networks. Its air interface performance has increased drastically over time, leading to high throughput and low latency. Changes to the core network, however, have been slow and incremental, with increased complexity worsened by the necessity of backwards-compatibility with older-generation systems such as the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM). In this paper, a new virtualized Peer-to-Peer (P2P) core network architecture is presented. The key idea of our approach is that each user is assigned a private virtualized copy of the whole core network. This enables a higher degree of security and novel services that are not possible in today’s architecture. We describe the new architecture, focusing on its main elements, IP addressing, message flows, mobility management, and scalability. Furthermore, we will show some significant advantages this new architecture introduces. Finally, we investigate the performance of our architecture by analyzing voice-call traffic available in a database of a large U.S. cellular network provider. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Network Virtualization and Edge/Fog Computing)
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Open AccessArticle
Structuring Reference Architectures for the Industrial Internet of Things
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070151
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
The ongoing digital transformation has the potential to revolutionize nearly all industrial manufacturing processes. However, its concrete requirements and implications are still not sufficiently investigated. In order to establish a common understanding, a multitude of initiatives have published guidelines, reference frameworks and specifications, [...] Read more.
The ongoing digital transformation has the potential to revolutionize nearly all industrial manufacturing processes. However, its concrete requirements and implications are still not sufficiently investigated. In order to establish a common understanding, a multitude of initiatives have published guidelines, reference frameworks and specifications, all intending to promote their particular interpretation of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). As a result of the inconsistent use of terminology, heterogeneous structures and proposed processes, an opaque landscape has been created. The consequence is that both new users and experienced experts can hardly manage to get an overview of the amount of information and publications, and make decisions on what is best to use and to adopt. This work contributes to the state of the art by providing a structured analysis of existing reference frameworks, their classifications and the concerns they target. We supply alignments of shared concepts, identify gaps and give a structured mapping of regarded concerns at each part of the respective reference architectures. Furthermore, the linking of relevant industry standards and technologies to the architectures allows a more effective search for specifications and guidelines and supports the direct technology adoption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Town-Watching Workshop Using Disaster Information Tweeting and Mapping System
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070150
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 7 July 2019
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Abstract
Self- and mutual-help by citizens are important as well as social-help from the local governments, for disaster prevention and mitigation. Then, town watching and disaster prevention map-making workshops are held to review the town and promote self- and mutual-help by citizens. On the [...] Read more.
Self- and mutual-help by citizens are important as well as social-help from the local governments, for disaster prevention and mitigation. Then, town watching and disaster prevention map-making workshops are held to review the town and promote self- and mutual-help by citizens. On the other hand, the use of social media for information sharing during and after disasters has been gaining attention. To facilitate information sharing in disasters, we developed a web system, Disaster Information Tweeting and Mapping System (DITS/DIMS). From the above background, we organized a town-watching workshop using DITS/DIMS in October 2018 in Minami Ward, Sapporo City, Hokkaido, Japan; affected area of the Hokkaido Eastern Iburi Earthquake in September 2018. In this paper, we explain the workshop procedure, outcome, questionnaire survey results, and post-meeting. The questionnaire survey result shows that the workshop educated the participants about posting useful information on social media during a disaster. In addition, at the post-meeting, the participants recognized that they had reviewed the town only from the perspective of “daily life” convenience before the earthquake, and they had not evaluated the “emergency viewpoint.” Therefore, the workshop was a meaningful opportunity for the participants to review the town in terms of disaster prevention and mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICICT 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
An Image Authentication Scheme Using Merkle Tree Mechanisms
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070149
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
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Abstract
Research on digital image processing has become quite popular and rapid in recent years, and scholars have proposed various image verification mechanisms. Similarly , blockchain technology has also become very popular in recent years. This paper proposes a new image verification mechanism based [...] Read more.
Research on digital image processing has become quite popular and rapid in recent years, and scholars have proposed various image verification mechanisms. Similarly , blockchain technology has also become very popular in recent years. This paper proposes a new image verification mechanism based on the Merkle tree technique in the blockchain. The Merkle tree root in the blockchain mechanism provides a reliable environment for storage of image features. In image verification, the verification of each image can be performed by the Merkle tree mechanism to obtain the hash value of the Merkle tree node on the path. In addition, the method combines the Inter-Planetary File System (IPFS) to improve the availability of images. The main purpose of this paper is to achieve the goal of image integrity verification. The proposed method can not only verify the integrity of the image but also restore the tampered area in the case of image tampering. Since the proposed method employs the blockchain mechanism, the image verification mechanism does not need third party resources . The verification method is performed by each node in the blockchain network. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method successfully achieved the goal of image authentication and tampered area restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Theory and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of the Floating Action Button on Quality of Experience
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070148
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
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Abstract
Google’s Material Design, created in 2014, led to the extended application of floating action buttons (FAB) in user interfaces of web pages and mobile applications. FAB’s roll is to trigger an activity either on the present screen, or it can play out an [...] Read more.
Google’s Material Design, created in 2014, led to the extended application of floating action buttons (FAB) in user interfaces of web pages and mobile applications. FAB’s roll is to trigger an activity either on the present screen, or it can play out an activity that makes another screen. A few specialists in user experience (UX) and user interface (UI) design are sceptical regarding the usability of FAB in the interfaces of both web pages and mobile applications. They claim that the use of FAB easily distracts users and that it interferes with using other important functions of the applications, and it is unusable in applications designed for iOS systems. The aim of this paper is to investigate by an experiment the quality of experience (QoE) of a static and animated FAB and compare it to the toolbar alternative. The experimental results of different testing methods rejected the hypothesis that the usage and animation of this UI element has a positive influence on the application usability. However, its static and animated utilization enhanced the ratings of hedonic and aesthetic features of the user experience, justifying the usage of this type of button. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Web Browser Network Based on a BA Model for a Web-Based Virtual World
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070147
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
Real-time web applications such as a virtual world require considerable computing resources. However, as the number of servers increases, so does the maintenance and financial cost. To share tasks among web browsers, the browsers must share data. Therefore, a network must be constructed [...] Read more.
Real-time web applications such as a virtual world require considerable computing resources. However, as the number of servers increases, so does the maintenance and financial cost. To share tasks among web browsers, the browsers must share data. Therefore, a network must be constructed among the web browsers. In this paper, we propose the construction of a web browser network based on the Barabasi–Albert model (BA model). We focus on a web-based multiplayer online game that requires higher frequent communication and significant computing resources. We attempt to optimize computing resource utilization for web browsers. We improve upon the method in our previous study, which constructed a network for a web-based virtual world, using only location information. When a new user logged into a world, the web browser connected to two other browsers whose users had a location close to that of the user. The experimental results of that method showed 50% data coverage, which was insufficient to display the game screen because the web browser displays the characters on the virtual world. In this study, we attempt to use the BA model to construct more efficient networks than those in the previous study to increase data coverage. Our new method uses the number of connections of the web browser and location information to calculate the probability of web browser selection. The experimental results show that the data coverage exceeds 90%, indicating significant improvement over the previous method. Full article
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Open AccessTutorial
Marine Internet for Internetworking in Oceans: A Tutorial
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070146
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
Ever-increasing human activities in oceans require handy, reliable and cost-effective high-speed network access similar to terrestrial Internet services to be available on and under water. However, terrestrial Internet cannot be extended to oceans seamlessly due to huge differences between terrestrial and oceanic environments, [...] Read more.
Ever-increasing human activities in oceans require handy, reliable and cost-effective high-speed network access similar to terrestrial Internet services to be available on and under water. However, terrestrial Internet cannot be extended to oceans seamlessly due to huge differences between terrestrial and oceanic environments, while satellite services are still very expensive especially for ordinary users with communication quality susceptible to weather conditions, and cannot cover underwater networks either. Therefore, marine Internet, proposed about six years ago, is the earliest scheme that tries to systematically address the internetworking issue in oceans and still in its infancy stage. This tutorial aims to introduce the principle, architecture and applications of marine Internet, along with discussion on oceanic environments for communication, currently available and under developing communication systems in oceans, as well as challenging issues necessary for further studies to foster the development of marine Internet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Sidecar Object for the Optimized Communication Between Edge and Cloud in Internet of Things Applications
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070145
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 30 June 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
The internet of things (IoT) is one of the most disrupting revolutions that is characterizing the technology ecosystem. In the near future, the IoT will have a significant impact on people’s lives and on the design and developments of new paradigms and architectures [...] Read more.
The internet of things (IoT) is one of the most disrupting revolutions that is characterizing the technology ecosystem. In the near future, the IoT will have a significant impact on people’s lives and on the design and developments of new paradigms and architectures coping with a completely new set of challenges and service categories. The IoT can be described as an ecosystem where a massive number of constrained devices (denoted as smart objects) will be deployed and connected to cooperate for multiple purposes, such a data collection, actuation, and interaction with people. In order to meet the specific requirements, IoT services may be deployed leveraging a hybrid architecture that will involve services deployed on the edge and the cloud. In this context, one of the challenges is to create an infrastructure of objects and microservices operating between both the edge and in the cloud that can be easily updated and extended with new features and functionalities without the need of updating or re-deploying smart objects. This work introduces a new concept for extending smart objects’ support for cloud services, denoted as a sidecar object. A sidecar object serves the purpose of being deployed as additional component of a preexisting object without interfering with the mechanisms and behaviors that have already been implemented. In particular, the sidecar object implementation developed in this work focuses on the communication with existing IoT cloud services (namely, AWS IoT and Google Cloud IoT) to provide a transparent and seamless synchronization of data, states, and commands between the object on the edge and the cloud. The proposed sidecar object implementation has been extensively evaluated through a detailed set of tests, in order to analyze the performances and behaviors in real- world scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud Computing and Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle
Automatic Addition of Fault-Tolerance in Presence of Unchangeable Environment Actions
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070144
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
We focus on the problem of adding fault-tolerance to an existing concurrent protocol in the presence of unchangeable environment actions. Such unchangeable actions occur in cases where a subset of components/processes cannot be modified since they represent third-party components or are constrained by [...] Read more.
We focus on the problem of adding fault-tolerance to an existing concurrent protocol in the presence of unchangeable environment actions. Such unchangeable actions occur in cases where a subset of components/processes cannot be modified since they represent third-party components or are constrained by physical laws. These actions differ from faults in that they are (1) simultaneously collaborative and disruptive, (2) essential for satisfying the specification and (3) possibly non-terminating. Hence, if these actions are modeled as faults while adding fault-tolerance, it causes existing model repair algorithms to declare failure to add fault-tolerance. We present a set of algorithms for adding stabilization and fault-tolerance for programs that run in the presence of environment actions. We prove the soundness, completeness and the complexity of our algorithms. We have implemented all of our algorithms using symbolic techniques in Java. The experimental results of our algorithms for various examples are also provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dependable Cyber Physical Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Maintaining the Sense of Agency in Semi-Autonomous Robot Conferencing
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070143
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
In semi-autonomous robot conferencing, not only the operator controls the robot, but the robot itself also moves autonomously. Thus, it can modify the operator’s movement (e.g., adding social behaviors). However, the sense of agency, that is, the degree of feeling that the movement [...] Read more.
In semi-autonomous robot conferencing, not only the operator controls the robot, but the robot itself also moves autonomously. Thus, it can modify the operator’s movement (e.g., adding social behaviors). However, the sense of agency, that is, the degree of feeling that the movement of the robot is the operator’s own movement, would decrease if the operator is conscious of the discrepancy between the teleoperation and autonomous behavior. In this study, we developed an interface to control the robot head by using an eye tracker. When the robot autonomously moves its eye-gaze position, the interface guides the operator’s eye movement towards this autonomous movement. The experiment showed that our interface can maintain the sense of agency, because it provided the illusion that the autonomous behavior of a robot is directed by the operator’s eye movement. This study reports the conditions of how to provide this illusion in semi-autonomous robot conferencing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Telepresence Technologies and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Service Level Agreement Violations in Cloud Storage: Insurance and Compensation Sustainability
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070142
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
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Abstract
Service Level Agreements are employed to set availability commitments in cloud services. When a violation occurs as in an outage, cloud providers may be called to compensate customers for the losses incurred. Such compensation may be so large as to erode cloud providers’ [...] Read more.
Service Level Agreements are employed to set availability commitments in cloud services. When a violation occurs as in an outage, cloud providers may be called to compensate customers for the losses incurred. Such compensation may be so large as to erode cloud providers’ profit margins. Insurance may be used to protect cloud providers against such a danger. In this paper, closed formulas are provided through the expected utility paradigm to set the insurance premium under different outage models and QoS metrics (no. of outages, no. of long outages, and unavailability). When the cloud service is paid through a fixed fee, we also provide the maximum unit compensation that a cloud provider can offer so as to meet constraints on its profit loss. The unit compensation is shown to vary approximately as the inverse square of the service fee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Network Virtualization and Edge/Fog Computing)
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Open AccessArticle
A Dynamic Application-Partitioning Algorithm with Improved Offloading Mechanism for Fog Cloud Networks
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11070141
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
This paper aims to propose a new fog cloud architecture that performs a joint energy-efficient task assignment (JEETA). The proposed JEETA architecture utilizes the dynamic application-partitioning algorithm (DAPTS), a novel algorithm that efficiently decides and switches the task to be offloaded or not [...] Read more.
This paper aims to propose a new fog cloud architecture that performs a joint energy-efficient task assignment (JEETA). The proposed JEETA architecture utilizes the dynamic application-partitioning algorithm (DAPTS), a novel algorithm that efficiently decides and switches the task to be offloaded or not in heterogeneous environments with minimal energy consumption. The proposed scheme outperforms baseline approaches such as MAUI, Think Air and Clone Cloud in many performance aspects. Results show that for the execution of 1000 Tasks on fog, mobile offloaded nodes, JEETA consumes the leas, i.e., 23% of the total energy whereas other baseline approaches consume in between 50–100% of the total energy. Results are validated via real test-bed experiments and trice are driven efficient simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud Computing and Networking 2019)
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