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Open AccessArticle

Maintaining the Sense of Agency in Semi-Autonomous Robot Conferencing

Information and Human Sciences, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
Institute for Open and Transdisciplinary Research Initiatives, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Future Internet 2019, 11(7), 143;
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Telepresence Technologies and Applications)
In semi-autonomous robot conferencing, not only the operator controls the robot, but the robot itself also moves autonomously. Thus, it can modify the operator’s movement (e.g., adding social behaviors). However, the sense of agency, that is, the degree of feeling that the movement of the robot is the operator’s own movement, would decrease if the operator is conscious of the discrepancy between the teleoperation and autonomous behavior. In this study, we developed an interface to control the robot head by using an eye tracker. When the robot autonomously moves its eye-gaze position, the interface guides the operator’s eye movement towards this autonomous movement. The experiment showed that our interface can maintain the sense of agency, because it provided the illusion that the autonomous behavior of a robot is directed by the operator’s eye movement. This study reports the conditions of how to provide this illusion in semi-autonomous robot conferencing. View Full-Text
Keywords: semi-autonomous; teleoperation; telepresence; robot; sense of agency; eye tracking semi-autonomous; teleoperation; telepresence; robot; sense of agency; eye tracking
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Tanaka, K.; Takenouchi, K.; Ogawa, K.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Nishio, S.; Ishiguro, H. Maintaining the Sense of Agency in Semi-Autonomous Robot Conferencing. Future Internet 2019, 11, 143.

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