Previous Issue
Volume 12, November-1

Table of Contents

Materials, Volume 12, Issue 22 (November-2 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Study on the Forming Process and Deformation Behavior of Inner Ring in the Wheel Hub Bearing Based on Riveting Assembly
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223785 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The orbital riveting process has been successively adopted in the assembly of wheel hub bearing, due to its special merits of high efficiency, low cost, and so on. The forming process and deformation behavior of the inner ring have significant influence on the [...] Read more.
The orbital riveting process has been successively adopted in the assembly of wheel hub bearing, due to its special merits of high efficiency, low cost, and so on. The forming process and deformation behavior of the inner ring have significant influence on the axial clamping force and bearing clearance, however, which haven’t been addressed yet. In this study, a numerical simulation platform for the assembly of the hub bearing is established by the joint use of the static implicit and dynamic explicit algorithms. Based on the platform, the deformation process and deformation behavior of the inner ring are investigated, along with the interference assembly and riveting assembly on the loading process of the inner ring. Finally, relevant experimental verifications are carried out to consolidate the simulation results. The research findings could be used to guide the design and optimization of the axial clamping force and bearing clearance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology in the Treatment of Highly Contaminated Tannery Wastewater Using Commercial Potassium Ferrate
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223784 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The potential implementation of Envifer®, a commercial product containing potassium ferrate (40.1% K2FeO4), for the purification of highly contaminated tannery wastewater from leather dyeing processes was proposed. The employment of the Taguchi method for optimization of experiments [...] Read more.
The potential implementation of Envifer®, a commercial product containing potassium ferrate (40.1% K2FeO4), for the purification of highly contaminated tannery wastewater from leather dyeing processes was proposed. The employment of the Taguchi method for optimization of experiments allowed the discoloration (98.4%), chemical oxygen demand (77.2%), total organic carbon (75.7%), and suspended solids (96.9%) values to be lowered using 1.200 g/L K2FeO4 at pH 3 within 9 min. The application of the central composite design (CCD) and the response surface methodology (RSM) with the use of 1.400 g/L K2FeO4 at pH 4.5 diminished the discoloration, the chemical oxygen demand, the total organic carbon, and suspended solids within 9 min. The Taguchi method is suitable for the initial implementation, while the RSM is superior for the extended optimization of wastewater treatment processes. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Nanostructuration on PbTe Alloys Synthesized by Arc-Melting
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223783 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
PbTe-based alloys have the best thermoelectric properties for intermediate temperature applications (500–900 K). We report on the preparation of pristine PbTe and two doped derivatives (Pb0.99Sb0.01Te and Ag0.05Sb0.05Pb0.9Te, so-called LAST18) by a fast [...] Read more.
PbTe-based alloys have the best thermoelectric properties for intermediate temperature applications (500–900 K). We report on the preparation of pristine PbTe and two doped derivatives (Pb0.99Sb0.01Te and Ag0.05Sb0.05Pb0.9Te, so-called LAST18) by a fast arc-melting technique, yielding nanostructured polycrystalline pellets. XRD and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data assessed the a slight Te deficiency for PbTe, also yielding trends on the displacement factors of the 4a and 4b sites of the cubic Fm-3m space group. Interestingly, SEM analysis shows the conspicuous formation of layers assembled as stackings of nano-sheets, with 20–30 nm thickness. TEM analysis shows intra-sheet nanostructuration on the 50 nm scale in the form of polycrystalline grains. Large numbers of grain boundaries are created by this nanostructuration and this may contribute to reduce the thermal conductivity to a record-low value of 1.6 Wm−1K−1 at room temperature. In LAST18, a positive Seebeck coefficient up to 600 μV K−1 at 450 K was observed, contributing further towards improving potential thermoelectric efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials: From Synthesis to Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Corrosion Behavior of an AISI/SAE Steel Cut by Electropulsing
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223782 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The effect of electropulsing treatment (EPT) on the surface general corrosion behavior of an AISI/SAE 1045 steel under different machining regimes is studied. In the study, the following variables are alternated: high-speed steel (HSS) vs. hard metal (HM), and with and without the [...] Read more.
The effect of electropulsing treatment (EPT) on the surface general corrosion behavior of an AISI/SAE 1045 steel under different machining regimes is studied. In the study, the following variables are alternated: high-speed steel (HSS) vs. hard metal (HM), and with and without the assistance of high-density electropulses. The corrosion rates are determined using comparative studies such as gravimetric analysis, salt spray chamber test, electrochemical polarization curve techniques (PC), and linear polarization resistance (LPR). Differences in surface microhardness were evaluated by applying optical microscopy and planimetric procedures. Specimens subjected to electropulses and turned with HM reported greater reductions of corrosion rates. Changes in corrosion behavior can be explained in terms of grain shape factor h variation. The present study demonstrates that electropulsing affects the corrosion behavior of AISI/SAE 1045 steel after the turning process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Description of External Force Induced Phase Transformation in Silicon–Manganese (Si–Mn) Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) Steels
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223781 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels with silicon–manganese (Si–Mn) as the main element have attracted a lot of attention and great interest from steel companies due to their low price, high strength, and high plasticity. Retained austenite is of primary importance as the source [...] Read more.
Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels with silicon–manganese (Si–Mn) as the main element have attracted a lot of attention and great interest from steel companies due to their low price, high strength, and high plasticity. Retained austenite is of primary importance as the source of high strength and high plasticity in Si–Mn TRIP steels. In this work, the cold rolled sheets of Si–Mn low carbon steel were treated with TRIP and Dual Phase (DP) treatment respectively. Then, the microstructure and composition of the Si–Mn low carbon steel were observed and tested. The static tensile test of TRIP steel and DP steel was carried out by a CMT5305 electronic universal testing machine. The self-built true stress–strain curve model of TRIP steel was verified. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the phase transformation energy of retained austenite and the work borne by austenite in the sample during static stretching were calculated. The work done by austenite was 14.5 J, which was negligible compared with the total work of 217.8 J. The phase transformation energy absorption of retained austenite in the sample was 9.12 J. The role of retained austenite in TRIP steel is the absorption of excess energy at the key place where the fracture will occur, thereby increasing the elongation, so that the ferrite and bainite in the TRIP steel can absorb energy for a longer time and withstand more energy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Loading and Sustained Release of Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (BAC) in Nano-Clays
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223780 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Benzyl ammonium chloride (BAC) is a broad-spectrum bactericide, but vulnerable to leaching by water. In this paper, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and montmorillonite (MMT) were used as drug carriers to load BAC, in order to achieve good anti-mildew activity and long-term sustained release properties. [...] Read more.
Benzyl ammonium chloride (BAC) is a broad-spectrum bactericide, but vulnerable to leaching by water. In this paper, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and montmorillonite (MMT) were used as drug carriers to load BAC, in order to achieve good anti-mildew activity and long-term sustained release properties. The HNT and MMT nano-composites were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption. XRD results showed that BAC intercalated the interlayer of MMT, and expanded the interlayer spacing from 1.15 nm to 1.75 nm. Pore analysis showed that BAC decreased the cavity of halloysite nanotubes to a certain extent, which indicated that BAC loaded inside the lumen of HNT successfully. TG analysis showed that the loading capacity of MMT to BAC was higher than HNT. The accelerated-release experiments revealed both two clays have significant sustained-release effects on BAC, and the releasing rate of HNT was relatively lower. Both HNT and MMT have promising application prospects as sustained-release carriers. The inhibition test showed that BAC in nano-clay has good anti-mildew resistance performance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Potential Selective Cytotoxicity of Poly (L- Lactic Acid)-Based Scaffolds Functionalized with Nanohydroxyapatite and Europium (III) Ions toward Osteosarcoma Cells
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223779 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is malignant bone tumor, occurring in children and adults, characterized by poor prognosis. Despite advances in chemotherapy and surgical techniques, the survival of osteosarcoma patients is not improving significantly. Currently, great efforts are taken to identify novel selective strategies, distinguishing between [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is malignant bone tumor, occurring in children and adults, characterized by poor prognosis. Despite advances in chemotherapy and surgical techniques, the survival of osteosarcoma patients is not improving significantly. Currently, great efforts are taken to identify novel selective strategies, distinguishing between cancer and normal cells. This includes development of biomimetic scaffolds with anticancer properties that can simultaneously support and modulate proper regeneration of bone tissue. In this study cytotoxicity of scaffolds composed from poly (L-lactic acid) functionalized with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and doped with europium (III) ions—10 wt % 3 mol % Eu3+: [email protected] was tested using human osteosarcoma cells: U-2 OS, Saos-2 and MG-63. Human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (HuASCs) were used as non-transformed cells to determine the selective cytotoxicity of the carrier. Analysis included evaluation of cells morphology (confocal/scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), metabolic activity and apoptosis profile in cultures on the scaffolds. Results obtained indicated on high cytotoxicity of scaffolds toward all OSA cell lines, associated with a decrease of cells’ viability, deterioration of metabolic activity and activation of apoptotic factors determined at mRNA and miRNA levels. Simultaneously, the biomaterials did not affect HuASCs’ viability and proliferation rate. Obtained scaffolds showed a bioimaging function, due to functionalization with luminescent europium ions, and thus may find application in theranostics treatment of OSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymer Composite Materials for Biomedical Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Finite Element Analysis of Composite Elbows
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223778 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
“Tube beams” are common lightweight structures, which have domestic and industry applications, and are often subjected to complex multidirectional loads. Therefore, metals with mature manufacturing methods and isotropic properties are commonly used in the fabrication of these structures, which are preferred to be [...] Read more.
“Tube beams” are common lightweight structures, which have domestic and industry applications, and are often subjected to complex multidirectional loads. Therefore, metals with mature manufacturing methods and isotropic properties are commonly used in the fabrication of these structures, which are preferred to be lighter in weight. Although polymer matrix composites are generally used for weight reduction, their conventional manufacturing methods, such as pultrusion and filament-winding, cannot meet the isotropic requirements. Moreover, research on bent tube beams (elbows) is rare. Therefore, a self-made glass fiber/epoxy polyvinyl ester fabric prepreg and a self-designed mold were used in this study to prepare an isotropic composite double-bent elbow by a silicone rubber airbag-assisted process. The load capacity of the elbow was tested and validated by the finite element method. A strength and deformation of up to 3448 N and 2.84 mm respectively, were achieved. The simulation and experimental results were consistent: the error for the load capacity and deformation was only 4.15% and 7.75% respectively, under the max stress criterion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Chipboard Structure on Its Physical and Mechanical Properties
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223777 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
The paper evaluated the possibility of manufacturing wood-based boards from the material left over from sawmill processing of wood. The boards were made from chips created during cant preparation for cutting and sawdust generated during further sawnwood preparation. They were made as one- [...] Read more.
The paper evaluated the possibility of manufacturing wood-based boards from the material left over from sawmill processing of wood. The boards were made from chips created during cant preparation for cutting and sawdust generated during further sawnwood preparation. They were made as one- and three-ply boards with face layers containing industrial microchips. Mechanical properties determined for one-ply boards in a bend test were used as guidelines for manufacturing three-ply boards. The outcomes were much better when the core layer comprised a mix of chips and sawdust than the chips alone. The study also showed that for the assumed technological parameters it is possible to produce three-ply boards with properties meeting the criteria for P2 furniture boards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Study on Compatibility and Rheological Properties of High-Viscosity Modified Asphalt Prepared from Low-Grade Asphalt
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223776 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
High-viscosity modified asphalt is mainly used as a binder for porous asphalt in China and Japan. In order to meet the demand for using porous asphalt under high temperature condition in Africa, high-viscosity asphalt made from low-grade matrix asphalt, which is commonly used [...] Read more.
High-viscosity modified asphalt is mainly used as a binder for porous asphalt in China and Japan. In order to meet the demand for using porous asphalt under high temperature condition in Africa, high-viscosity asphalt made from low-grade matrix asphalt, which is commonly used in Africa is investigated. Based on simulation of local climate in Africa, the suitable range of high viscosity additive content for different matrix asphalt was obtained by analyzing dynamic viscosity of the asphalt. Through PG high temperature grading, multi-stress repeated creep, accelerated fatigue, temperature sweep and other tests, changes of high temperature, anti-fatigue and anti-shear indicators before and after modification were compared and analyzed and effects of different matrix asphalt were also studied. Finally, considering engineering requirements, mixing and compaction temperatures of various high-viscosity modified asphalt were determined through study of viscosity-temperature characteristics. This research provides a support for preparation of high-viscosity modified asphalt and porous asphalt mixture by using low grade asphalt. The research achievements can help to guide the material design and application of porous asphalt in Africa and other high temperature areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Colloidal Au Nanoparticles through Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Their Use in the Preparation of Polyacrylate-AuNPs’ Composites
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223775 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared from two different liquid precursors (gold (III) acetate and gold (III) chloride), using the Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP) process. The STEM characterisation showed that the AuNPs from gold chloride are spherical, with average diameters of 57.2 and [...] Read more.
Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared from two different liquid precursors (gold (III) acetate and gold (III) chloride), using the Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP) process. The STEM characterisation showed that the AuNPs from gold chloride are spherical, with average diameters of 57.2 and 69.4 nm, while the AuNPs from gold acetate are ellipsoidal, with average diameters of 84.2 and 134.3 nm, according to Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements. UV/VIS spectroscopy revealed the maximum absorbance band of AuNPs between 532 and 560 nm, which indicates a stable state. Colloidal AuNPs were used as starting material and were mixed together with acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (Am) for the free radical polymerization of polyacrylate-AuNPs’ composites, with the purpose of using them for temporary cavity fillings in the dental industry. SEM characterisation of polyacrylate-AuNPs’ composites revealed a uniform distribution of AuNPs through the polymer matrix, revealing that the AuNPs remained stable during the polymerization process. The density measurements revealed that colloidal AuNPs increase the densities of the prepared polyacrylate-AuNPs’ composites; the densities were increased up to 40% in comparison with the densities of the control samples. A compressive test showed that polyacrylate-AuNPs’ composites exhibited lower compressive strength compared to the control samples, while their toughness increased. At 50% compression deformation some of the samples fracture, suggesting that incorporation of colloidal AuNPs do not improve their compressive strength, but increase their toughness significantly. This increased toughness is the measured property which makes prepared polyacrylate-AuNPs potentially useful in dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Processing of Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Voids Characteristics in an Asphalt Mixture Exposed to Salt Erosion Based on CT Images
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223774 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
The performance of an asphalt mixture will deteriorate under the condition of salt erosion, but there are different opinions on the mechanism of deterioration. Few studies have focused on the relation between the change of void characteristics and performance deterioration of an asphalt [...] Read more.
The performance of an asphalt mixture will deteriorate under the condition of salt erosion, but there are different opinions on the mechanism of deterioration. Few studies have focused on the relation between the change of void characteristics and performance deterioration of an asphalt mixture exposed to salt erosion. To explore the relation between the air voids characteristics of an asphalt mixture and mechanical damage under salt erosion, the mechanical damage in an asphalt mixture was measured by splitting strength. The asphalt mixture specimens, immersion solutions, asphalt mortar, and aggregate were scanned with CT technology. To segment the voids, the Otsu method was used over asphalt mortar and solution range of CT values. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT image was performed with Mimics 20 software to calculate the asphalt mixture’s void characteristics. On this basis, the relationships between the change in void characteristics and splitting strength were analyzed. The results showed that the ideal calculated void fraction can be obtained by threshold segmentation of the image void/asphalt mortar interface with the local CT value Otsu method. Under the salt corrosion environment, the increase of open voids of an asphalt mixture is linearly correlated with the decrease of splitting strength, while salts’ crystallization in the open voids produces crystallization pressure, accelerating the volume growth of open voids. The early damage of an asphalt mixture suffered from the salt may be mainly physical damage. These results can provide a useful reference for the performance of damage research on asphalt mixtures in salt enrichment areas. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Properties of Nano SiO2 and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete after Exposure to High Temperatures
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223773 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study presents the key mechanical and residual properties after high-temperature of different Nano SiO2 carbon fiber-reinforced concrete (NSCFRC) mixtures. A total of seven NSCFRC mixtures incorporating 0%–0.35% of carbon fiber by volume of concrete and 0%–2% Nano SiO2 by weight [...] Read more.
This study presents the key mechanical and residual properties after high-temperature of different Nano SiO2 carbon fiber-reinforced concrete (NSCFRC) mixtures. A total of seven NSCFRC mixtures incorporating 0%–0.35% of carbon fiber by volume of concrete and 0%–2% Nano SiO2 by weight of the binder were studied. The key mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength of NSCFRC with 0.25% carbon fiber and 1% NS were 6.8%, 20.3%, and 11.7% higher than PC (0% CFs, 0% NS), respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) shows that Nano SiO2 reduced the internal porosity and increased the compactness of the concrete matrix. Furthermore, the experimental result demonstrates that NSCFRC can improve the mechanical properties of concrete after high-temperature and equations were obtained to describe the evolution of residual properties at elevated temperatures. Results suggested that the effect of carbon fibers on the residual properties of concrete after high-temperature is less than steel fiber and polypropylene fiber. It was also indicated that adding appropriate Nano SiO2 to concrete is an effective means to improve the residual performance after high-temperature. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Modification of Bentonite with Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants: Structural and Textural Features
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223772 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Surfactant-modified clay minerals are known for their good sorption properties of both organic and inorganic compounds from aqueous solutions. However, the current knowledge regarding the effect of both cationic and nonionic surfactants on the properties of bentonite is still insufficient. Bentonite, with montmorillonite [...] Read more.
Surfactant-modified clay minerals are known for their good sorption properties of both organic and inorganic compounds from aqueous solutions. However, the current knowledge regarding the effect of both cationic and nonionic surfactants on the properties of bentonite is still insufficient. Bentonite, with montmorillonite as the base clay, was modified with hexadecethyltrimethylammonium bromide (a cationic surfactant) in the amount of 1.0 cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite and varying concentrations of t-octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant). We aimed to improve the understanding of the effect of nonionic and cationic surfactants on clay minerals. The modified bentonites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area and pore volume (BET). According to our results, the presence of a cationic surfactant significantly increased the amount of the adsorbed nonionic surfactant. Moreover, an increase in the concentration of nonionic surfactants is also associated with an increase in the effectiveness of the modification process. Our results indicate that the amount of nonionic surfactant used has a significant effect on the properties of the obtained hybrid material. Modification of bentonite with a nonionic surfactant did not cause an expansion of the interlayer space of smectite, regardless of the presence of a cationic surfactant. The modification process was found to significantly decrease the specific surface area of bentonite. Improvement of hydrophobic properties and thermal stability was also observed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Supercrystallography-Based Decoding of Structure and Driving Force of Nanocrystal Assembly
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223771 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Nanocrystal (NC) assembly appears as one promising method towards the controllable design and fabrication of advanced materials with desired property and functionality. The achievement of a “materials-by-design” requires not only a primary structural decoding of NC assembled supercrystal at a wide range of [...] Read more.
Nanocrystal (NC) assembly appears as one promising method towards the controllable design and fabrication of advanced materials with desired property and functionality. The achievement of a “materials-by-design” requires not only a primary structural decoding of NC assembled supercrystal at a wide range of length scales, but also an improved understanding of the interactions and changeable roles of various driving forces over the course of nucleation and growth of NC superlattice. The recent invention of a synchrotron-based X-ray supercrystallographic approach makes it feasible to uncover the structural details of NC-assembled supercrystal at unprecedented levels from atomic through nano to mesoscale. Such structural documentations can be used to trace how various driving forces interact in a competitive way and thus change relatively in strength to govern the formation of individual superlattices under certain circumstances. This short review makes use of four single supercrystals typically made up of spherical, truncate, cubic and octahedral NCs, respectively, and provides a comparable description and a reasonable analysis of the use of a synchrotron-based supercrystallographic approach to reveal various degrees of translational and orientational ordering of NCs within various superlattices. In the connection of observed structural aspects with controlled environments of NC assembly, we further address how various driving forces interact each other to develop relatively changeable roles upon variation of the NC shape to respond to the nucleation and growth of various superlattices. With the guidance of such gained insights, we provide additional examples to illustrate how realistic environments are designed into delicate control of NC assembly to achieve particular interactions between NCs towards harvesting superlattice with NC translational symmetry and atomically crystallographic orientation as desired. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Synchrotron Techniques for Soft and Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
In vitro Effects of Cyclic Dislodgement on Retentive Properties of Various Titanium-Based Dental Implant Overdentures Attachment System
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223770 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in the retentive forces of four different titanium-based implant attachment systems during the simulation of insert–removal cycles in an artificial oral environment. Five types of titanium-based dental implant attachment systems (Locator, Kerator, O-ring, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in the retentive forces of four different titanium-based implant attachment systems during the simulation of insert–removal cycles in an artificial oral environment. Five types of titanium-based dental implant attachment systems (Locator, Kerator, O-ring, EZ-Lock, and Magnetic) were studied (n = 10). The specimens underwent insert–removal cycles in artificial saliva, and the retentive force was measured following 0, 750, 1500, and 2250 cycles. Significant retention loss was observed in all attachment systems, except the magnetic attachments, upon completion of 2250 insertion and removal cycles, compared to the initial retentive force (p < 0.05). A comparison of the initial retentive forces revealed the highest value for Locator, followed by the Kerator, O-ring, EZ-Lock, and Magnetic attachments. Furthermore, Kerator demonstrated the highest retentive loss, followed by Locator, O-ring, EZ-Lock, and Magnetic attachments after 2250 cycles (p < 0.05). In addition, the Locator and Kerator systems revealed significant decrease in retentive forces at all measurement points (p < 0.05). The retention force according to the insert–removal cycles were significantly different according to the types of dental implant attachment systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium and Titanium Based Materials in Biomedical Applications)
Open AccessArticle
Microstructure Adjustment of Spherical Micro-samples for High-Throughput Analysis Using a Drop-on-Demand Droplet Generator
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3769; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223769 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
: High-throughput methods for the development of structural materials require samples which are comparable in geometric dimensions and microstructure. Molten metal droplet generators produce thousands of droplets and microspheres from specific alloys with very good reproducibility. In this study, droplet generation experiments were [...] Read more.
: High-throughput methods for the development of structural materials require samples which are comparable in geometric dimensions and microstructure. Molten metal droplet generators produce thousands of droplets and microspheres from specific alloys with very good reproducibility. In this study, droplet generation experiments were conducted with two alloys and their microstructure was analyzed regarding secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) in order to determine cooling rates during solidification. A droplet cooling model was developed, and predictions showed good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, a sensitivity study was conducted using the validated model to identify critical process parameters which have great impact on the resulting microstructure and need to be well-controlled to achieve the desired reproducibility in microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Microstructure Evolution in ZrCx with Different Stoichiometries Irradiated by Four MeV Au Ions
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223768 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
ZrCx ceramics with different stoichiometries were irradiated under a four MeV Au ion beam in doses of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature, corresponding to ~130 dpa. Grazing incidence, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were performed to study [...] Read more.
ZrCx ceramics with different stoichiometries were irradiated under a four MeV Au ion beam in doses of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature, corresponding to ~130 dpa. Grazing incidence, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were performed to study the radiation damage and microstructure evolution in ZrCx ceramics. With the decrease in C/Zr ratio, the expansion of ZrCx lattice became smaller after irradiation. Some long dislocation lines formed at the near-surface, while, in the area with the greatest damage (depth of ~400 nm), large amounts of dislocation loops formed in ZrC, ZrC0.9 and ZrC0.8. With the increase in carbon vacancy concentration, the size of the dislocation loops gradually decreased. Few dislocation loops were found in ZrC0.7 after irradiation, and only black-dot defects were found in the area with the greatest damage. For the non-stoichiometric ZrCx, with the increase of the intrinsic vacancies, the number of C interstitials caused by irradiation decreased, and the recombination barrier of C Frenkel pairs reduced. The above factors will reduce the total number of C interstitials after cascade cooling, suppressing the formation and growth of dislocation loops, which is significant for the enhancement of the tolerance of radiation damage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mesoscale Simulation to Study Constitutive Properties of TATB/F2314 PBX
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3767; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223767 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
Material Point Method (MPM) mesoscale simulation was used to study the constitutive relation of a polymer bonded explosive (PBX) consisting of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and a fluorine polymer binder F2314. The stress-strain variations of the PBX were calculated for different temperatures and [...] Read more.
Material Point Method (MPM) mesoscale simulation was used to study the constitutive relation of a polymer bonded explosive (PBX) consisting of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and a fluorine polymer binder F2314. The stress-strain variations of the PBX were calculated for different temperatures and different porosities, and the results were found to be consistent with experimental observations. The stress-strain relations at different temperatures were used to develop the constitutive equation of the PBX by using numerical data fitting. Stress-strain data for different porosities were used to establish the constitutive equation by fitting the simulation data to an improved Hashion-Shtrikman model. The equation can be used to predict the shear modulus and bulk modulus of the PBX at different densities of the sample. The constitutive equations developed for TATB/F2314 PBX by MPM mesoscale simulation are important equations for the numerical simulations of the PBX at macroscale. The method presented in this study provides an alternative approach for studying the constitutive relations of PBX. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improving the Mechanical and Surface Properties of Aramid Fiber by Grafting with 1,4-Dichlorobutane under Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3766; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223766 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
The mechanical and surface properties of aramid fiber were simultaneously improved by grafting with 1,4-dichlorobutane in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). 1,4-dichlorobutane was penetrated and reacted with heterocyclic an aromatic polyamide backbone along with supercritical CO2 fluids. The surface roughness and [...] Read more.
The mechanical and surface properties of aramid fiber were simultaneously improved by grafting with 1,4-dichlorobutane in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). 1,4-dichlorobutane was penetrated and reacted with heterocyclic an aromatic polyamide backbone along with supercritical CO2 fluids. The surface roughness and surface energy of the modified aramid fiber—which were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the dynamic contact angle (DCA) test, respectively—significantly increased. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) measurements indicated that the crystallinity of the aramid fiber obviously increased after treatment in scCO2 under stretching. A single fiber tensile test showed that the tensile strength of the aramid fiber greatly enhanced after the modification due to its improved crystallinity characteristics. Moreover, the monofilament pull-out tests indicated that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) test of the aramid fiber/epoxy composite increased by 24.3% from 51.30 to 63.91 MPa after the modification. This research provides a novel method for the simultaneous surface modification and mechanical improvement of aramid fiber properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Aluminum Substitution Rates on the Structure of Tobermorite
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223765 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Tobermorite and Al-substituted tobermorite with varying Al/(Si + Al) molar ratios were synthesized via the static hydrothermal method. The effect of different Al substitution ratios on the structure of tobermorite was investigated by XRD, SEM–EDS, TG–DSC, FT–IR, 29Si, and 27Al MAS–NMR. [...] Read more.
Tobermorite and Al-substituted tobermorite with varying Al/(Si + Al) molar ratios were synthesized via the static hydrothermal method. The effect of different Al substitution ratios on the structure of tobermorite was investigated by XRD, SEM–EDS, TG–DSC, FT–IR, 29Si, and 27Al MAS–NMR. The interplanar crystal spacing of (002) increased with the increment of the Al substitution ratio. The maximum ratio of the Al substitution for Si in the structure of tobermorite was about 15 at %, which was limited by the compositions of tobermorite and the electrostatic repulsive forces caused by Al substitution. The DSC curve of the tobermorite with an Al/(Al + Si) molar ratio of 0.15 showed a larger exothermic peak area at 850 °C, indicating that the Al-O-Si bond was formed in the structure of tobermorite and the Al participated in the recrystallization. The 29Si and 27Al MAS–NMR results confirmed that tetrahedral Al was introduced into the structure of the tobermorite. New silicon sites, Q2(1Al) and Q3(1Al), formed by the Al substitution for Si in bridging and non-bridging sites, were detected. Compared to the tobermorite without Al substitution, the adsorption capacity of Al-substituted tobermorite with Al/(Al + Si) = 0.15 to Na+ was improved by 44%. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Low-Melting Manganese (II)-Based Ionic Liquids: Syntheses, Structures, Properties and Influence of Trace Impurities
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223764 (registering DOI) - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
The synthesis of more than 10 new magnetic ionic liquids with [MnX4]2 anions, X = Cl, NCS, NCO, is presented. Detailed structural information through single-crystal X-ray diffraction is given for (DMDIm)[Mn(NCS)4], (BnEt3N)2[Mn(NCS) [...] Read more.
The synthesis of more than 10 new magnetic ionic liquids with [MnX4]2 anions, X = Cl, NCS, NCO, is presented. Detailed structural information through single-crystal X-ray diffraction is given for (DMDIm)[Mn(NCS)4], (BnEt3N)2[Mn(NCS)4], and {(Ph3P)2N}2[Mn(NCO4)]·0.6H2O, respectively. All compounds consist of discrete anions and cations with tetrahedrally coordinated Mn (II) atoms. They show paramagnetic behavior as expected for spin-only systems. Melting points are found for several systems below 100 °C classifying them as ionic liquids. Thermal properties are investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The physicochemical properties of density, dynamic viscosity, electrolytic conductivity, and surface tension were measured temperature-dependent of selected samples. These properties are discussed in comparison to similar Co containing systems. An increasing amount of bromide impurity is found to affect the surface tension only up to 3.3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids: A Greener Approach in Catalysis)
Open AccessArticle
The Ubiquitiformal Characterization of the Mesostructures of Polymer-Bonded Explosives
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3763; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223763 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
A nesting ubiquitiform (NU) approach was developed to characterize the mesostructural features of polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs), and then used to predicate some equivalent physical properties of PBXs, which can also be expected to be extended to other composites with complicated internal mesostructures. To [...] Read more.
A nesting ubiquitiform (NU) approach was developed to characterize the mesostructural features of polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs), and then used to predicate some equivalent physical properties of PBXs, which can also be expected to be extended to other composites with complicated internal mesostructures. To verify the availability, two NU models for two kinds of PBX with different compositions are presented, which are PBX 9501 and LX-17, based on which, the equivalent thermal conductivities were calculated. Particularly, it is so encouraging that an analytical expression of the equivalent thermal conductivity was obtained only under a simply assumption of homogeneity. Moreover, it was found that the numerical results calculated by both the recursive algorithm and the analytical expression were in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, it is also shown that such a physical property as the equivalent thermal conductivity is indeed independent of the meso-configuration of the location distribution of the explosive particles and the voids inside the PBX, which seems consistent with the common expectations and lays the foundations for the application of ubiquitiform to investigating some equivalent properties of composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
Open AccessArticle
Optical Studies of Nanodiamond-Tissue Interaction: Skin Penetration and Localization
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223762 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this work, several optical-spectroscopic methods have been used to visualize and investigate the penetration of diamond nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes (3–150 nm), surface structures and fluorescence properties into the animal skin in vitro. Murine skin samples have been treated with nanodiamond [...] Read more.
In this work, several optical-spectroscopic methods have been used to visualize and investigate the penetration of diamond nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes (3–150 nm), surface structures and fluorescence properties into the animal skin in vitro. Murine skin samples have been treated with nanodiamond (ND) water suspensions and studied using optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). An analysis of the optical properties of the used nanodiamonds (NDs) enables the selection of optimal optical methods or their combination for the study of nanodiamond–skin interaction. Among studied NDs, particles of 100 nm in nominal size were shown to be appropriate for multimodal imaging using all three methods. All the applied NDs were able to cross the skin barrier and penetrate the different layers of the epidermis to finally arrive in the hair follicle niches. The results suggest that NDs have the potential for multifunctional applications utilizing multimodal imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Gradient Crystal Plasticity: A Grain Boundary Model for Slip Transmission
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223761 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Interaction between dislocations and grain boundaries (GBs) in the forms of dislocation absorption, emission, and slip transmission at GBs significantly affects size-dependent plasticity in fine-grained polycrystals. Thus, it is vital to consider those GB mechanisms in continuum plasticity theories. In the present paper, [...] Read more.
Interaction between dislocations and grain boundaries (GBs) in the forms of dislocation absorption, emission, and slip transmission at GBs significantly affects size-dependent plasticity in fine-grained polycrystals. Thus, it is vital to consider those GB mechanisms in continuum plasticity theories. In the present paper, a new GB model is proposed by considering slip transmission at GBs within the framework of gradient polycrystal plasticity. The GB model consists of the GB kinematic relations and governing equations for slip transmission, by which the influence of geometric factors including the misorientation between the incoming and outgoing slip systems and GB orientation, GB defects, and stress state at GBs are captured. The model is numerically implemented to study a benchmark problem of a bicrystal thin film under plane constrained shear. It is found that GB parameters, grain size, grain misorientation, and GB orientation significantly affect slip transmission and plastic behaviors in fine-grained polycrystals. Model prediction qualitatively agrees with experimental observations and results of discrete dislocation dynamics simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micromechanics: Experiment, Modeling and Theory)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fluoride Release from Two High-Viscosity Glass Ionomers after Exposure to Fluoride Slurry and Varnish
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3760; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223760 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
The effect of brushing with different fluoride slurries on the fluoride release (FR) of different high-viscosity glass ionomer cements (GICs) was investigated. Fifty-eight discs were fabricated from two high-viscosity GICs (GC Fuji IX (F9) and 3M ESPE Ketac-fil (KF)). Five specimens from each [...] Read more.
The effect of brushing with different fluoride slurries on the fluoride release (FR) of different high-viscosity glass ionomer cements (GICs) was investigated. Fifty-eight discs were fabricated from two high-viscosity GICs (GC Fuji IX (F9) and 3M ESPE Ketac-fil (KF)). Five specimens from each brand were used to measure Vickers microhardness and the remaining were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = 6) based on two-factor combinations: (1) fluoride concentration in the abrasive slurry (275 or 1250 ppm fluoride as NaF) and (2) immersion in a 22,500 ppm fluoride-containing solution. Specimens were brushed for a total of 20,000 strokes over 4 days with daily FR measurement. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests (α = 0.05). Baseline FR and microhardness values were different between the two tested material brands. Exposure to a 22,500 ppm solution was associated with higher FR but not the exposure to 1250 ppm slurries. Brushing and immersion of glass ionomer cements in a 22,500 ppm F solution led to higher FR that was more sustained for KF. Type of the glass ionomer, progressive brushing, and fluoride varnish affected FR but not the fluoride content in the abrasive slurry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Properties of Carbon-Fiber RPC and Design Method of Carbon-Fiber Content under Different Curing Systems
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223759 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Natural, standard, and compound curing are adopted to study the effect of different curing systems on the reinforcement of carbon fiber in reactive powder concrete (RPC). This work systematically studies the changes in RPC compressive and tensile strengths under different curing systems. Taking [...] Read more.
Natural, standard, and compound curing are adopted to study the effect of different curing systems on the reinforcement of carbon fiber in reactive powder concrete (RPC). This work systematically studies the changes in RPC compressive and tensile strengths under different curing systems. Taking age, fiber content, and curing system as parameters, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) microscopic methods are used to study the influencing mechanism of carbon-fiber content and curing systems on RPC. The calculation methods of the RPC strength of different carbon-fiber contents are studied. Results show that the optimum carbon-fiber content of carbon-fiber RPC is 0.75% under the natural, standard, and compound curing conditions. In comparison with standard curing, compound curing can improve the early strength of carbon-fiber RPC and slightly affect the improvement of late strength. The strength is slightly lower in natural curing than in standard curing, but the former basically meets the requirements of the project and is beneficial for the practical application of this project. The calculation formula of 28-day compressive and splitting tensile strengths of carbon-fiber content from 0% to 0.75% is proposed to select the carbon-fiber content flexibly to satisfy different engineering requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High and Ultra-High Performance Concrete for Sustainable Construction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Influence of WEDM Parameters Setup on the Occurrence of Defects When Machining Hardox 400 Steel
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223758 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
The unconventional technology wire electrical discharge machining is a highly used technology for producing precise and indented shaped parts of all materials that are at least electrically conductive. Its wide use makes this technology applicable in almost all branches of industry, even in [...] Read more.
The unconventional technology wire electrical discharge machining is a highly used technology for producing precise and indented shaped parts of all materials that are at least electrically conductive. Its wide use makes this technology applicable in almost all branches of industry, even in the automotive industry, where the abrasion resistant material under investigation Hardox 400 steel is widely used for the manufacturing of truck bodies. The aim of this study was a comprehensive analysis of the machinability of this material using WEDM employing a 33−round experiment. Based on the change in machine parameters (pulse off time, gap voltage, discharge current, pulse on time, and wire feed), the cutting speed, the topography of machined surfaces, and the chemical composition of the workpiece surface, the morphology and condition of the subsurface layer including lamella production and a subsequent determination of the distribution of individual elements in the given area were analyzed. It has been found that during the machining of this steel, many defects occur in the subsurface layer of the material in the form of cracks with a depth of up to 22 µm and burned cavities. However, by appropriately adjusting the machine parameters, it was possible to completely remove these cracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of An Image Resolution Change on the Effective Transport Coefficient of Heterogeneous Materials
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223757 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Electrochemical electrodes comprise multiple phenomena at different scales. Several works have tried to model such phenomena using statistical techniques. This paper proposes a novel process to work with reduced size images to reconstruct microstructures with the Simulated Annealing method. Later, using the Finite [...] Read more.
Electrochemical electrodes comprise multiple phenomena at different scales. Several works have tried to model such phenomena using statistical techniques. This paper proposes a novel process to work with reduced size images to reconstruct microstructures with the Simulated Annealing method. Later, using the Finite Volume Method, it is verified the effect of the image resolution on the effective transport coefficient (ETC). The method can be applied to synthetic images or images from the Scanning Electron Microscope. The first stage consists of obtaining the image of minimum size, which contains at least 98% of the statistical information of the original image, allowing an equivalent statistical study. The image size reduction was made by applying an iterative decimation over the image using the normalized coarseness to compare the amount of information contained at each step. Representative improvements, especially in processing time, are achieved by reducing the size of the reconstructed microstructures without affecting their statistical behavior. The process ends computing the conduction efficiency from the microstructures. The simulation results, obtained from two kinds of images from different materials, demonstrate the effectivity of the proposed approach. It is important to remark that the controlled decimation allows a reduction of the processor and memory use during the reconstruction and ETC computation of electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Simulation and Design)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Photocatalytic Activity and Mechanical Properties of Cements Modified with TiO2/N
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223756 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this paper, studies of the mechanical properties and photocatalytic activity of new photoactive cement mortars are presented. The new building materials were obtained by the addition of 1, 3, and 5 wt % (based on the cement content) of nitrogen-modified titanium dioxide [...] Read more.
In this paper, studies of the mechanical properties and photocatalytic activity of new photoactive cement mortars are presented. The new building materials were obtained by the addition of 1, 3, and 5 wt % (based on the cement content) of nitrogen-modified titanium dioxide (TiO2/N) to the cement matrix. Photocatalytic active cement mortars were characterized by measuring the flexural and the compressive strength, the hydration heat, the zeta potential of the fresh state, and the initial and final setting time. Their photocatalytic activity was tested during NOx decomposition. The studies showed that TiO2/N gives the photoactivity of cement mortars during air purification with an additional positive effect on the mechanical properties of the hardened mortars. The addition of TiO2/N into the cement shortened the initial and final setting time, which was distinctly observed using 5 wt % of the photocatalyst in the cement matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Photocatalytic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop