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Volume 12, December-1
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Volume 12, November-1

Materials, Volume 12, Issue 22 (November-2 2019) – 161 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The adsorption of ketoprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac on halloysite/carbon nanocomposites and non-modified halloysite were studied. Halloysite/carbon nanocomposites were obtained through liquid phase impregnation and carbonization using saccharose as the carbon precursor. Adsorption ability of halloysite/carbon nanocomposites was much higher for all the studied adsorbates in comparison to non-modified halloysite. Optimized chemical structures of ketoprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac obtained by DFT calculation showed that charge distributions of these adsorbate molecules and their ions can be helpful to explain the details of adsorption mechanism. Halloysite as a nano-carrier combined with carbon may be a probable suitable adsorbent of all the studied pharmaceuticals for large scale application. View this paper.
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Article
Soil Recycling Geopolymers Fabricated from High Power Ultrasound Treated Soil Slurry in the Presence of Ammonia
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3804; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223804 - 19 Nov 2019
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Soil slurry was recycled to prepare a geopolymer after treatment with high-power ultrasound (US) in the presence of NH3, HCl, and NaOH. Under 28 kHz US, 0.1 M NH3 additives effectively decarbonized the slurry, eliminating 72.2% of the carbon content [...] Read more.
Soil slurry was recycled to prepare a geopolymer after treatment with high-power ultrasound (US) in the presence of NH3, HCl, and NaOH. Under 28 kHz US, 0.1 M NH3 additives effectively decarbonized the slurry, eliminating 72.2% of the carbon content from the original soil. The US-treated soils were used as raw materials for the geopolymer, as they contained Si and Al components in the range of 25–30 and 8–10 wt.%, respectively. The geopolymer was prepared with a Na2SiO4/NaOH aqueous solution at a ¼ weight ratio at 80 °C for 24 h. The resultant geopolymers from the NH3-treated soil showed the best compressive strength of 3 MPa after 1 day of curing, with a low carbon content, when NH3 was used as an additive as opposed to HCl and NaOH under 1200 US exposure. Full article
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Article
Organically Modified Nanoclay Filled Thin-Film Nanocomposite Membranes for Reverse Osmosis Application
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223803 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
This study validates, for the first time, the effectiveness of two nanoclays, that is, cloisite (CS)-15A and montmorillonite (MNT) at the polyamide (PA) active layer in the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. Cloisite-15A is natural montmorillonite modified with dimethyl dihydrogenated tallow quaternary ammonium salt. [...] Read more.
This study validates, for the first time, the effectiveness of two nanoclays, that is, cloisite (CS)-15A and montmorillonite (MNT) at the polyamide (PA) active layer in the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. Cloisite-15A is natural montmorillonite modified with dimethyl dihydrogenated tallow quaternary ammonium salt. Thin-film composite (TFC) membranes were fabricated by the interfacial polymerization (IP) process between the trimesoylchloride (TMC)–n-hexane solution and m-phenylenediamine (MPD)–aqueous solution; the IP process took place on a polysulfone support sheet. The two types of nanoparticles were added in various weight ratios (0.005 wt.%–0.04 wt.%) in the n-hexane solution of TMC. Different characterizations like X-ray diffraction (XRD), contact angle, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and membrane performance tests were performed to analyse the membrane properties. Both XRD and TEM studies proved that the two nanoclays are successfully anchored at the different sites of the PA layer. CS-15A could accelerate the water flux from 15 to 18.65 L/m2·h with NaCl rejection enhancement from 72% to 80%, relative to the control membrane. Conversely, MNT also enhanced the flux from 15 to 40 L/m2·h, but NaCl rejection reduced from 70% to 23%. The mechanism of water uptake in nanoclays was also discussed. The results pave the way for a complete future study, in which these phenomena should be studied in great detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Article
Donor-site Morbidity after Retromolar Bone Harvesting Using a Standardised Press Fit Cylinder Protocol
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223802 - 19 Nov 2019
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Precise fitting and immobilisation of bone transplants at the recipient site is of utmost importance for the healing process. With the help of the standardised Osseo Transfer System, the recipient site is adjusted to the graft, rather than vice versa as it is [...] Read more.
Precise fitting and immobilisation of bone transplants at the recipient site is of utmost importance for the healing process. With the help of the standardised Osseo Transfer System, the recipient site is adjusted to the graft, rather than vice versa as it is typically done. The aim of this study was to analyse donor-site morbidity after harvesting cylindrical bone grafts from the retromolar region using the Osseo Transfer System. The patient satisfaction with the surgical procedures was also evaluated. All patients treated with this standardised reconstruction method between 2006 and 2013 at the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Giessen, were included in this study. Complications were recorded and evaluated. Bone graft success and patient satisfaction were documented with a questionnaire, and then confirmed by clinical and radiological follow-up examinations. Fifty-four patients were treated and 64 harvested cylindrical autologous bone grafts were transplanted. In all cases, dental implants could be inserted after bone healing. One patient lost an implant, associated with failure of the bone graft. Six patients who were examined continued to show neurological disorders in locally limited areas. No complete or long-term damage of the inferior alveolar nerve occurred. More than 94% (n = 52) of the patients were ‘very satisfied’ or ‘satisfied’ with the results and would recommend this surgical treatment to other patients. The standardised Osseo Transfer was an effective treatment option for small and mid-sized alveolar ridge augmentations. A low donor-site morbidity rate and a high transplant success rate were verified. The Osseo Transfer System demonstrated to be a reliable surgical technique without major complications. We highly recommend this surgical augmentation procedure as a surgical treatment for local bone defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Artificial Geothermal Brine: Influence of Carbon Dioxide at 70 °C and 150 °C
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3801; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223801 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
This study focuses on the corrosion mechanism of carbon steel exposed to an artificial geothermal brine influenced by carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The tested brine simulates a geothermal source in Sibayak, Indonesia, containing 1500 mg/L of Cl, 20 mg/L [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the corrosion mechanism of carbon steel exposed to an artificial geothermal brine influenced by carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The tested brine simulates a geothermal source in Sibayak, Indonesia, containing 1500 mg/L of Cl, 20 mg/L of SO42−, and 15 mg/L of HCO3 with pH 4. To reveal the temperature effect on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel, exposure and electrochemical tests were carried out at 70 °C and 150 °C. Surface analysis of corroded specimens showed localized corrosion at both temperatures, despite the formation of corrosion products on the surface. After 7 days at 150 °C, SEM images showed the formation of an adherent, dense, and crystalline FeCO3 layer. Whereas at 70 °C, the corrosion products consisted of chukanovite (Fe2(OH)2CO3) and siderite (FeCO3), which are less dense and less protective than that at 150 °C. Control experiments under Ar-environment were used to investigate the corrosive effect of CO2. Free corrosion potential (Ecorr) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirm that at both temperatures, the corrosive effect of CO2 was more significant compared to that measured in the Ar-containing solution. In terms of temperature effect, carbon steel remained active at 70 °C, while at 150 °C, it became passive due to the FeCO3 formation. These results suggest that carbon steel is more susceptible to corrosion at the near ground surface of a geothermal well, whereas at a deeper well with a higher temperature, there is a possible risk of scaling (FeCO3 layer). A longer exposure test at 150 °C with a stagnant solution for 28 days, however, showed the unstable FeCO3 layer and therefore a deeper localized corrosion compared to that of seven-day exposed specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Corrosion)
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Article
Synthesis of Poly (Citric Acid-Co-Glycerol) and Its Application as an Inhibitor of CaCO3 Deposition
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223800 - 19 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
This investigation determined a feasible route to prepare hyperbranched polyesters involving citric acid (CA) and glycerol (GLC) monomers (CA-co-GLC) using a thermal polycondensation method. The synthesized copolymer was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and differential scanning [...] Read more.
This investigation determined a feasible route to prepare hyperbranched polyesters involving citric acid (CA) and glycerol (GLC) monomers (CA-co-GLC) using a thermal polycondensation method. The synthesized copolymer was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The ability of CA-co-GLC to inhibit deposition of inorganic scales such as calcium carbonate was investigated under varying temperature and pH medium. The evaluation of inhibition efficiency (IE) was conducted using the static scale inhibition method. The mechanism of the inhibitor’s action was investigated via growth solution analysis, measurement conductivity, and analysis of CaCO3 using FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained showed that the CA-co-GLC had good IE at an elevated temperature reaching 75% at 100 °C, pH 7.5, and 10 ppm copolymer dose. Using the same dose, the IE reached 66% at 50 °C and pH 10. The CA-co-GLC did not chelate Ca2+ in water, but led to a change in polymorphism, making it brittle and able to slip easily from the surface. Its action principally prevented the adhesion of calcium carbonate onto the surface. Full article
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Article
Effect of Residual Stress on S–N Curves and Fracture Morphology of Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy after Laser Shock Peening without Protective Coating
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223799 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of residual stress on the stress–life (S–N) curve and fracture morphology characteristics of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy after laser shock peening (LSP) without protective coating was experimentally investigated. The fatigue test and residual stress measurement were conducted on specimens [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of residual stress on the stress–life (S–N) curve and fracture morphology characteristics of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy after laser shock peening (LSP) without protective coating was experimentally investigated. The fatigue test and residual stress measurement were conducted on specimens before and after the LSP process. It was shown that LSP produced a high-amplitude compressive residual stress field on the surface of the specimen. After the LSP process, the fatigue life limit was increased by 16%, and the S–N curve shifted upward. Then, based on the theory of mean stress, the mechanism whereby the compressive residual stress improves the fatigue life of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy was analyzed. It indicated the improvement in fatigue life was because of the high-amplitude compressive residual stress on the surface and in depth induced by LSP to reduce the tensile stress produced by external loading. In addition, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) pattern of fatigue fracture demonstrated distinct differences in the fracture morphology before and after LSP. After LSP, the crack initiation sites of the samples moved to the subsurface where it was difficult for fatigue cracks initiating here. Moreover, after the LSP process, there were high density of fatigue striations and many secondary cracks on the fracture of the treated specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Laser Technologies and Applications)
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Article
Effect of Copper Ion Concentration on Bacteria and Cells
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3798; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223798 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
In the oral cavity, dental implants—most often made of commercially pure titanium—come in contact with bacteria, and antibacterial management has been researched extensively to improve patient care. With antibiotic resistance becoming increasingly prevalent, this has resulted in copper being investigated as an antibacterial [...] Read more.
In the oral cavity, dental implants—most often made of commercially pure titanium—come in contact with bacteria, and antibacterial management has been researched extensively to improve patient care. With antibiotic resistance becoming increasingly prevalent, this has resulted in copper being investigated as an antibacterial element in alloys. In this study, the objective was to investigate the copper ion concentrations at which cyto-toxicity is avoided while bacterial inhibition is ensured, by comparing Cu ion effects on selected eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To determine relevant copper ion concentrations, ion release rates from copper and a 10 wt. % Cu Ti-alloy were investigated. Survival studies were performed on MC3T3 cells and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria, after exposure to Cu ions concentrations ranging from 9 × 10−3 to 9 × 10−12 g/mL. Cell survival increased from <10% to >90% after 24 h of exposure, by reducing Cu concentrations from 9 × 10−5 to 9 × 10−6 g/mL. Survival of bacteria also increased in the same range of Cu concentrations. The maximum bacteria growth was found at 9 × 10−7 g/mL, probably due to stress response. In conclusion, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cu ions for these prokaryotes and eukaryotes were found in the range from 9 × 10−5 to 9 × 10−6 g/mL. Interestingly, the Cu ion concentration correlating to the release rate of the 10 wt. % Cu alloy (9 × 10−8 g/mL) did not kill the bacteria, although this alloy has previously been found to be antibacterial. Further studies should investigate in depth the bacteria-killing mechanism of copper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Article
Gradient Microstructure in a Gear Steel Produced by Pressurized Gas Nitriding
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223797 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
A tempered martensitic gear steel (18CrNiMo7-6) sample was nitrided on two sides using a 5 atm pressurized gas at 530 °C for five hours. The nitrided sample was characterized by means of microhardness, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A [...] Read more.
A tempered martensitic gear steel (18CrNiMo7-6) sample was nitrided on two sides using a 5 atm pressurized gas at 530 °C for five hours. The nitrided sample was characterized by means of microhardness, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A microhardness gradient was identified over a distance of 1000 µm with hardness values from 900 HV0.1 at the surface to 300 HV0.1 in the center matrix. The gradient microstructure was mainly divided into three zones: (i) a nitride compound layer at the top surface (~20 µm thick), (ii) a diffusion zone with containing precipitates (~350 µm thick), and (iii) the center matrix of the tempered martensite. Compared with carburized sample, the harder surface of the nitrided one ensures a better performance of the present pressured gas nitrided gears. Full article
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Article
Rare Earth-Based Compounds as Inhibitors of Hot-Corrosion Induced by Vanadium Salts
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223796 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
In this study, the performance evaluation of lanthanum compounds as corrosion inhibitors of vanadium salts was performed. The inhibitors tested were lanthanum acetate and La2O3. The performance of the inhibitors was tested using sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) as [...] Read more.
In this study, the performance evaluation of lanthanum compounds as corrosion inhibitors of vanadium salts was performed. The inhibitors tested were lanthanum acetate and La2O3. The performance of the inhibitors was tested using sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) as a corrosive medium at 700, 800, and 900 °C. The corrosion inhibitory effect was evaluated on the corrosion process of 304H stainless steel. The corrosion rate of the steel was determined by the mass loss technique after 100 h of immersion in the corrosive salt with and without the addition of the corrosion inhibitor. The results show that lanthanum compounds act as corrosion inhibitors of vanadium salts. The inhibitory effect increases by increasing the concentration and tends to decrease when increasing the test temperature. Lanthanum compounds act as excellent corrosion inhibitors due to their ability to stabilize vanadium cations. Vanadium is stabilized by forming a new compound, lanthanum vanadate (LaVO4), with a melting point much higher than the compounds formed when Mg or Ni compounds are used as corrosion inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Corrosion)
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Article
Annealing of Boron-Doped Hydrogenated Crystalline Silicon Grown at Low Temperature by PECVD
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223795 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
We investigate low-temperature (<200 °C) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for the formation of p–n junctions. Compared to the standard diffusion or implantation processes, silicon growth at low temperature by PECVD ensures a lower thermal budget and a better control of the doping [...] Read more.
We investigate low-temperature (<200 °C) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for the formation of p–n junctions. Compared to the standard diffusion or implantation processes, silicon growth at low temperature by PECVD ensures a lower thermal budget and a better control of the doping profile. We previously demonstrated the successful growth of boron-doped epitaxial silicon layers (p+ epi-Si) at 180 °C. In this paper, we study the activation of boron during annealing via dark conductivity measurements of p+ epi-Si layers grown on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) profiles of the samples, carried out to analyze the elemental composition of the p+ epi-Si layers, showed a high concentration of impurities. Finally, we have characterized the p+ epi-Si layers by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL). Results revealed the presence of a broad defect band around 0.9 eV. In addition, we observed an evolution of the PL spectrum of the sample annealed at 200 °C, suggesting that additional defects might appear upon annealing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin Films for Energy Production and Storage)
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Article
Utilizing a Single Silica Nanospring as an Insulating Support to Characterize the Electrical Transport and Morphology of Nanocrystalline Graphite
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223794 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 701
Abstract
A graphitic carbon, referred to as graphite from the University of Idaho thermolyzed asphalt reaction (GUITAR), was coated in silica nanosprings and silicon substrates via the pyrolysis of commercial roofing tar at 800 °C in an inert atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission [...] Read more.
A graphitic carbon, referred to as graphite from the University of Idaho thermolyzed asphalt reaction (GUITAR), was coated in silica nanosprings and silicon substrates via the pyrolysis of commercial roofing tar at 800 °C in an inert atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images indicate that GUITAR is an agglomeration of carbon nanospheres formed by the accretion of graphitic flakes into a ~100 nm layer. Raman spectroscopic analyses, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, indicate that GUITAR has a nanocrystalline structure consisting of ~1–5 nm graphitic flakes interconnected by amorphous sp3 bonded carbon. The electrical resistivities of 11 single GUITAR-coated nanospring devices were measured over a temperature range of 10–80 °C. The average resistivity of all 11 devices at 20 °C was 4.3 ± 1.3 × 10−3 Ω m. The GUITAR coated nanospring devices exhibited an average negative temperature coefficient of resistivity at 20 °C of −0.0017 ± 0.00044 °C−1, which is consistent with the properties of nanocrystalline graphite. Full article
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Article
Effects of Servo Tensile Test Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Medium-Mn Steel
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223793 - 19 Nov 2019
Viewed by 691
Abstract
As a new type of third-generation automotive steel with high strength and plasticity, medium-Mn steel (MMnS) has been widely used in automotive industries for its excellent properties. In recent years, servo stamping technology for high-strength metal forming is a hot topic due to [...] Read more.
As a new type of third-generation automotive steel with high strength and plasticity, medium-Mn steel (MMnS) has been widely used in automotive industries for its excellent properties. In recent years, servo stamping technology for high-strength metal forming is a hot topic due to its good performance in forming under complex processing conditions, and servo parameters determine the forming quality. In this paper, experiments considering tensile speed and position where speed changes (PSC) were carried out on MMnS to investigate the influences of tensile parameters on mechanical properties including strength and total elongation (TE). The results show that PSC does not significantly impact total elongation. Initial tensile speed (ITS) and final tensile speed (FTS) significantly impact the total elongation. The interaction between all tensile parameters can impact total elongation. Two artificial neural networks, back propagation neural network (BPNN) and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), were used to establish analytical models. The results of supplemental experiment and residual analysis were conducted to verify the accuracy of the analytical models. The BPNN has a better performance and the analytical model shows that with the increase of PSC, it has a slight impact on the changes of optimal and minimum total elongation, but the combinations of tensile parameters to obtain total elongations higher than 40% change significantly. Full article
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Article
Impact of Support (MCF, ZrO2, ZSM-5) on the Efficiency of Ni Catalyst in High-Temperature Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrogen-Rich Gas
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223792 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
The main objective of this work was to evaluate an impact of a support on the efficiency of nickel catalysts in the high-temperature conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to hydrogen-rich gas. The most important parameters influencing catalytic performance of the catalysts were identified. The [...] Read more.
The main objective of this work was to evaluate an impact of a support on the efficiency of nickel catalysts in the high-temperature conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to hydrogen-rich gas. The most important parameters influencing catalytic performance of the catalysts were identified. The properties of three materials (ZSM-5, ZrO2, and MCF (mesostructured cellular foam)) used as a support differing in surface acidity, surface area, pore structure, ability to interact with an active phase, and resistance to coking, have been studied. The results revealed that Ni/MCF, characterized by large pore size and pore volume, low acidity, small NiO crystallites size, and moderate interaction with the active phase, is the most efficient among studied catalysts, while an application of Ni on ZSM-5 support with high-acidity was not beneficial. The results suggest that structure of the support, in particular larger pore size and a better contact between an active phase and reaction intermediates, play an important role in the formation of gaseous products during thermal decomposition of lignocellulosic feedstock. On the other hand, high acidity of the support did not increase the formation of large amounts of hydrogen-rich gaseous products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysts: Preparation, Catalytic Performance and Catalytic Reaction)
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Article
Defect Prevention in Selective Laser Melting Components: Compositional and Process Effects
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223791 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
A model to predict the conditions for printability is presented. The model focuses on crack prevention, as well as on avoiding the formation of defects such as keyholes, balls and lack of fusion. Crack prevention is ensured by controlling the solidification temperature range [...] Read more.
A model to predict the conditions for printability is presented. The model focuses on crack prevention, as well as on avoiding the formation of defects such as keyholes, balls and lack of fusion. Crack prevention is ensured by controlling the solidification temperature range and path, as well as via quantifying its ability to resist thermal stresses upon solidification. Defect formation prevention is ensured by controlling the melt pool geometry and by taking into consideration the melting properties. The model’s core relies on thermodynamics and physical analysis to ensure optimal printability, and in turn offers key information for alloy design and selective laser melting process control. The model is shown to describe accurately defect formation of 316L austenitic stainless steels reported in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Understandings in Selective Laser Melting (SLM))
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Article
Parametric Study of Flexural Strengthening of Concrete Beams with Prestressed Hybrid Reinforced Polymer
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223790 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
The strengthening method of using hybrid fiber reinforced polymer is an effective way to increase the strengthening efficiency and lower the cost. This paper focuses on simulating the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam strengthened by prestressed C/GFRP (Carbon-Glass hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer) [...] Read more.
The strengthening method of using hybrid fiber reinforced polymer is an effective way to increase the strengthening efficiency and lower the cost. This paper focuses on simulating the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam strengthened by prestressed C/GFRP (Carbon-Glass hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer) with different hybrid ratios and prestress levels. An elastoplastic damage constitution is used to simulate the mechanical behavior of concrete. A cohesive zone model under mixed mode is adopted to describe the debonding behavior of the FRP-concrete and concrete-steel interface. The results show good agreement with the experiment in the load-deflection curve, load-stress curve of steel, and HFRP. Furthermore, the failure mode of concrete and FRP debonding obtained from numerical simulation is the same as the test. Considering the improvement of the bending capacity, stiffness, and ductility of the strengthened beam in this paper, the best hybrid ratio of carbon to glass fiber is 1:1, and the suitable prestress level is between 30 and 50% of its ultimate strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Materials Modeling, Analysis and Applications)
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Article
Multi-Response Optimization of Porous Asphalt Mixtures Reinforced with Aramid and Polyolefin Fibers Employing the CRITIC-TOPSIS Based on Taguchi Methodology
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3789; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223789 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
For the optimum design of a Porous Asphalt (PA) mixture, different requirements in terms of functionality and durability have to be fulfilled. In this research, the influence of different control factors such as binder type, fiber content, and binder content were statistically investigated [...] Read more.
For the optimum design of a Porous Asphalt (PA) mixture, different requirements in terms of functionality and durability have to be fulfilled. In this research, the influence of different control factors such as binder type, fiber content, and binder content were statistically investigated in terms of multiple responses such as total air voids, interconnected air voids, particle loss in dry conditions, particle loss in wet conditions, and binder drainage. The experiments were conducted based on a Taguchi L18 orthogonal array. The best parametric combination per each response was analyzed through signal to noise ratio values. Multiple regression models were employed to predict the responses of the experiments. As more than one response is obtained, a multi-objective optimization was performed by employing Criteria Importance through Criteria Inter-Correlation (CRITIC) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methodologies. The weights for the selection of the functional and mechanical performance criteria were derived from the CRITIC approach, whereas the ranking of the different experiments was obtained through the TOPSIS technique. According to the CRITIC-TOPSIS based Taguchi methodology, the optimal multiple-response was obtained for a polymer modified binder (PMB) with fiber and binder contents of 0.15% and 5.0%, respectively. In addition, good results were obtained when using a conventional 50/70 penetration grade binder with a 5.0% binder content and 0.05% fiber content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Materials and Technologies for the Urban Roads of the Future)
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Article
Effect of Elastic Modulus on the Accuracy of the Finite Element Method in Simulating Precision Glass Molding
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223788 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
Precision glass molding is a revolutionary technology for achieving high precision and efficient manufacturing of glass aspheric lenses. The material properties of glass, including elastic modulus and viscosity, are highly dependent on temperature fluctuations. This paper aims to investigate the effect of elastic [...] Read more.
Precision glass molding is a revolutionary technology for achieving high precision and efficient manufacturing of glass aspheric lenses. The material properties of glass, including elastic modulus and viscosity, are highly dependent on temperature fluctuations. This paper aims to investigate the effect of elastic modulus on the high-temperature viscoelasticity of glass and the accuracy of the finite element simulation of the molding process for glass aspheric lenses. The high-temperature elastic modulus of D-ZK3L glass is experimentally measured and combined with the glass cylinder compression creep curve to calculate the high temperature viscoelasticity of D-ZK3L. Three groups of viscoelastic parameters are obtained. Based on this, the molding process of the molded aspheric lens is simulated by the nonlinear finite element method (FEM). The surface curves of lenses obtained by simulation and theoretical analyses are consistent. The simulation results obtained at different initial elastic modulus values indicate that the elastic modulus has a great influence on the precision of the FEM-based molding process of glass aspheric lenses. Full article
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Article
ANN-Based Fatigue Strength of Concrete under Compression
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3787; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223787 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
When concrete is subjected to cycles of compression, its strength is lower than the statically determined concrete compressive strength. This reduction is typically expressed as a function of the number of cycles. In this work, we study the reduced capacity as a function [...] Read more.
When concrete is subjected to cycles of compression, its strength is lower than the statically determined concrete compressive strength. This reduction is typically expressed as a function of the number of cycles. In this work, we study the reduced capacity as a function of a given number of cycles by means of artificial neural networks. We used an input database with 203 datapoints gathered from the literature. To find the optimal neural network, 14 features of neural networks were studied and varied, resulting in the optimal neural net. This proposed model resulted in a maximum relative error of 5.1% and a mean relative error of 1.2% for the 203 datapoints. The proposed model resulted in a better prediction (mean tested to predicted value = 1.00 with a coefficient of variation 1.7%) as compared to the existing code expressions. The model we developed can thus be used for the design and the assessment of concrete structures and provides a more accurate assessment and design than the existing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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Article
Effect of Using Hybrid Polypropylene and Glass Fibre on the Mechanical Properties and Permeability of Concrete
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223786 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
A comprehensive program of experiments consisting of compression, uniaxial compression, direct shear, flexural as well as splitting tensile and air permeability tests were performed to analyse the effect of the level of fibre dosage and the water–cement ratio on the physical properties of [...] Read more.
A comprehensive program of experiments consisting of compression, uniaxial compression, direct shear, flexural as well as splitting tensile and air permeability tests were performed to analyse the effect of the level of fibre dosage and the water–cement ratio on the physical properties of hybrid fibre-reinforced concrete (HFRC). Two types of fibres were studied in terms of their effect on the properties of HFRC. The results indicated that the mechanical properties of concrete were significantly improved by increasing the fibre content. However, increasing the percentage fibre content past a certain peak performance limit (0.9% glass fibre (GF) and 0.45% polypropylene fibre (PPF)) led to a decrease in strength compared to reference mixes. Additionally, the incorporation of hybrid fibres yielded an increase in air permeability in the tested specimens. The results showed that the strength-related properties of HFRC were superior to the properties of single fibre-reinforced concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics and Construction Materials)
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Article
Study on the Forming Process and Deformation Behavior of Inner Ring in the Wheel Hub Bearing Based on Riveting Assembly
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223785 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
The orbital riveting process has been successively adopted in the assembly of wheel hub bearing, due to its special merits of high efficiency, low cost, and so on. The forming process and deformation behavior of the inner ring have significant influence on the [...] Read more.
The orbital riveting process has been successively adopted in the assembly of wheel hub bearing, due to its special merits of high efficiency, low cost, and so on. The forming process and deformation behavior of the inner ring have significant influence on the axial clamping force and bearing clearance, however, which haven’t been addressed yet. In this study, a numerical simulation platform for the assembly of the hub bearing is established by the joint use of the static implicit and dynamic explicit algorithms. Based on the platform, the deformation process and deformation behavior of the inner ring are investigated, along with the interference assembly and riveting assembly on the loading process of the inner ring. Finally, relevant experimental verifications are carried out to consolidate the simulation results. The research findings could be used to guide the design and optimization of the axial clamping force and bearing clearance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes)
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Article
Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology in the Treatment of Highly Contaminated Tannery Wastewater Using Commercial Potassium Ferrate
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223784 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
The potential implementation of Envifer®, a commercial product containing potassium ferrate (40.1% K2FeO4), for the purification of highly contaminated tannery wastewater from leather dyeing processes was proposed. The employment of the Taguchi method for optimization of experiments [...] Read more.
The potential implementation of Envifer®, a commercial product containing potassium ferrate (40.1% K2FeO4), for the purification of highly contaminated tannery wastewater from leather dyeing processes was proposed. The employment of the Taguchi method for optimization of experiments allowed the discoloration (98.4%), chemical oxygen demand (77.2%), total organic carbon (75.7%), and suspended solids (96.9%) values to be lowered using 1.200 g/L K2FeO4 at pH 3 within 9 min. The application of the central composite design (CCD) and the response surface methodology (RSM) with the use of 1.400 g/L K2FeO4 at pH 4.5 diminished the discoloration, the chemical oxygen demand, the total organic carbon, and suspended solids within 9 min. The Taguchi method is suitable for the initial implementation, while the RSM is superior for the extended optimization of wastewater treatment processes. Full article
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Article
Influence of Nanostructuration on PbTe Alloys Synthesized by Arc-Melting
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223783 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
PbTe-based alloys have the best thermoelectric properties for intermediate temperature applications (500–900 K). We report on the preparation of pristine PbTe and two doped derivatives (Pb0.99Sb0.01Te and Ag0.05Sb0.05Pb0.9Te, so-called LAST18) by a fast [...] Read more.
PbTe-based alloys have the best thermoelectric properties for intermediate temperature applications (500–900 K). We report on the preparation of pristine PbTe and two doped derivatives (Pb0.99Sb0.01Te and Ag0.05Sb0.05Pb0.9Te, so-called LAST18) by a fast arc-melting technique, yielding nanostructured polycrystalline pellets. XRD and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data assessed the a slight Te deficiency for PbTe, also yielding trends on the displacement factors of the 4a and 4b sites of the cubic Fm-3m space group. Interestingly, SEM analysis shows the conspicuous formation of layers assembled as stackings of nano-sheets, with 20–30 nm thickness. TEM analysis shows intra-sheet nanostructuration on the 50 nm scale in the form of polycrystalline grains. Large numbers of grain boundaries are created by this nanostructuration and this may contribute to reduce the thermal conductivity to a record-low value of 1.6 Wm−1K−1 at room temperature. In LAST18, a positive Seebeck coefficient up to 600 μV K−1 at 450 K was observed, contributing further towards improving potential thermoelectric efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials: From Synthesis to Applications)
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Article
Corrosion Behavior of an AISI/SAE Steel Cut by Electropulsing
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223782 - 18 Nov 2019
Viewed by 655
Abstract
The effect of electropulsing treatment (EPT) on the surface general corrosion behavior of an AISI/SAE 1045 steel under different machining regimes is studied. In the study, the following variables are alternated: high-speed steel (HSS) vs. hard metal (HM), and with and without the [...] Read more.
The effect of electropulsing treatment (EPT) on the surface general corrosion behavior of an AISI/SAE 1045 steel under different machining regimes is studied. In the study, the following variables are alternated: high-speed steel (HSS) vs. hard metal (HM), and with and without the assistance of high-density electropulses. The corrosion rates are determined using comparative studies such as gravimetric analysis, salt spray chamber test, electrochemical polarization curve techniques (PC), and linear polarization resistance (LPR). Differences in surface microhardness were evaluated by applying optical microscopy and planimetric procedures. Specimens subjected to electropulses and turned with HM reported greater reductions of corrosion rates. Changes in corrosion behavior can be explained in terms of grain shape factor h variation. The present study demonstrates that electropulsing affects the corrosion behavior of AISI/SAE 1045 steel after the turning process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Article
Quantitative Description of External Force Induced Phase Transformation in Silicon–Manganese (Si–Mn) Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) Steels
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223781 - 18 Nov 2019
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels with silicon–manganese (Si–Mn) as the main element have attracted a lot of attention and great interest from steel companies due to their low price, high strength, and high plasticity. Retained austenite is of primary importance as the source [...] Read more.
Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels with silicon–manganese (Si–Mn) as the main element have attracted a lot of attention and great interest from steel companies due to their low price, high strength, and high plasticity. Retained austenite is of primary importance as the source of high strength and high plasticity in Si–Mn TRIP steels. In this work, the cold rolled sheets of Si–Mn low carbon steel were treated with TRIP and Dual Phase (DP) treatment respectively. Then, the microstructure and composition of the Si–Mn low carbon steel were observed and tested. The static tensile test of TRIP steel and DP steel was carried out by a CMT5305 electronic universal testing machine. The self-built true stress–strain curve model of TRIP steel was verified. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the phase transformation energy of retained austenite and the work borne by austenite in the sample during static stretching were calculated. The work done by austenite was 14.5 J, which was negligible compared with the total work of 217.8 J. The phase transformation energy absorption of retained austenite in the sample was 9.12 J. The role of retained austenite in TRIP steel is the absorption of excess energy at the key place where the fracture will occur, thereby increasing the elongation, so that the ferrite and bainite in the TRIP steel can absorb energy for a longer time and withstand more energy. Full article
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Article
Loading and Sustained Release of Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (BAC) in Nano-Clays
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223780 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Benzyl ammonium chloride (BAC) is a broad-spectrum bactericide, but vulnerable to leaching by water. In this paper, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and montmorillonite (MMT) were used as drug carriers to load BAC, in order to achieve good anti-mildew activity and long-term sustained release properties. [...] Read more.
Benzyl ammonium chloride (BAC) is a broad-spectrum bactericide, but vulnerable to leaching by water. In this paper, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and montmorillonite (MMT) were used as drug carriers to load BAC, in order to achieve good anti-mildew activity and long-term sustained release properties. The HNT and MMT nano-composites were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption. XRD results showed that BAC intercalated the interlayer of MMT, and expanded the interlayer spacing from 1.15 nm to 1.75 nm. Pore analysis showed that BAC decreased the cavity of halloysite nanotubes to a certain extent, which indicated that BAC loaded inside the lumen of HNT successfully. TG analysis showed that the loading capacity of MMT to BAC was higher than HNT. The accelerated-release experiments revealed both two clays have significant sustained-release effects on BAC, and the releasing rate of HNT was relatively lower. Both HNT and MMT have promising application prospects as sustained-release carriers. The inhibition test showed that BAC in nano-clay has good anti-mildew resistance performance. Full article
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Article
The Potential Selective Cytotoxicity of Poly (L- Lactic Acid)-Based Scaffolds Functionalized with Nanohydroxyapatite and Europium (III) Ions toward Osteosarcoma Cells
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223779 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is malignant bone tumor, occurring in children and adults, characterized by poor prognosis. Despite advances in chemotherapy and surgical techniques, the survival of osteosarcoma patients is not improving significantly. Currently, great efforts are taken to identify novel selective strategies, distinguishing between [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is malignant bone tumor, occurring in children and adults, characterized by poor prognosis. Despite advances in chemotherapy and surgical techniques, the survival of osteosarcoma patients is not improving significantly. Currently, great efforts are taken to identify novel selective strategies, distinguishing between cancer and normal cells. This includes development of biomimetic scaffolds with anticancer properties that can simultaneously support and modulate proper regeneration of bone tissue. In this study cytotoxicity of scaffolds composed from poly (L-lactic acid) functionalized with nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and doped with europium (III) ions—10 wt % 3 mol % Eu3+: [email protected] was tested using human osteosarcoma cells: U-2 OS, Saos-2 and MG-63. Human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (HuASCs) were used as non-transformed cells to determine the selective cytotoxicity of the carrier. Analysis included evaluation of cells morphology (confocal/scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), metabolic activity and apoptosis profile in cultures on the scaffolds. Results obtained indicated on high cytotoxicity of scaffolds toward all OSA cell lines, associated with a decrease of cells’ viability, deterioration of metabolic activity and activation of apoptotic factors determined at mRNA and miRNA levels. Simultaneously, the biomaterials did not affect HuASCs’ viability and proliferation rate. Obtained scaffolds showed a bioimaging function, due to functionalization with luminescent europium ions, and thus may find application in theranostics treatment of OSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymer Composite Materials for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
Fabrication and Finite Element Analysis of Composite Elbows
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223778 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
“Tube beams” are common lightweight structures, which have domestic and industry applications, and are often subjected to complex multidirectional loads. Therefore, metals with mature manufacturing methods and isotropic properties are commonly used in the fabrication of these structures, which are preferred to be [...] Read more.
“Tube beams” are common lightweight structures, which have domestic and industry applications, and are often subjected to complex multidirectional loads. Therefore, metals with mature manufacturing methods and isotropic properties are commonly used in the fabrication of these structures, which are preferred to be lighter in weight. Although polymer matrix composites are generally used for weight reduction, their conventional manufacturing methods, such as pultrusion and filament-winding, cannot meet the isotropic requirements. Moreover, research on bent tube beams (elbows) is rare. Therefore, a self-made glass fiber/epoxy polyvinyl ester fabric prepreg and a self-designed mold were used in this study to prepare an isotropic composite double-bent elbow by a silicone rubber airbag-assisted process. The load capacity of the elbow was tested and validated by the finite element method. A strength and deformation of up to 3448 N and 2.84 mm respectively, were achieved. The simulation and experimental results were consistent: the error for the load capacity and deformation was only 4.15% and 7.75% respectively, under the max stress criterion. Full article
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Article
Effects of a Chipboard Structure on Its Physical and Mechanical Properties
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223777 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
The paper evaluated the possibility of manufacturing wood-based boards from the material left over from sawmill processing of wood. The boards were made from chips created during cant preparation for cutting and sawdust generated during further sawnwood preparation. They were made as one- [...] Read more.
The paper evaluated the possibility of manufacturing wood-based boards from the material left over from sawmill processing of wood. The boards were made from chips created during cant preparation for cutting and sawdust generated during further sawnwood preparation. They were made as one- and three-ply boards with face layers containing industrial microchips. Mechanical properties determined for one-ply boards in a bend test were used as guidelines for manufacturing three-ply boards. The outcomes were much better when the core layer comprised a mix of chips and sawdust than the chips alone. The study also showed that for the assumed technological parameters it is possible to produce three-ply boards with properties meeting the criteria for P2 furniture boards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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Article
Study on Compatibility and Rheological Properties of High-Viscosity Modified Asphalt Prepared from Low-Grade Asphalt
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223776 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
High-viscosity modified asphalt is mainly used as a binder for porous asphalt in China and Japan. In order to meet the demand for using porous asphalt under high temperature condition in Africa, high-viscosity asphalt made from low-grade matrix asphalt, which is commonly used [...] Read more.
High-viscosity modified asphalt is mainly used as a binder for porous asphalt in China and Japan. In order to meet the demand for using porous asphalt under high temperature condition in Africa, high-viscosity asphalt made from low-grade matrix asphalt, which is commonly used in Africa is investigated. Based on simulation of local climate in Africa, the suitable range of high viscosity additive content for different matrix asphalt was obtained by analyzing dynamic viscosity of the asphalt. Through PG high temperature grading, multi-stress repeated creep, accelerated fatigue, temperature sweep and other tests, changes of high temperature, anti-fatigue and anti-shear indicators before and after modification were compared and analyzed and effects of different matrix asphalt were also studied. Finally, considering engineering requirements, mixing and compaction temperatures of various high-viscosity modified asphalt were determined through study of viscosity-temperature characteristics. This research provides a support for preparation of high-viscosity modified asphalt and porous asphalt mixture by using low grade asphalt. The research achievements can help to guide the material design and application of porous asphalt in Africa and other high temperature areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Designed Pavement Materials)
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Article
Synthesis of Colloidal Au Nanoparticles through Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Their Use in the Preparation of Polyacrylate-AuNPs’ Composites
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223775 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared from two different liquid precursors (gold (III) acetate and gold (III) chloride), using the Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP) process. The STEM characterisation showed that the AuNPs from gold chloride are spherical, with average diameters of 57.2 and [...] Read more.
Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared from two different liquid precursors (gold (III) acetate and gold (III) chloride), using the Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP) process. The STEM characterisation showed that the AuNPs from gold chloride are spherical, with average diameters of 57.2 and 69.4 nm, while the AuNPs from gold acetate are ellipsoidal, with average diameters of 84.2 and 134.3 nm, according to Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements. UV/VIS spectroscopy revealed the maximum absorbance band of AuNPs between 532 and 560 nm, which indicates a stable state. Colloidal AuNPs were used as starting material and were mixed together with acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (Am) for the free radical polymerization of polyacrylate-AuNPs’ composites, with the purpose of using them for temporary cavity fillings in the dental industry. SEM characterisation of polyacrylate-AuNPs’ composites revealed a uniform distribution of AuNPs through the polymer matrix, revealing that the AuNPs remained stable during the polymerization process. The density measurements revealed that colloidal AuNPs increase the densities of the prepared polyacrylate-AuNPs’ composites; the densities were increased up to 40% in comparison with the densities of the control samples. A compressive test showed that polyacrylate-AuNPs’ composites exhibited lower compressive strength compared to the control samples, while their toughness increased. At 50% compression deformation some of the samples fracture, suggesting that incorporation of colloidal AuNPs do not improve their compressive strength, but increase their toughness significantly. This increased toughness is the measured property which makes prepared polyacrylate-AuNPs potentially useful in dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Processing of Materials)
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