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Materials, Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Intermetallic type I clathrates are considered to be potential thermoelectric (TE) materials due to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Microscopic View of Defect Evolution in Thermal Treated AlGaInAs Quantum Well Revealed by Spatially Resolved Cathodoluminescence
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061049
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
An aluminum gallium indium arsenic (AlGaInAs) material system is indispensable as the active layer of diode lasers emitting at 1310 or 1550 nm, which are used in optical fiber communications. However, the course of the high-temperature instability of a quantum well structure, which
[...] Read more.
An aluminum gallium indium arsenic (AlGaInAs) material system is indispensable as the active layer of diode lasers emitting at 1310 or 1550 nm, which are used in optical fiber communications. However, the course of the high-temperature instability of a quantum well structure, which is closely related to the diffusion of indium atoms, is still not clear due to the system’s complexity. The diffusion process of indium atoms was simulated by thermal treatment, and the changes in the optical and structural properties of an AlGaInAs quantum well are investigated in this paper. Compressive strained Al0.07Ga0.22In0.71As quantum wells were treated at 170 °C with different heat durations. A significant decrement of photoluminescence decay time was observed on the quantum well of a sample that was annealed after 4 h. The microscopic cathodoluminescent (CL) spectra of these quantum wells were measured by scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL). The thermal treatment effect on quantum wells was characterized via CL emission peak wavelength and energy density distribution, which were obtained by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence. The defect area was clearly observed in the Al0.07Ga0.22In0.71As quantum wells layer after thermal treatment. CL emissions from the defect core have higher emission energy than those from the defect-free regions. The defect core distribution, which was associated with indium segregation gradient distribution, showed asymmetric character. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Percent Reduction in Transverse Rupture Strength of Metal Matrix Diamond Segments Analysed via Discrete-Element Simulations
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061048
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
The percent TRS reduction, DTRS, which is the percent reduction of the transverse rupture strength of metal matrix diamond segments with or without diamonds, is a key metric for evaluating the bonding condition of diamonds in a matrix. In this work,
[...] Read more.
The percent TRS reduction, DTRS, which is the percent reduction of the transverse rupture strength of metal matrix diamond segments with or without diamonds, is a key metric for evaluating the bonding condition of diamonds in a matrix. In this work, we build, calibrate, and verify a discrete-element simulation of a metal matrix diamond segment to obtain DTRS for diamond segments with various diamond-grain sizes, concentrations, and distributions. The results indicate that DTRS increases with increasing diamond-grain concentration and decreases with increasing diamond-grain size. Both factors can be explained by the total diamond contact length, the increase of which causes the increase in DTRS. The distribution of diamond grains in segments also strongly influences the increase of DTRS. The use of DTRS as a metric to assess the bonding condition of diamonds in matrixes is not valid unless the diamond-grain size, concentration, and distribution and total diamond contact length are the same for all diamond segments under consideration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Preparation of Plasma-Modified Fly Ash Catalyst and Its De–NOX Mechanism
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061047
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Fly ash and bentonite were mixed in a certain proportion as raw materials to prepare a denitration catalyst. In previous studies, it has been concluded that fly ash-type catalysts can provide significant catalytic activity for denitrification after being modified with oxygen. In this
[...] Read more.
Fly ash and bentonite were mixed in a certain proportion as raw materials to prepare a denitration catalyst. In previous studies, it has been concluded that fly ash-type catalysts can provide significant catalytic activity for denitrification after being modified with oxygen. In this study, the effect of plasma conditions on the denitration performance of the catalyst was investigated from the aspects of plasma modification power, modification time, and the flow rate of the gas. Boehm titration and infrared analysis systems were used to characterize the performance of the catalyst. The experimental results show that the optimal modification power is 60 W, the optimal modification time is 20 min, and the optimal gas flow rate is 40 mL/min. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quadratic Solid–Shell Finite Elements for Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of Functionally Graded Material Plates
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061046
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 16 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
In the current contribution, prismatic and hexahedral quadratic solid–shell (SHB) finite elements are proposed for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin structures made of functionally graded material (FGM). The proposed SHB finite elements are developed within a purely 3D framework, with displacements as
[...] Read more.
In the current contribution, prismatic and hexahedral quadratic solid–shell (SHB) finite elements are proposed for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin structures made of functionally graded material (FGM). The proposed SHB finite elements are developed within a purely 3D framework, with displacements as the only degrees of freedom. Also, the in-plane reduced-integration technique is combined with the assumed-strain method to alleviate various locking phenomena. Furthermore, an arbitrary number of integration points are placed along a special direction, which represents the thickness. The developed elements are coupled with functionally graded behavior for the modeling of thin FGM plates. To this end, the Young modulus of the FGM plate is assumed to vary gradually in the thickness direction, according to a volume fraction distribution. The resulting formulations are implemented into the quasi-static ABAQUS/Standard finite element software in the framework of large displacements and rotations. Popular nonlinear benchmark problems are considered to assess the performance and accuracy of the proposed SHB elements. Comparisons with reference solutions from the literature demonstrate the good capabilities of the developed SHB elements for the 3D simulation of thin FGM plates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Multiscale Mathematical Model for Building Bone Substitute Materials for Children
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061045
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Bone is an engineering marvel that achieves a unique combination of stiffness and toughness exceeding that of synthesized materials. In orthopedics, we are currently challenged for the child population that needs a less stiff but a tougher bone substitute than adults. Recent evidence
[...] Read more.
Bone is an engineering marvel that achieves a unique combination of stiffness and toughness exceeding that of synthesized materials. In orthopedics, we are currently challenged for the child population that needs a less stiff but a tougher bone substitute than adults. Recent evidence suggests that the relationship between inter-molecular connections that involve the two main bone building blocks, TropoCollagen molecules (TC) and carbonated Hydroxyapatite (cAp), and bone macroscopic mechanical properties, stiffness and toughness, are key to building bone substitute materials for children. The goal of our study is to establish how inter-molecular connections that occur during bone mineralization are related to macroscopic mechanical properties in child bones. Our aim is to link the biological alterations of the TC-cAp self assembly process happening during bone mineralization to the bone macroscopic mechanical properties’ alterations during aging. To do so, we have developed a multiscale mathematical model that includes collagen cross links (TC–TC interface) from experimental studies of bone samples to forecast bone macroscopic mechanical properties. Our results support that the Young’s modulus cannot be a linear parameter if we want to solve our system. In relation to bone substitute material with innovative properties for children, our results propose values of several biological parameters, such as the number of crystals and their size, and collagen crosslink maturity for the desired bone mechanical competence. Our novel mathematical model combines mineralization and macroscopic mechanical behavior of bone and is a step forward in building mechanically customized biomimetic bone grafts that would fit children’s orthopedic needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Substitute Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Hot Deformation Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of 14Cr ODS Steel
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061044
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Hot deformation tests of 14Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel fabricated by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) were performed on a Gleeble-1500D simulator at temperatures ranging from 1050 to 1200 °C with the strain rate range of 0.001−1 s−1
[...] Read more.
Hot deformation tests of 14Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel fabricated by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) were performed on a Gleeble-1500D simulator at temperatures ranging from 1050 to 1200 °C with the strain rate range of 0.001−1 s−1. The relationship between the rheological stress and the deformation condition was studied, and a processing map at the true strain of 0.5 was proposed. Microstructure evolution during the deformation process and the effects of deformation conditions on microstructures were also investigated, as well as the stability of nanoparticles. Results show that the 14Cr ODS steel possesses positive strain rate sensitivity. The flow stress increases with the decrease of deformation temperature and the increase of strain rate. The recrystallization process is promoted by the increase of deformation temperature and the reduction of strain rate. Nanoparticles possess excellent stability during the deformation process and are coherent with the matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wear Resistance of 3D Printing Resin Material Opposing Zirconia and Metal Antagonists
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061043
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
3D printing offers many advantages in dental prosthesis manufacturing. This study evaluated the wear resistance of 3D printing resin material compared with milling and conventional resin materials. Sixty substrate specimens were prepared with three types of resin materials: 3D printed resin, milled resin,
[...] Read more.
3D printing offers many advantages in dental prosthesis manufacturing. This study evaluated the wear resistance of 3D printing resin material compared with milling and conventional resin materials. Sixty substrate specimens were prepared with three types of resin materials: 3D printed resin, milled resin, and self-cured resin. The 3D printed specimens were printed at a build angle of 0° and 100 μm layer thickness by digital light processing 3D printing. Two kinds of abraders were made of zirconia and CoCr alloy. The specimens were loaded at 5 kg for 30,000 chewing cycles with vertical and horizontal movements under thermocycling condition. The 3D printed resin did not show significant difference in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear compared to the milled and the self-cured resins. No significant difference was revealed depending on the abraders in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear. In SEM views, the 3D printed resin showed cracks and separation of inter-layer bonds when opposing the metal abrader. The results suggest that the 3D printing using resin materials provides adequate wear resistance for dental use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Thiazolyl Blue as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Copper in Neutral Sodium Chloride Solution
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061042
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The anticorrosion effect of thiazolyl blue (MTT) for copper in 3% NaCl at 298 K was researched by electrochemical methods, scanning electron-microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results reveal that MTT can protect copper efficiently, with a maximum efficiency of 95.7%.
[...] Read more.
The anticorrosion effect of thiazolyl blue (MTT) for copper in 3% NaCl at 298 K was researched by electrochemical methods, scanning electron-microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results reveal that MTT can protect copper efficiently, with a maximum efficiency of 95.7%. The corrosion inhibition mechanism was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectral (FT-IR), and theoretical calculation. The results suggest that the MTT molecules are adsorbed on metal surface forming a hydrophobic protective film to prevent copper corrosion. It also indicates that the MTT and copper form covalent bonds. The molecular dynamic simulation further gives the evidence for adsorption. The adsorption isotherm studies demonstrate that a spontaneous, mixed physical and chemical adsorption occurs, which obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The present research can help us better understand the corrosion inhibition process and improve it. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Elucidating the Photocatalytic Behavior of TiO2-SnS2 Composites Based on Their Energy Band Structure
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061041
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
TiO2-SnS2 composite semiconducting photocatalysts with different building component ratios were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis (TiO2-SnS2-HT) and by immobilization of commercial TiO2 and SnS2 particles (TiO2-SnS2-COMM). The band gap values, which
[...] Read more.
TiO2-SnS2 composite semiconducting photocatalysts with different building component ratios were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis (TiO2-SnS2-HT) and by immobilization of commercial TiO2 and SnS2 particles (TiO2-SnS2-COMM). The band gap values, which determine the catalysts’ photoactivity, were examined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Kubelka–Munk transformations. The catalysts’ surface properties: specific surface area, charge and adsorption capacitance at the solid–solution interface were characterized using BET analysis, potentiometric titration and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The electronic band structure of TiO2-SnS2 photocatalyst, as the key property for the solar-driven photocatalysis, was deduced from the thermodynamic data and the semiconducting parameters (type of semiconductivity, concentration of the charge carriers, flat band potential) obtained by Mott–Schottky analysis. The photoactivity of both composites was studied in photocatalytic treatment of diclofenac (DCF) under simulated solar irradiation and was compared to the benchmark photocatalyst (TiO2 P25) activity. The influence of process parameters, such as pH, H2O2, and composite formulation on the effectiveness of DCF removal and conversion was investigated and discussed by employing response surface modeling (RSM) approach. The photocatalytic efficiency of both composite materials was discussed on the basis of the hetereojunction formation that facilitated the photoelectron transfer, promoting more efficient photocatalytic degradation of DCF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalysis for Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessReview Magnetic Particle Filled Elastomeric Hybrid Composites and Their Magnetorheological Response
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061040
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The magnetorheological (MR) elastomer as a hard and soft hybrid functional material, a composite material consisting of magnetic hard particles embedded in elastomeric soft matrix, is a branch of MR materials that are functional smart materials rapidly responding to external magnetic fields. These
[...] Read more.
The magnetorheological (MR) elastomer as a hard and soft hybrid functional material, a composite material consisting of magnetic hard particles embedded in elastomeric soft matrix, is a branch of MR materials that are functional smart materials rapidly responding to external magnetic fields. These tunable properties of MR elastomers facilitate a variety of applications. In this brief review paper, in addition to general information on the MR elastomers, recent research not only on a wide variety of MR elastomeric systems focusing on various magnetic particles, elastomeric matrices, additives and particle modification methods, but also on their characteristics including MR properties from dynamic oscillation tests is covered along with their mechanical properties such as the Payne effect, tensile strength and engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hard and Soft Hybrid Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Giant Enhancement of Magnetostrictive Response in Directionally-Solidified Fe83Ga17Erx Compounds
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061039
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
We report, for the first time, correlations between crystal structure, microstructure and magnetofunctional response in directionally solidified [110]-textured Fe83Ga17Erx (0 < x < 1.2) alloys. The morphology of the doped samples consists of columnar grains, mainly composed of
[...] Read more.
We report, for the first time, correlations between crystal structure, microstructure and magnetofunctional response in directionally solidified [110]-textured Fe83Ga17Erx (0 < x < 1.2) alloys. The morphology of the doped samples consists of columnar grains, mainly composed of a matrix phase and precipitates of a secondary phase deposited along the grain boundary region. An enhancement of more than ~275% from ~45 to 170 ppm is observed in the saturation magnetostriction value (λs) of Fe83Ga17Erx alloys with the introduction of small amounts of Er. Moreover, it was noted that the low field derivative of magnetostriction with respect to an applied magnetic field (i.e., dλs/dHapp for Happ up to 1000 Oe) increases by ~230% with Er doping (dλs/dHapp,FeGa= 0.045 ppm/Oe; dλs/dHapp,FeGaEr= 0.15 ppm/Oe). The enhanced magnetostrictive response of the Fe83Ga17Erx alloys is ascribed to an amalgamation of microstructural and electronic factors, namely: (i) improved grain orientation and local strain effects due to deposition of Er in the intergranular region; and (ii) strong local magnetocrystalline anisotropy, due to the highly anisotropic localized nature of the 4f electronic charge distribution of the Er atom. Overall, this work provides guidelines for further improving galfenol-based materials systems for diverse applications in the power and energy sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetostrictive Composite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Microstructure and Shot Peening Treatment on Corrosion Resistance of AISI F55-UNS S32760 Super Duplex Stainless Steel
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061038
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Shot peening is a surface process commonly used in the aeronautic and automotive industries to improve fatigue resistance. Shot peening is proven to be beneficial in the fatigue behavior of components, but rarely has its influence on wear and pitting corrosion resistance been
[...] Read more.
Shot peening is a surface process commonly used in the aeronautic and automotive industries to improve fatigue resistance. Shot peening is proven to be beneficial in the fatigue behavior of components, but rarely has its influence on wear and pitting corrosion resistance been evaluated. In this work, shot peening was performed on AISI F55-UNS S32760 super-duplex stainless steel samples previously submitted to various thermal treatments, to obtain different initial microstructures and properties. Samples have been characterized in terms of microstructure morphology, local chemical composition, microhardness of each constituent phase, and energy dissipation modes. The enhanced properties provided by shot peening has been evaluated through residual stress depth profiles and Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface hardness, surface roughness, and corrosion resistance through salt spray fog tests. The 1400 °C solution thermal treatment was identified as the optimum initial condition, which maximizes the advantages of the shot peening treatment, even pitting corrosion resistance. These results are related to the uniformity of austenite and ferrite in terms of microstructure morphology, micromechanical properties, and alloying elements distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle High-Temperature Tolerance in Multi-Scale Cermet Solar-Selective Absorbing Coatings Prepared by Laser Cladding
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061037
Received: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
In order to achieve cermet-based solar absorber coatings with long-term thermal stability at high temperatures, a novel single-layer, multi-scale TiC-Ni/Mo cermet coating was first prepared using laser cladding technology in atmosphere. The results show that the optical properties of the cermet coatings using
[...] Read more.
In order to achieve cermet-based solar absorber coatings with long-term thermal stability at high temperatures, a novel single-layer, multi-scale TiC-Ni/Mo cermet coating was first prepared using laser cladding technology in atmosphere. The results show that the optical properties of the cermet coatings using laser cladding were much better than the preplaced coating. In addition, the thermal stability of the optical properties for the laser cladding coating were excellent after annealing at 650 °C for 200 h. The solar absorptance and thermal emittance of multi-scale cermet coating were 85% and 4.7% at 650 °C. The results show that multi-scale cermet materials are more suitable for solar-selective absorbing coating. In addition, laser cladding is a new technology that can be used for the preparation of spectrally-selective coatings. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Single Step Laser Transfer and Laser Curing of Ag NanoWires: A Digital Process for the Fabrication of Flexible and Transparent Microelectrodes
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061036
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Ag nanowire (NW) networks have exquisite optical and electrical properties which make them ideal candidate materials for flexible transparent conductive electrodes. Despite the compatibility of Ag NW networks with laser processing, few demonstrations of laser fabricated Ag NW based components currently exist. In
[...] Read more.
Ag nanowire (NW) networks have exquisite optical and electrical properties which make them ideal candidate materials for flexible transparent conductive electrodes. Despite the compatibility of Ag NW networks with laser processing, few demonstrations of laser fabricated Ag NW based components currently exist. In this work, we report on a novel single step laser transferring and laser curing process of micrometer sized pixels of Ag NW networks on flexible substrates. This process relies on the selective laser heating of the Ag NWs induced by the laser pulse energy and the subsequent localized melting of the polymeric substrate. We demonstrate that a single laser pulse can induce both transfer and curing of the Ag NW network. The feasibility of the process is confirmed experimentally and validated by Finite Element Analysis simulations, which indicate that selective heating is carried out within a submicron-sized heat affected zone. The resulting structures can be utilized as fully functional flexible transparent electrodes with figures of merit even higher than 100. Low sheet resistance (<50 Ohm/sq) and high visible light transparency (>90%) make the reported process highly desirable for a variety of applications, including selective heating or annealing of nanocomposite materials and laser processing of nanostructured materials on a large variety of optically transparent substrates, such as Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Pore Structure Characterization of Sodium Hydroxide Activated Slag Using Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, Nitrogen Adsorption, and Image Analysis
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061035
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The pore structure of alkali-activated slag has a significant influence on its performance. However, the literature shows insufficient studies regarding the suitability of different techniques for characterizing the pore structure and the influences of Na2O and curing age on pore structure
[...] Read more.
The pore structure of alkali-activated slag has a significant influence on its performance. However, the literature shows insufficient studies regarding the suitability of different techniques for characterizing the pore structure and the influences of Na2O and curing age on pore structure development. In pursuit of a better understanding, the pore structure of sodium hydroxide activated slag paste was characterized by multiple techniques, e.g., mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), nitrogen (N2) adsorption, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis. The sodium hydroxide activated slag pastes were prepared with three different contents of Na2O (Na2O/slag = 4, 6, and 8%) and cured for different times up to 360 days. The microstructure observation reveals that outer C–(N–)A–S–H and inner C–(N–)A–S–H grow successively around the reacting slag grains, along with crystalline reaction products which are formed in the empty coarse pore space. The increase of Na2O content and curing age lead to a finer pore structure. The MIP measurements show that the total porosity drops about 70% within the first day, and that one peak at most, corresponding to gel pores, was identified in the differential curves of all the investigated samples from 1 to 360 days. On the contrary, only one peak, corresponding to capillary pores, was identified by SEM-image analysis. The differential curves derived from N2 adsorption generally reveal two peaks, and the trend that the pore diameters of those two peaks vary with curing age depends on the content of Na2O. Compared to Portland cement, sodium hydroxide activated slag has a higher pore space filling capacity (χ, Vproducts/Vslag-reacted), while the capacity decreases with increasing Na2O content and curing age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Noninvasive Mechanochemical Imaging in Unconstrained Caenorhabditis elegans
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061034
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Physical forces are transduced into chemical reactions, thereby ultimately making a large impact on the whole-animal level phenotypes such as homeostasis, development and behavior. To understand mechano-chemical transduction, mechanical input should be quantitatively delivered with controllable vibration properties–frequency, amplitude and duration, and its
[...] Read more.
Physical forces are transduced into chemical reactions, thereby ultimately making a large impact on the whole-animal level phenotypes such as homeostasis, development and behavior. To understand mechano-chemical transduction, mechanical input should be quantitatively delivered with controllable vibration properties–frequency, amplitude and duration, and its chemical output should be noninvasively quantified in an unconstrained animal. However, such an experimental system has not been established so far. Here, we develop a noninvasive and unconstrained mechanochemical imaging microscopy. This microscopy enables us to evoke nano-scale nonlocalized vibrations with controllable vibration properties using a piezoelectric acoustic transducer system and quantify calcium response of a freely moving C. elegans at a single cell resolution. Using this microscopy, we clearly detected the calcium response of a single interneuron during C. elegans escape response to nano-scale vibration. Thus, this microscopy will facilitate understanding of in vivo mechanochemical physiology in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials for Soft Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Microstructure of Linear Electrode-Electrospun Graphene-Filled Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanofiber Films
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061033
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
With the aim of achieving controllable mass production of electrospun nanofiber films, this study proposes and investigates the feasibility of using a custom-made linear electrode- electrospun device to produce conductive graphene (GR)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers. The film morphology and diameter of nanofibers
[...] Read more.
With the aim of achieving controllable mass production of electrospun nanofiber films, this study proposes and investigates the feasibility of using a custom-made linear electrode- electrospun device to produce conductive graphene (GR)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers. The film morphology and diameter of nanofibers are observed and measured to examine the effects of viscosity and conductivity of the PVA/GR mixtures. Likewise, the influence of the content of graphene on the hydrophilicity, electrical conductivity, electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMSE), and thermal stability of the PVA/GR nanofiber films is investigated. The test results show that the PVA/GR mixture has greater viscosity and electric conductivity than pure PVA solution and can be electrospun into PVA/GR nanofiber films that have good morphology and diameter distribution. The diameter of the nanofibers is 100 nm and the yield is 2.24 g/h, suggesting that the process qualifies for use in large-scale production. Increasing the content of graphene yields finer nanofibers, a smaller surface contact angle, and higher hydrophilicity of the nanofiber films. The presence of graphene is proven to improve the thermal stability and strengthens the EMSE by 20 dB at 150–1500 MHz. Mass production is proven to be feasible by the test results showing that PVA/GR nanofiber films can be used in the medical hygiene field. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Copolymerization of UF Resins with Dimethylurea for Improving Storage Stability without Impairing Adhesive Performance
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061032
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins are the most used resins in the wood industry due to high reactivity and low price. However, their reduced stability during storage is a drawback, imposing strict limits in terms of allowable shipping distances and storage times. This instability, manifested
[...] Read more.
Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins are the most used resins in the wood industry due to high reactivity and low price. However, their reduced stability during storage is a drawback, imposing strict limits in terms of allowable shipping distances and storage times. This instability, manifested by viscosity increase that renders the resin unusable, occurs due to the progress of condensation reactions between the polymeric species present in the liquid medium. In order to achieve a stable resin formulation, dimethylurea (DMeU) was selected for being less reactive than urea. Dimethylurea is shown to co-polymerize with the UF polymer during the acidic synthesis condensation step. However, during storage it behaves like an end group blocker, due to its lower reactivity at basic pH. By adding 1.25% DMeU, it was possible to obtain a formulation that remained with stable viscosity during two-month storage at 40 °C. The reference UF resin remained stable only for eight days in these conditions. Wood particleboards produced with modified resins showed internal bond strengths of about 0.5 N·mm−2, similar to the fresh reference UF resin, even when the resins were used after the two-month storage period. Formaldehyde content values were below the limit for E1 class, ≤8 mg/100 g oven dry board (EN 13986). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Properties of Experimental Dental Composites Containing Antibacterial Silver-Releasing Filler
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061031
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Secondary caries is one of the important issues related to using dental composite restorations. Effective prevention of cariogenic bacteria survival may reduce this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and physical properties of composite materials with silver
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Secondary caries is one of the important issues related to using dental composite restorations. Effective prevention of cariogenic bacteria survival may reduce this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and physical properties of composite materials with silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate (SSHZP). The antibacterial filler was introduced at concentrations of 1%, 4%, 7%, 10%, 13%, and 16% (w/w) into model composite material consisting of methacrylate monomers and silanized glass and silica fillers. The in vitro reduction in the number of viable cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans ATCC 33535 colonies, Vickers microhardness, compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus, sorption, solubility, degree of conversion, and color stability were investigated. An increase in antimicrobial filler concentration resulted in a statistically significant reduction in bacteria. There were no statistically significant differences caused by the introduction of the filler in compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural modulus, and solubility. Statistically significant changes in degree of conversion, flexural strength, hardness (decrease), solubility (increase), and in color were registered. A favorable combination of antibacterial properties and other properties was achieved at SSHZP concentrations from 4% to 13%. These composites exhibited properties similar to the control material and enhanced in vitro antimicrobial efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive and Therapeutic Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye in the Presence of Visible Light Using SiO2@α-Fe2O3 Nanocomposites Deposited on SnS2 Flowers
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061030
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Semiconductor materials have been shown to have good photocatalytic behavior and can be utilized for the photodegradation of organic pollutants. In this work, three-dimensional flower-like SnS2 (tin sulfide) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Core-shell structured SiO2@α-Fe2O
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Semiconductor materials have been shown to have good photocatalytic behavior and can be utilized for the photodegradation of organic pollutants. In this work, three-dimensional flower-like SnS2 (tin sulfide) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Core-shell structured SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were then deposited on the top of the SnS2 flowers. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–Vis Spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The photocatalytic behavior of the SnS2-SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites was investigated by observing the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results show an effective enhancement of photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MB especially for the 15 wt % SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites on SnS2 flowers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Catalytic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Concrete Properties Comparison When Substituting a 25% Cement with Slag from Different Provenances
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061029
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Concrete consumption greatly exceeds the use of any other material in engineering. This is due to its good properties as a construction material and the availability of its components. Nevertheless, the present worldwide construction increases and the high-energy consumption for cement production means
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Concrete consumption greatly exceeds the use of any other material in engineering. This is due to its good properties as a construction material and the availability of its components. Nevertheless, the present worldwide construction increases and the high-energy consumption for cement production means a high environmental impact. On the other hand, one of the main problems in the iron and steel industry is waste generation and byproducts that must be properly processed or reused to promote environmental sustainability. One of these byproducts is steel slag. The cement substitution with slag strategy achieves two goals: raw materials consumption reduction and waste management. In the present work, four different concrete mixtures are evaluated. The 25% cement substitution is carried out with different types of slag. Tests were made to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of each mixture. Depending on the origin, characteristics, and treatment of the slag, the concrete properties changed. Certain mixtures provided proper concrete properties. Stainless steel slag produced a fluent mortar that reduced water consumption with a slight mechanical strength loss. Mixtures with ground granulated blast furnace slag properties are better than the reference concrete (without slag). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing: Alloy Design and Process Innovations)
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Behavior of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bars after Elevated Temperatures Exposure
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061028
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been widely applied in civil engineering. This paper presents the results of an experimental study to investigate the tensile fatigue mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars after elevated temperatures exposure. For this purpose, a total of
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Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been widely applied in civil engineering. This paper presents the results of an experimental study to investigate the tensile fatigue mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars after elevated temperatures exposure. For this purpose, a total of 105 GFRP bars were conducted for testing. The specimens were exposed to heating regimes of 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 °C for a period of 0, 1 or 2 h. The GFRP bars were tested with different times of cyclic load after elevated temperatures exposure. The results show that the tensile strength and elastic modulus of GFRP bars decrease with the increase of elevated temperature and holding time, and the tensile strength of GFRP bars decreases obviously by 19.5% when the temperature reaches 250 °C. Within the test temperature range, the tensile strength of GFRP bars decreases at most by 28.0%. The cyclic load accelerates the degradation of GFRP bars after elevated temperature exposure. The coupling of elevated temperature and holding time enhance the degradation effect of cyclic load on GFRP bars. The tensile strength of GFRP bars after elevated temperatures exposure at 350 °C under cyclic load is reduced by 50.5% compared with that at room temperature and by 36.3% compared with that after exposing at 350 °C without cyclic load. In addition, the elastic modulus of GFRP bars after elevated temperatures exposure at 350 °C under cyclic load is reduced by 17.6% compared with that at room temperature and by 6.0% compared with that after exposing at 350 °C without cyclic load. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Investigation of the Wear on Silicon Surface at High Humidity
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061027
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Using an atomic force microscope (AFM), the wear of monocrystalline silicon (covered by a native oxide layer) at high humidity was investigated. The experimental results indicated that tribochemistry played an important role in the wear of the silicon at different relative humidity levels
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Using an atomic force microscope (AFM), the wear of monocrystalline silicon (covered by a native oxide layer) at high humidity was investigated. The experimental results indicated that tribochemistry played an important role in the wear of the silicon at different relative humidity levels (RH = 60%, 90%). Since the tribochemical reactions were facilitated at 60% RH, the wear of silicon was serious and the friction force was around 1.58 μN under the given conditions. However, the tribochemical reactions were restrained when the wear pair was conducted at high humidity. As a result, the wear of silicon was very slight and the friction force decreased to 0.85 μN at 90% RH. The slight wear of silicon at high humidity was characterized by etching tests. It was demonstrated that the silicon sample surface was partly damaged and the native oxide layer on silicon sample surface had not been totally removed during the wear process. These results may help us optimize the tribological design of dynamic microelectromechanical systems working in humid conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Grain Size Effect on the Hot Ductility of High-Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel in the Presence of Precipitates
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061026
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Precipitation occurs easily during the hot forming of high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steels, which reduces their hot ductility significantly. The effect of grain size on the hot ductility of high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel in the presence of precipitates was investigated. Different grain sizes of
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Precipitation occurs easily during the hot forming of high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steels, which reduces their hot ductility significantly. The effect of grain size on the hot ductility of high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel in the presence of precipitates was investigated. Different grain sizes of 18Mn18Cr0.5N steel specimens, with and without precipitates, were hot-tension tested. The precipitate morphology, fracture surface, and cracks were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. For the 18Mn18Cr0.5N steel, damage-formation strains of all grain-size specimens were reduced by the precipitates during the hot-tension test. Crack-formation sites were located at grain boundaries and were independent of the Taylor factor. A larger grain size resulted in an increased sensitivity of the fracture strain to precipitates. When the grain size was smaller than 51 μm, the fracture strain became insensitive to the precipitates. A method was suggested to mitigate surface cracking for metal materials with a high precipitation tendency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Annealing on the Residual Stress in γ-TiAl Alloy by Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061025
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the annealing process of γ-TiAl alloy with different parameters after introducing residual stress into prepressing. By mainly focusing on the dynamic evolution process of microdefects during annealing and the distribution of residual stress,
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In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the annealing process of γ-TiAl alloy with different parameters after introducing residual stress into prepressing. By mainly focusing on the dynamic evolution process of microdefects during annealing and the distribution of residual stress, the relationship between microstructure and residual stress is investigated. The results show that there is no phase transition during annealing, but atom distortion occurs with the change of temperature, and the average grain size slightly increases after annealing. There are some atom clusters in the grains, with a few point defects, and the point defect concentration increases with the rise in temperature, and vice versa; the higher the annealing temperature, the fewer the point defects in the grain after annealing. Due to the grain boundary volume shrinkage and and an increase in the plastic deformation of the grain boundaries during cooling, stress is released, and the average residual stress along Y and Z directions after annealing is less than the average residual stress after prepressing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Hot Working Techniques on Inclusions in GH4738 Superalloy Produced by VIM and VAR
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061024
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Hot working is a key process in the production of superalloys; however, it may result in the formation of inclusions that affect the superalloy performance. Therefore, the effects of hot working on inclusions in a superalloy must be studied. GH4738 superalloy was manufactured,
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Hot working is a key process in the production of superalloys; however, it may result in the formation of inclusions that affect the superalloy performance. Therefore, the effects of hot working on inclusions in a superalloy must be studied. GH4738 superalloy was manufactured, herein, by vacuum induction melting and vacuum arc remelting. Hot working was performed by unidirectional drawing, upsetting and drawing, and upsetting/drawing with radial forging. The types and distributions of inclusions after these three hot working processes and those in an original ingot were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Image-Pro Plus software. The results showed that the melting technology essentially determined the inclusion types in GH4738. Four types of inclusions were found in the experiments: TiC–TiN–Mo–S composite, TiC–TiN composite, Ce–Mo–S composite, and SiC inclusions. In the case of hot working by unidirectional drawing, the average inclusion size first decreased, and then increased from the center to the edge. In the case of upsetting and drawing, and upsetting/drawing with radial forging, the average inclusion size decreased from the center to the edge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Compressive Behavior and Constitutive Model of Austenitic Stainless Steel S30403 in High Strain Range
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061023
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Material anisotropy for tension and compression is a significant characteristic of austenitic stainless steel compared to carbon steel. Due to limitations during the testing of the restrained jig, the maximum strain value of compressive experiments of austenitic stainless steel is around 2%. This
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Material anisotropy for tension and compression is a significant characteristic of austenitic stainless steel compared to carbon steel. Due to limitations during the testing of the restrained jig, the maximum strain value of compressive experiments of austenitic stainless steel is around 2%. This value cannot satisfy the requirements of accurate finite simulation on austenitic stainless steel columns and beams in the high compressive strain range. In this study, a new type of compressive specimen that satisfies the high compressive strain test was designed. The stress-strain response of austenitic stainless steel S30403 (JISCO, Gansu, China) was investigated in the high compressive strain range up to 10%, and constitutive models were compared with the experimental data. It was found that the new type specimen with length-to-diameter ratio of 1:1 can reliably obtain the stress-strain response of austenitic stainless steel S30403 in the high compressive strain range. It was found that the material anisotropy of austenitic stainless steel S30403 is remarkable in the high compressive strain range up to 10%. The strain-hardening curve of the austenitic stainless steel S30403 can be represented by a straight line in the high compressive strain range. Our study also found that the Quach constitutive model accurately describes the two-stage strain-hardening phenomenon in the high compressive strain range up to 10%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of TiO2NWS@AuNPS Composite Catalyst for Methylene Blue Removal
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061022
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
In this article, HBP-NH2-modified titania nanowire (TiO2NWS)-decorated Au nanoparticles (TiO2NWS@AuNPS) were synthesized by one-step method. The role of HBP-NH2 concentration in the formation of TiO2NWS was investigated. The fineness and uniformity of pure
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In this article, HBP-NH2-modified titania nanowire (TiO2NWS)-decorated Au nanoparticles (TiO2NWS@AuNPS) were synthesized by one-step method. The role of HBP-NH2 concentration in the formation of TiO2NWS was investigated. The fineness and uniformity of pure TiO2NWS were enhanced by absorbed amino groups from amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP-NH2). The morphology and crystal structure of TiO2NWS and TiO2NWS@AuNPS were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fournier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The chemical states of gold, titanium and oxygen were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that at the concentration of HBP-NH2 100 g/L, the mean diameter of TiO2NWS was nearly 72 nm and Au nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the surface of TiO2NWS. The presence of AuNPS improved the photocatalytic properties of TiO2NWS under UV light irradiation. The Au load was believed to improve the utilization rate of the photoelectron and activated the adsorbed oxygen. The obtained TiO2NWS@AuNPS decomposed 99.6% methylene blue (MB) after 300 min when subjected to UV light irradiation. After five cycles of the catalyzing process, the TiO2NWS@AuNPS still retained over 90% of its catalytic ability for MB. The Au deposition was found responsible for the high catalytic activity of TiO2NWS@AuNPS. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Redox Activity of Sodium Vanadium Oxides towards Oxidation in Na Ion Batteries
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061021
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The search for new materials that could be used as electrode material for Na-ion batteries is one of the most challenging issues of today. Many transition metal oxide families as well as transition metal polyanionic frameworks have been proposed over the last five
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The search for new materials that could be used as electrode material for Na-ion batteries is one of the most challenging issues of today. Many transition metal oxide families as well as transition metal polyanionic frameworks have been proposed over the last five years. In this work, we report the sodium extraction from Na2V3O7, which is a tunnel type structure built of [V3O7]2− nanotubes held by sodium ions. We report a reversible charge capacity of 80 mAh/g at 2.8 V vs. Na+/Na due to the V5+/V4+ redox activity. No oxygen redox activity has been observed for this material nor for the vanadium (5+) oxide Na4V2O7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrode Materials for High Performance Sodium-ion Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Using Spin-Coated Silver Nanoparticles/Zinc Oxide Thin Films to Improve the Efficiency of GaInP/(In)GaAs/Ge Solar Cells
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061020
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
We synthesized a silver nanoparticle/zinc oxide (Ag NP/ZnO) thin film by using spin-coating technology. The treatment solution for Ag NP/ZnO thin film deposition contained zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and silver nitrate (AgNO3) aqueous solutions. The
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We synthesized a silver nanoparticle/zinc oxide (Ag NP/ZnO) thin film by using spin-coating technology. The treatment solution for Ag NP/ZnO thin film deposition contained zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and silver nitrate (AgNO3) aqueous solutions. The crystalline characteristics, surface morphology, content of elements, and reflectivity of the Ag NPs/ZnO thin film at various concentrations of the AgNO3 aqueous solution were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectrophotometry. The results indicated that the crystalline structure, Ag content, and reflectance of Ag NP/ZnO thin films depended on the AgNO3 concentration. Hybrid antireflection coatings (ARCs) composed of SiNx and Ag NPs/ZnO thin films with various AgNO3 concentrations were deposited on GaInP/(In)GaAs/Ge solar cells. We propose that the optimal ARC consists of SiNx and Ag NP/ZnO thin films prepared using a treatment solution of 0.0008 M AgNO3, 0.007 M Zn(CH3COO)2, and 1 M NaOH, followed by post-annealing at 200 °C. GaInP/(Al)GaAs/Ge solar cells with the optimal hybrid ARC and SiNx ARC exhibit a conversion efficiency of 34.1% and 30.2% with Voc = 2.39 and 2.4 V, Jsc = 16.63 and 15.37 mA/cm2, and fill factor = 86.1% and 78.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2018)
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