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Materials 2018, 11(6), 1034;

Noninvasive Mechanochemical Imaging in Unconstrained Caenorhabditis elegans

Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan
PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
QST Future Laboratory, National Institute for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan
Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Materials for Soft Sensors and Actuators)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4064 KB, uploaded 19 June 2018]   |  


Physical forces are transduced into chemical reactions, thereby ultimately making a large impact on the whole-animal level phenotypes such as homeostasis, development and behavior. To understand mechano-chemical transduction, mechanical input should be quantitatively delivered with controllable vibration properties–frequency, amplitude and duration, and its chemical output should be noninvasively quantified in an unconstrained animal. However, such an experimental system has not been established so far. Here, we develop a noninvasive and unconstrained mechanochemical imaging microscopy. This microscopy enables us to evoke nano-scale nonlocalized vibrations with controllable vibration properties using a piezoelectric acoustic transducer system and quantify calcium response of a freely moving C. elegans at a single cell resolution. Using this microscopy, we clearly detected the calcium response of a single interneuron during C. elegans escape response to nano-scale vibration. Thus, this microscopy will facilitate understanding of in vivo mechanochemical physiology in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: C. elegans; behavior; piezoelectric actuator; mechanochemistry; calcium imaging C. elegans; behavior; piezoelectric actuator; mechanochemistry; calcium imaging

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Sugi, T.; Igarashi, R.; Nishimura, M. Noninvasive Mechanochemical Imaging in Unconstrained Caenorhabditis elegans. Materials 2018, 11, 1034.

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