In the current contribution, prismatic and hexahedral quadratic solid–shell (SHB) finite elements are proposed for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin structures made of functionally graded material (FGM). The proposed SHB finite elements are developed within a purely 3D framework, with displacements as the only degrees of freedom. Also, the in-plane reduced-integration technique is combined with the assumed-strain method to alleviate various locking phenomena. Furthermore, an arbitrary number of integration points are placed along a special direction, which represents the thickness. The developed elements are coupled with functionally graded behavior for the modeling of thin FGM plates. To this end, the Young modulus of the FGM plate is assumed to vary gradually in the thickness direction, according to a volume fraction distribution. The resulting formulations are implemented into the quasi-static ABAQUS/Standard finite element software in the framework of large displacements and rotations. Popular nonlinear benchmark problems are considered to assess the performance and accuracy of the proposed SHB elements. Comparisons with reference solutions from the literature demonstrate the good capabilities of the developed SHB elements for the 3D simulation of thin FGM plates.
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