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Energies, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2016)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) application offshore is in its infancy due to conditions that are more [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Energies in 2015
Energies 2016, 9(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010064
Received: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 21 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
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Abstract
The editors of energies would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. Full article
Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Ellegård, K. and Palm, J. Who Is Behaving? Consequences for Energy Policy of Concept Confusion. Energies 2015, 8, 7618–7637
Energies 2016, 9(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010063
Received: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 December 2015 / Published: 21 January 2016
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Abstract
We wish to make the following correction to the published paper [1]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Energy and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Ding, X.; Liu, G.; Du, M.; Guo, H.; Qiao, H. and Gerada, C. Development of an Axial Flux MEMS BLDC Micromotor with Increased Efficiency and Power Density. Energies 2015, 8, 6608–6626
Energies 2016, 9(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010062
Received: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 19 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
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Abstract
We wish to make the following change to the published paper [1]. The name of the corresponding author should be “Hao Qian” instead of “Hao Qiao”. [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Jiménez, F., et al. System for Road Vehicle Energy Optimization Using Real Time Road and Traffic Information. Energies 2014, 7, 3576-3598
Energies 2016, 9(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010060
Received: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
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Abstract
In the original version of the article [1], insufficient acknowledgement was given for the original Dynamic Programming optimization tool. We apologize for this error. To correct this fact, Santiago Tapia-Fernández has been added as an author, and the acknowledgements and authors contributions have [...] Read more.
In the original version of the article [1], insufficient acknowledgement was given for the original Dynamic Programming optimization tool. We apologize for this error. To correct this fact, Santiago Tapia-Fernández has been added as an author, and the acknowledgements and authors contributions have been corrected. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Generators in Distribution Systems Considering Cost of Operation Risk
Energies 2016, 9(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010061
Received: 9 December 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2184 | PDF Full-text (4329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the penetration of distributed generators (DGs), operation planning studies are essential in maintaining and operating a reliable and secure power system. Appropriate siting and sizing of DGs could lead to many positive effects forthe distribution system concerned, such as the reduced total [...] Read more.
With the penetration of distributed generators (DGs), operation planning studies are essential in maintaining and operating a reliable and secure power system. Appropriate siting and sizing of DGs could lead to many positive effects forthe distribution system concerned, such as the reduced total costs associated with DGs, reduced network losses, and improved voltage profiles and enhanced power-supply reliability. In this paper, expected load interruption cost is used as the assessment of operation risk in distribution systems, which is assessed by the point estimate method (PEM). In light with the costs of system operation planning, a novel mathematical model of chance constrained programming (CCP) framework for optimal siting and sizing of DGs in distribution systems is proposed considering the uncertainties of DGs. And then, a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which combines the GA with traditional optimization methods, is employed to solve the proposed CCP model. Finally,the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed CCP model are verified by the modified IEEE 30-bus system, and the test results have demonstrated that this proposed CCP model is more reasonable to determine the siting and sizing of DGs compared with traditional CCP model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Renewable Generation)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Voltage Ride-Through Capability Solutions for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Wind Generators
Energies 2016, 9(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010059
Received: 10 October 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 30 December 2015 / Published: 20 January 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2504 | PDF Full-text (3958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the increasing number of wind power plants, several countries have modified their grid codes to include specific requirements for the connection of this technology to the power system. One of the requirements is the ride-through fault capability (RTFC), i.e., the [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing number of wind power plants, several countries have modified their grid codes to include specific requirements for the connection of this technology to the power system. One of the requirements is the ride-through fault capability (RTFC), i.e., the system capability to sustain operation during voltage sags. In this sense, the present paper intends to investigate the behavior of a full-converter wind generator with a permanent magnet synchronous machine during symmetrical and asymmetrical voltage sags. Two solutions to improve the low voltage ride-through capability (LVRT) of this technology are analyzed: discharging resistors (brake chopper) and resonant controllers (RCs). The design and limitations of these solutions and the others proposed in the literature are discussed. Experimental results in a 34 kW test bench, which represents a scaled prototype of a real 2 MW wind conversion system, are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2015)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
A Comparison of Energy Consumption Prediction Models Based on Neural Networks of a Bioclimatic Building
Energies 2016, 9(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010057
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 8 January 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3012 | PDF Full-text (2572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy consumption has been increasing steadily due to globalization and industrialization. Studies have shown that buildings are responsible for the biggest proportion of energy consumption; for example in European Union countries, energy consumption in buildings represents around 40% of the total energy consumption. [...] Read more.
Energy consumption has been increasing steadily due to globalization and industrialization. Studies have shown that buildings are responsible for the biggest proportion of energy consumption; for example in European Union countries, energy consumption in buildings represents around 40% of the total energy consumption. In order to control energy consumption in buildings, different policies have been proposed, from utilizing bioclimatic architectures to the use of predictive models within control approaches. There are mainly three groups of predictive models including engineering, statistical and artificial intelligence models. Nowadays, artificial intelligence models such as neural networks and support vector machines have also been proposed because of their high potential capabilities of performing accurate nonlinear mappings between inputs and outputs in real environments which are not free of noise. The main objective of this paper is to compare a neural network model which was designed utilizing statistical and analytical methods, with a group of neural network models designed benefiting from a multi objective genetic algorithm. Moreover, the neural network models were compared to a naïve autoregressive baseline model. The models are intended to predict electric power demand at the Solar Energy Research Center (Centro de Investigación en Energía SOLar or CIESOL in Spanish) bioclimatic building located at the University of Almeria, Spain. Experimental results show that the models obtained from the multi objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) perform comparably to the model obtained through a statistical and analytical approach, but they use only 0.8% of data samples and have lower model complexity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diesel-Minimal Combustion Control of a Natural Gas-Diesel Engine
Energies 2016, 9(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010058
Received: 9 September 2015 / Revised: 29 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2268 | PDF Full-text (425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the combustion phasing control of natural gas-diesel engines. In this study, the combustion phasing is influenced by manipulating the start and the duration of the diesel injection. Instead of using both degrees of freedom to control the center of combustion [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the combustion phasing control of natural gas-diesel engines. In this study, the combustion phasing is influenced by manipulating the start and the duration of the diesel injection. Instead of using both degrees of freedom to control the center of combustion only, we propose a method that simultaneously controls the combustion phasing and minimizes the amount of diesel used. Minimizing the amount of diesel while keeping the center of combustion at a constant value is formulated as an optimization problem with an equality constraint. A combination of feedback control and extremum seeking is used to solve this optimization problem online. The necessity to separate the different time scales is discussed and a structure is proposed that facilitates this separation for this specific example. The proposed method is validated by experiments on a test bench. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Actuators and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Capacitor Voltage Ripple Suppression for Z-Source Wind Energy Conversion System
Energies 2016, 9(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010056
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1882 | PDF Full-text (3043 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes an improved pulse-width modulation (PWM) strategy to reduce the capacitor voltage ripple in Z-source wind energy conversion system. In order to make sure that Z-source capacitor voltage has symmetrical maximum and minimum amplitudes in each active state, the shoot-through time [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an improved pulse-width modulation (PWM) strategy to reduce the capacitor voltage ripple in Z-source wind energy conversion system. In order to make sure that Z-source capacitor voltage has symmetrical maximum and minimum amplitudes in each active state, the shoot-through time is divided into six unequal parts. According to the active state and zero state, the shoot-through time is rearranged to match the charging time and discharging time of the Z-source capacitors. Theoretically, it is indicated that the voltage ripple of the Z-source capacitors can be reduced effectively by means of the proposed PWM scheme. Finally, simulation and experimental results are given to verify the performance of the presented method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Renewable Generation)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hierarchical Approach Using Machine Learning Methods in Solar Photovoltaic Energy Production Forecasting
Energies 2016, 9(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010055
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 28 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2716 | PDF Full-text (1522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluate and compare two common methods, artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector regression (SVR), for predicting energy productions from a solar photovoltaic (PV) system in Florida 15 min, 1 h and 24 h ahead of time. A hierarchical approach is proposed [...] Read more.
We evaluate and compare two common methods, artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector regression (SVR), for predicting energy productions from a solar photovoltaic (PV) system in Florida 15 min, 1 h and 24 h ahead of time. A hierarchical approach is proposed based on the machine learning algorithms tested. The production data used in this work corresponds to 15 min averaged power measurements collected from 2014. The accuracy of the model is determined using computing error statistics such as mean bias error (MBE), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), relative MBE (rMBE), mean percentage error (MPE) and relative RMSE (rRMSE). This work provides findings on how forecasts from individual inverters will improve the total solar power generation forecast of the PV system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Carbon Price Forecasting Model Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Spiking Neural Networks
Energies 2016, 9(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010054
Received: 18 November 2015 / Revised: 6 January 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2741 | PDF Full-text (2659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate forecasting of carbon price is important and fundamental for anticipating the changing trends of the energy market, and, thus, to provide a valid reference for establishing power industry policy. However, carbon price forecasting is complicated owing to the nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics [...] Read more.
Accurate forecasting of carbon price is important and fundamental for anticipating the changing trends of the energy market, and, thus, to provide a valid reference for establishing power industry policy. However, carbon price forecasting is complicated owing to the nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics of carbon prices. In this paper, a combined forecasting model based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and spiking neural networks (SNNs) is proposed. An original carbon price series is firstly decomposed into a series of relatively stable components through VMD to simplify the interference and coupling across characteristic information of different scales in the data. Then, a SNN forecasting model is built for each component, and the partial autocorrelation function (PACF) is used to determine the input variables for each SNN model. The final forecasting result for the original carbon price can be obtained by aggregating the forecasting results of all the components. Actual InterContinental Exchange (ICE) carbon price data is used for simulation, and comprehensive evaluation criteria are proposed for quantitative error evaluation. Simulation results and analysis suggest that the proposed VMD-SNN forecasting model outperforms conventional models in terms of forecasting accuracy and reliability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18,650 Battery Cells
Energies 2016, 9(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010052
Received: 17 November 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3108 | PDF Full-text (2799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers are employing cylindrical format cells in the construction of the vehicles’ battery systems. There is evidence to suggest that both the academic and industrial communities have evaluated cell degradation due to vibration and other forms of mechanical loading. The [...] Read more.
Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers are employing cylindrical format cells in the construction of the vehicles’ battery systems. There is evidence to suggest that both the academic and industrial communities have evaluated cell degradation due to vibration and other forms of mechanical loading. The primary motivation is often the need to satisfy the minimum requirements for safety certification. However, there is limited research that quantifies the durability of the battery and in particular, how the cells will be affected by vibration that is representative of a typical automotive service life (e.g., 100,000 miles). This paper presents a study to determine the durability of commercially available 18,650 cells and quantifies both the electrical and mechanical vibration-induced degradation through measuring changes in cell capacity, impedance and natural frequency. The impact of the cell state of charge (SOC) and in-pack orientation is also evaluated. Experimental results are presented which clearly show that the performance of 18,650 cells can be affected by vibration profiles which are representative of a typical vehicle life. Consequently, it is recommended that EV manufacturers undertake vibration testing, as part of their technology selection and development activities to enhance the quality of EVs and to minimize the risk of in-service warranty claims. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Collection)
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Open AccessReview
Progress of Space Charge Research on Oil-Paper Insulation Using Pulsed Electroacoustic Techniques
Energies 2016, 9(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010053
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the space charge behavior in oil-paper insulation systems used in power transformers. It begins with the importance of understanding the space charge behavior in oil-paper insulation systems, followed by the introduction of the pulsed electrostatic technique (PEA). After that, [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the space charge behavior in oil-paper insulation systems used in power transformers. It begins with the importance of understanding the space charge behavior in oil-paper insulation systems, followed by the introduction of the pulsed electrostatic technique (PEA). After that, the research progress on the space charge behavior of oil-paper insulation during the recent twenty years is critically reviewed. Some important aspects such as the environmental conditions and the acoustic wave recovery need to be addressed to acquire more accurate space charge measurement results. Some breakthroughs on the space charge behavior of oil-paper insulation materials by the research team at the University of Southampton are presented. Finally, future work on space charge measurement of oil-paper insulation materials is proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Lithium-Ion Battery Simulator Based on a Diffusion and Switching Overpotential Hybrid Model for Dynamic Discharging Behavior and Runtime Predictions
Energies 2016, 9(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010051
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
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Abstract
A new battery simulator based on a hybrid model is proposed in this paper for dynamic discharging behavior and runtime predictions in existing electronic simulation environments, e.g., PSIM, so it can help power circuit designers to develop and optimize their battery-powered electronic systems. [...] Read more.
A new battery simulator based on a hybrid model is proposed in this paper for dynamic discharging behavior and runtime predictions in existing electronic simulation environments, e.g., PSIM, so it can help power circuit designers to develop and optimize their battery-powered electronic systems. The hybrid battery model combines a diffusion model and a switching overpotential model, which automatically switches overpotential resistance mode or overpotential voltage mode to accurately describe the voltage difference between battery electro-motive force (EMF) and terminal voltage. Therefore, this simulator can simply run in an electronic simulation software with less computational efforts and estimate battery performances by further considering nonlinear capacity effects. A linear extrapolation technique is adopted for extracting model parameters from constant current discharging tests, so the EMF hysteresis problem is avoided. For model validation, experiments and simulations in MATLAB and PSIM environments are conducted with six different profiles, including constant loads, an interrupted load, increasing and decreasing loads and a varying load. The results confirm the usefulness and accuracy of the proposed simulator. The behavior and runtime prediction errors can be as low as 3.1% and 1.2%, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Algorithm to Translate Building Topology in Building Information Modeling into Object-Oriented Physical Modeling-Based Building Energy Modeling
Energies 2016, 9(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010050
Received: 5 August 2015 / Revised: 24 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2528 | PDF Full-text (8426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an algorithm to translate building topology in an object-oriented architectural building model (Building Information Modeling, BIM) into an object-oriented physical-based energy performance simulation by using an object-oriented programming approach. Our algorithm demonstrates efficient mapping of building components in a BIM [...] Read more.
This paper presents an algorithm to translate building topology in an object-oriented architectural building model (Building Information Modeling, BIM) into an object-oriented physical-based energy performance simulation by using an object-oriented programming approach. Our algorithm demonstrates efficient mapping of building components in a BIM model into space boundary conditions in an object-oriented physical modeling (OOPM)-based building energy model, and the translation of building topology into space boundary conditions to create an OOPM model. The implemented command, TranslatingBuildingTopology, using an object-oriented programming approach, enables graphical representation of the building topology of BIM models and the automatic generation of space boundaries information for OOPM models. The algorithm and its implementation allow coherent object-mapping from BIM to OOPM and facilitate the definition of space boundaries information during model translation for building thermal simulation. In order to demonstrate our algorithm and its implementation, we conducted experiments with three test cases using the BESTEST 600 model. Our experiments show that our algorithm and its implementation enable building topology information to be automatically translated into space boundary information, and facilitates the reuse of BIM data into building thermal simulations without additional export or import processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Power Generation from Concentration Gradient by Reverse Electrodialysis in Dense Silica Membranes for Microfluidic and Nanofluidic Systems
Energies 2016, 9(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010049
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3111 | PDF Full-text (4430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we investigate power generation by reverse electrodialysis in a dense silica membrane that is between two NaCl solutions with various combinations of concentrations. Each silica membrane is fabricated by depositing a silica layer on a porous alumina substrate via chemical [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate power generation by reverse electrodialysis in a dense silica membrane that is between two NaCl solutions with various combinations of concentrations. Each silica membrane is fabricated by depositing a silica layer on a porous alumina substrate via chemical vapor deposition. The measured potential-current (V-I) characteristics of the silica membrane are used to obtain the transference number, diffusion potential, and electrical resistance. We develop empirical correlations for the transference number and the area-specific resistance, and present the results of power generation by reverse electrodialysis using the fabricated silica membranes. The highest measured power density is 0.98 mW/m2. In addition, we develop a contour map of the power density as a function of NaCl concentrations on the basis of the empirical correlations. The contour map shows that a power output density of 1.2 mW/m2 is achievable with the use of silica membranes and is sufficient to drive nanofluidic and microfluidic systems. The dense silica membrane has the potential for use in micro power generators in nanofluidic and microfluidic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Energy Harvesting)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Bidding Strategy for Renewable Microgrid with Active Network Management
Energies 2016, 9(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010048
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 30 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2844 | PDF Full-text (2445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Active Network Management (ANM) enables a microgrid to optimally dispatch the active/reactive power of its Renewable Distributed Generation (RDG) and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) units in real time. Thus, a microgrid with high penetration of RDGs can handle their uncertainties and variabilities [...] Read more.
Active Network Management (ANM) enables a microgrid to optimally dispatch the active/reactive power of its Renewable Distributed Generation (RDG) and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) units in real time. Thus, a microgrid with high penetration of RDGs can handle their uncertainties and variabilities to achieve the stable operation using ANM. However, the actual power flow in the line connecting the main grid and microgrid may deviate significantly from the day-ahead bids if the bids are determined without consideration of the real-time adjustment through ANM, which will lead to a substantial imbalance cost. Therefore, this study proposes a formulation for obtaining an optimal bidding which reflects the change of power flow in the connecting line by real-time adjustment using ANM. The proposed formulation maximizes the expected profit of the microgrid considering various network and physical constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed bidding strategy is verified through the simulations with a 33-bus test microgrid. The simulation results show that the proposed bidding strategy improves the expected operating profit by reducing the imbalance cost to a greater degree compared to the basic bidding strategy without consideration of ANM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decentralized Management of Energy Streams in Smart Grids)
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Open AccessArticle
Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching
Energies 2016, 9(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010047
Received: 16 October 2015 / Revised: 28 November 2015 / Accepted: 28 December 2015 / Published: 15 January 2016
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Abstract
A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC) mode to the water electrolysis (WE) mode. The model is coupled with an [...] Read more.
A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC) mode to the water electrolysis (WE) mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen) and product (water) exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water) and products (oxygen and hydrogen) exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methanol and Alcohol Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Maintenance Management of Offshore Wind Farms
Energies 2016, 9(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010046
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 15 January 2016
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Abstract
Nowadays offshore wind energy is the renewable energy source with the highest growth. Offshore wind farms are composed of large and complex wind turbines, requiring a high level of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS). Firms are employing robust remote condition monitoring systems [...] Read more.
Nowadays offshore wind energy is the renewable energy source with the highest growth. Offshore wind farms are composed of large and complex wind turbines, requiring a high level of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS). Firms are employing robust remote condition monitoring systems in order to improve RAMS, considering the difficulty to access the wind farm. The main objective of this research work is to optimise the maintenance management of wind farms through the fault probability of each wind turbine. The probability has been calculated by Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) employing the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) in order to reduce the computational cost. The fault tree presented in this paper has been designed and validated based on qualitative data from the literature and expert from important European collaborative research projects. The basic events of the fault tree have been prioritized employing the criticality method in order to use resources efficiently. Exogenous variables, e.g., weather conditions, have been also considered in this research work. The results provided by the dynamic probability of failure and the importance measures have been employed to develop a scheduled maintenance that contributes to improve the decision making and, consequently, to reduce the maintenance costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2015)
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Open AccessArticle
Matching of Energy Provisions in Multihop Wireless Infra-Structures
Energies 2016, 9(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010045
Received: 10 November 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1536 | PDF Full-text (1072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently there have been large advances in energy technologies for battery-operated systems, including green energy resources and high capacity batteries. The effective use of battery energy resources in wireless infrastructure networks to improve the versatility and reliability of wireless communications is an important [...] Read more.
Recently there have been large advances in energy technologies for battery-operated systems, including green energy resources and high capacity batteries. The effective use of battery energy resources in wireless infrastructure networks to improve the versatility and reliability of wireless communications is an important issue. Emerging applications of smart cities, Internet of Things (IoT), and emergency responses highly rely on the basic communication network infrastructures that enable ubiquitous network connections. However, energy consumption by nodes in a wireless infrastructure network depends on the transmissions of other nodes in the network. Considering this inter-dependence is necessary to achieve efficient provision of energy in wireless networks. This paper studies the issue of energy provision for wireless relay nodes in Wireless Multihop Infrastructures (WMI) assuming constraints on the total energy provision. We introduce a scheme of Energy Provision Matching (Matching-EP) for WMI which optimizes energy provision based on matching of energy provision with estimates of differentiated position-dependent energy consumption by wireless nodes distributed in the network. The evaluation results show that Matching-EP with 4%–34% improvement in energy matching degree enables 10%–40% improvement of the network lifetime, and 5%–40% improvement of packet delivery compared with conventional WMI networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery
Energies 2016, 9(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010044
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2785 | PDF Full-text (2672 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore [...] Read more.
The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO2 miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes comprise quantitative boundaries and qualitative considerations. Quantitative screening criteria are predominantly based on quantifiable data, such as oil and reservoir properties. Qualitative screening considerations mainly focus on the operational issues present offshore, including platform space constraints, limited disposal options, injectant availability, and flow assurance matters (including hydrate formation and difficulties in emulsion separation). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability Analysis and Overload Capability Assessment of Oil-Immersed Power Transformers
Energies 2016, 9(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010043
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2004 | PDF Full-text (1957 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smart grids have been constructed so as to guarantee the security and stability of the power grid in recent years. Power transformers are a most vital component in the complicated smart grid network. Any transformer failure can cause damage of the whole power [...] Read more.
Smart grids have been constructed so as to guarantee the security and stability of the power grid in recent years. Power transformers are a most vital component in the complicated smart grid network. Any transformer failure can cause damage of the whole power system, within which the failures caused by overloading cannot be ignored. This research gives a new insight into overload capability assessment of transformers. The hot-spot temperature of the winding is the most critical factor in measuring the overload capacity of power transformers. Thus, the hot-spot temperature is calculated to obtain the duration running time of the power transformers under overloading conditions. Then the overloading probability is fitted with the mature and widely accepted Weibull probability density function. To guarantee the accuracy of this fitting, a new objective function is proposed to obtain the desired parameters in the Weibull distributions. In addition, ten different mutation scenarios are adopted in the differential evolutionary algorithm to optimize the parameter in the Weibull distribution. The final comprehensive overload capability of the power transformer is assessed by the duration running time as well as the overloading probability. Compared with the previous studies that take no account of the overloading probability, the assessment results obtained in this research are much more reliable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intermittent Very High Frequency Plasma Deposition on Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Enabling High Conversion Efficiency
Energies 2016, 9(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010042
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
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Abstract
Stopping the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) once and maintaining the film in a vacuum for 30 s were performed. This was done several times during the formation of a film of i-layer microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) used in thin-film silicon tandem solar cells. [...] Read more.
Stopping the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) once and maintaining the film in a vacuum for 30 s were performed. This was done several times during the formation of a film of i-layer microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) used in thin-film silicon tandem solar cells. This process aimed to reduce defect regions which occur due to collision with neighboring grains as the film becomes thicker. As a result, high crystallinity (Xc) of μc-Si:H was obtained. Eventually, a solar cell using this process improved the conversion efficiency by 1.3% (0.14 points), compared with a normal-condition cell. In this paper, we propose an easy method to improve the conversion efficiency with PECVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Key Developments in Thin Film Solar Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Predictive Current Control of Three-Phase Grid-Tied Reversible Converters with Improved Switching Patterns
Energies 2016, 9(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010041
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 30 December 2015 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1764 | PDF Full-text (5022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A predictive current control strategy can realize flexible regulation of three-phase grid-tied converters based on system behaviour prediction and cost function minimization. However, when the predictive current control strategy with conventional switching patterns is adopted, the predicted duration time for voltage vectors turns [...] Read more.
A predictive current control strategy can realize flexible regulation of three-phase grid-tied converters based on system behaviour prediction and cost function minimization. However, when the predictive current control strategy with conventional switching patterns is adopted, the predicted duration time for voltage vectors turns out to be negative in some cases, especially under the conditions of bidirectional power flows and transient situations, leading to system performance deteriorations. This paper aims to clarify the real reason for this phenomenon under bidirectional power flows, i.e., rectifier mode and inverter mode, and, furthermore, seeks to propose effective solutions. A detailed analysis of instantaneous current variations under different conditions was conducted. An enhanced predictive current control strategy with improved switching patterns was then proposed. An experimental platform was built based on a commercial converter produced by Danfoss, and moreover, relative experiments were carried out, confirming the superiority of the proposed scheme. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
What Do Capacity Deployment Rates Tell Us about the Efficiency of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources Support Measures in Greece?
Energies 2016, 9(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010038
Received: 17 November 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2357 | PDF Full-text (1387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The efficiency of fiscal support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) is a multifaceted notion that cannot be adequately described by a single metric. Efficiency is related to the ability of a policy measure to support deployment without creating negative feedback [...] Read more.
The efficiency of fiscal support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) is a multifaceted notion that cannot be adequately described by a single metric. Efficiency is related to the ability of a policy measure to support deployment without creating negative feedback effects. These negative effects may stem from saturation of the grid’s ability to absorb an increased amount of RES-E power, the inability of regulatory bodies to cope with the larger workload due to the increased number of projects requesting permits or from rent-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the primary rationale for feed-in tariffs (FITs) and other fiscal support schemes is that increased deployment of RES-E technologies will lead to reductions in costs and increases in efficiency. As a result, the efficiency of an RES-E support policy should be also judged by its ability to capitalize on cost reductions. Overall, we present an approach to facilitate ongoing assessments of the efficiency of support measures for RES-E deployment. We demonstrate the proposed approach using the FIT support policy in Greece as a case study. In particular, the RES-E support policy in Greece has been recently revised through tariff cuts and a moratorium on new production licenses. We aim to demonstrate that if publicly available data are appropriately monitored, a policy revision can take place in a timelier and less disruptive manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Energy System Modeling 2015)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Fault Location Approach for Acoustic Emission Techniques in Wind Turbines
Energies 2016, 9(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010040
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 1978 | PDF Full-text (1721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The renewable energy industry is undergoing continuous improvement and development worldwide, wind energy being one of the most relevant renewable energies. This industry requires high levels of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) for wind turbines. The blades are critical components in wind [...] Read more.
The renewable energy industry is undergoing continuous improvement and development worldwide, wind energy being one of the most relevant renewable energies. This industry requires high levels of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) for wind turbines. The blades are critical components in wind turbines. The objective of this research work is focused on the fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of the wind turbine blades. The FDD approach is composed of a robust condition monitoring system (CMS) and a novel signal processing method. CMS collects and analyses the data from different non-destructive tests based on acoustic emission. The acoustic emission signals are collected applying macro-fiber composite (MFC) sensors to detect and locate cracks on the surface of the blades. Three MFC sensors are set in a section of a wind turbine blade. The acoustic emission signals are generated by breaking a pencil lead in the blade surface. This method is used to simulate the acoustic emission due to a breakdown of the composite fibers. The breakdown generates a set of mechanical waves that are collected by the MFC sensors. A graphical method is employed to obtain a system of non-linear equations that will be used for locating the emission source. This work demonstrates that a fiber breakage in the wind turbine blade can be detected and located by using only three low cost sensors. It allows the detection of potential failures at an early stages, and it can also reduce corrective maintenance tasks and downtimes and increase the RAMS of the wind turbine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2015)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Channel Influence to Power Line Communications Based on ITU-T G.9904 (PRIME)
Energies 2016, 9(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010039
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 28 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1781 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ITU-T G.9904 standard, also known as PoweRline Intelligent Metering Evolution (PRIME), is a Power Line Communications standard for advanced metering, grid control and asset monitoring defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). In this paper, an analysis about how different characteristics of the [...] Read more.
ITU-T G.9904 standard, also known as PoweRline Intelligent Metering Evolution (PRIME), is a Power Line Communications standard for advanced metering, grid control and asset monitoring defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). In this paper, an analysis about how different characteristics of the communication channel and types of noise might affect the system performance is carried out. This study is based on simulations of the PRIME physical layer using different channel characteristics and transmission parameters. The conclusions obtained are very valuable for better understanding the behavior of the ITU-T G.9904 (PRIME) standard in the field, allowing future improvements in deployment strategies and equipment design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Open AccessArticle
Model-Free Coordinated Control for MHTGR-Based Nuclear Steam Supply Systems
Energies 2016, 9(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010037
Received: 1 December 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 11 January 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1549 | PDF Full-text (912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) is a typical small modular reactor (SMR) that offers simpler, standardized and safer modular design by being factory built, requiring smaller initial capital investment, and having a shorter construction period. Thanks to its small size, the [...] Read more.
The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) is a typical small modular reactor (SMR) that offers simpler, standardized and safer modular design by being factory built, requiring smaller initial capital investment, and having a shorter construction period. Thanks to its small size, the MHTGRs could be beneficial in providing electric power to remote areas that are deficient in transmission or distribution and in generating local power for large population centers. Based on the multi-modular operation scheme, the inherent safety feature of the MHTGRs can be applicable to large nuclear plants of any desired power rating. The MHTGR-based nuclear steam supplying system (NSSS) is constituted by an MHTGR, a side-by-side arranged helical-coil once-through steam generator (OTSG) and some connecting pipes. Due to the side-by-side arrangement, there is a tight coupling effect between the MHTGR and OTSG. Moreover, there always exists the parameter perturbation of the NSSSs. Thus, it is meaningful to study the model-free coordinated control of MHTGR-based NSSSs for safe, stable, robust and efficient operation. In this paper, a new model-free coordinated control strategy that regulates the nuclear power, MHTGR outlet helium temperature and OTSG outlet overheated steam temperature by properly adjusting the control rod position, helium flowrate and feed-water flowrate is established for the MHTGR-based NSSSs. Sufficient conditions for the globally asymptotic closed-loop stability is given. Finally, numerical simulation results in the cases of large range power decrease and increase illustrate the satisfactory performance of this newly-developed model-free coordinated NSSS control law. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developing a New HSR Switching Node (SwitchBox) for Improving Traffic Performance in HSR Networks
Energies 2016, 9(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010036
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 8 January 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1997 | PDF Full-text (4621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High availability is crucial for industrial Ethernet networks as well as Ethernet-based control systems such as automation networks and substation automation systems (SAS). Since standard Ethernet does not support fault tolerance capability, the high availability of Ethernet networks can be increased by using [...] Read more.
High availability is crucial for industrial Ethernet networks as well as Ethernet-based control systems such as automation networks and substation automation systems (SAS). Since standard Ethernet does not support fault tolerance capability, the high availability of Ethernet networks can be increased by using redundancy protocols. Various redundancy protocols for Ethernet networks have been developed and standardized, such as rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP), media redundancy protocol (MRP), parallel redundancy protocol (PRP), high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR) and others. RSTP and MRP have switchover delay drawbacks. PRP provides zero recovery time, but requires a duplicate network infrastructure. HSR operation is similar to PRP, but HSR uses a single network. However, the standard HSR protocol is mainly applied to ring-based topologies and generates excessively unnecessary redundant traffic in the network. In this paper, we develop a new switching node for the HSR protocol, called SwitchBox, which is used in HSR networks in order to support any network topology and significantly reduce redundant network traffic, including unicast, multicast and broadcast traffic, compared with standard HSR. By using the SwitchBox, HSR not only provides seamless communications with zero switchover time in case of failure, but it is also easily applied to any network topology and significantly reduces unnecessary redundant traffic in HSR networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Smart Grid)
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Open AccessArticle
A Viable Electrode Material for Use in Microbial Fuel Cells for Tropical Regions
Energies 2016, 9(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010035
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 28 December 2015 / Published: 7 January 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2037 | PDF Full-text (4018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrode materials are critical for microbial fuel cells (MFC) since they influence the construction and operational costs. This study introduces a simple and efficient electrode material in the form of palm kernel shell activated carbon (AC) obtained in tropical regions. The novel introduction [...] Read more.
Electrode materials are critical for microbial fuel cells (MFC) since they influence the construction and operational costs. This study introduces a simple and efficient electrode material in the form of palm kernel shell activated carbon (AC) obtained in tropical regions. The novel introduction of this material is also targeted at introducing an inexpensive and durable electrode material, which can be produced in rural communities to improve the viability of MFCs. The maximum voltage and power density obtained (under 1000 Ω load) using an H-shaped MFC with AC as both anode and cathode electrode material was 0.66 V and 1.74 W/m3, respectively. The power generated by AC was as high as 86% of the value obtained with the extensively used carbon paper. Scanning electron microscopy and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of AC anode biofilms confirmed that electrogenic bacteria were present on the electrode surface for substrate oxidation and the formation of nanowires. Full article
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