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Special Issue "Smart Metering"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Thorsten Staake

Energy Efficient Systems, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy information systems; smart grid data analytics; smart metering; information systems for behavior change

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The energy system we know today is expected to undergo a massive transformation in the upcoming decade. The development is driven by the wish of many decision makers to reduce the dependency on oil and gas and to cut the emission of greenhouse gases, and it is fuelled by the advent of renewable energy sources and the availability of cost-effective, sophisticated communication and control systems. Within the electricity sector, the transformation is especially pronounced due to the large number of new, distributed generation systems, the necessity to continuously balance supply and demand, and the new role of the consumer who can also feed in electricity from PV-installations or combined heat and power systems.

Smart Meters play a vital role to cope with the growing complexity of the electrical grid. The meters measure and communicate consumption data at a high resolution in time, provide information on the status of the grid, and, depending on the system design, can operate load switches. This rather limited set of functions renders possible a plethora of applications and services, including advanced load shifting programs (via dynamic tariffs or direct control of appliances), energy saving campaigns (by making electricity use “visible” and, thus, more salient to consumers), fine-grained monitoring of the distribution grid, more efficient business processes for billing, changing providers, and flexible tariff plans, and the integration of consumers into the grid that also feed in electricity. Future applications may arise in the field of consumption data analytics (e.g., for marketing purposes or for more powerful saving campaigns), home automation (e.g., by using consumption data for advanced control), and mobility (e.g., by integrating (hybrid) electric vehicles into the grid).

However, at the same time, Smart Meters pose a number of challenges to researchers and practitioners. This Special Issue invites articles that address these challenges, as well as new developments related to Smart Meters and their application, including, but not limited to, the following fields:

  • Energy Networks: Techniques to deal with stochastic energy sources, integration of distributed power and storage systems (including e-mobility), ICT for grid management and control, smart metering infrastructures, and sensor networks.
  • Buildings: Integration of building automation and heating systems in energy networks, applications of smart metering and feedback technologies.
  • Cross-Sectionals: Techniques to protect critical energy infrastructure and consumer privacy, interoperability, analytics for energy data, information systems that aim at motivating/supporting sustainable consumer behavior, simulation, modeling, and business process innovation in the related domains.

Prof. Dr. Thorsten Staake
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • demand response management
  • network integration of distributed power and storage systems
  • network integration of plug in hybrids and electric vehicles
  • Interoperability and security of grid components
  • feedback technologies for behavior change
  • ICT-based energy services
  • impact assessments

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Channel Influence to Power Line Communications Based on ITU-T G.9904 (PRIME)
Energies 2016, 9(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9010039
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 28 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ITU-T G.9904 standard, also known as PoweRline Intelligent Metering Evolution (PRIME), is a Power Line Communications standard for advanced metering, grid control and asset monitoring defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). In this paper, an analysis about how different characteristics of the [...] Read more.
ITU-T G.9904 standard, also known as PoweRline Intelligent Metering Evolution (PRIME), is a Power Line Communications standard for advanced metering, grid control and asset monitoring defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). In this paper, an analysis about how different characteristics of the communication channel and types of noise might affect the system performance is carried out. This study is based on simulations of the PRIME physical layer using different channel characteristics and transmission parameters. The conclusions obtained are very valuable for better understanding the behavior of the ITU-T G.9904 (PRIME) standard in the field, allowing future improvements in deployment strategies and equipment design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Open AccessArticle Adaptation of Powerline Communications-Based Smart Metering Deployments to the Requirements of Smart Grids
Energies 2015, 8(12), 13481-13507; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81212372
Received: 29 August 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 30 November 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (6279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Powerline communications (PLC)-based smart meter deployments are now a reality in many regions of the world. Although PLC elements are generally incorporated in smart meters and data concentrators, the underlying PLC network allows the integration of other smart grid services directly over it. [...] Read more.
Powerline communications (PLC)-based smart meter deployments are now a reality in many regions of the world. Although PLC elements are generally incorporated in smart meters and data concentrators, the underlying PLC network allows the integration of other smart grid services directly over it. The remote control capabilities that automation programs need and are today deployed over their medium voltage (MV) grid, can be extended to the low voltage (LV) grid through these existing PLC networks. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of narrowband high data rate (NB HDR) PLC technologies deployed over LV grids for smart metering purposes to support internet protocol internet protocol (IP) communications in the LV grid. The paper demonstrates these possibilities with the presentation of the simulation and laboratory results of IP communications over international telecommunication union: ITU-T G.9904 PLC technology, and the definition of a PLC Network Management System based on a simple network management protocol (SNMP) management information base (MIB) definition and applicable use cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Open AccessArticle An Application of Spectral Kurtosis to Separate Hybrid Power Quality Events
Energies 2015, 8(9), 9777-9793; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8099777
Received: 1 July 2015 / Revised: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the development of the future smart grid, the detection of power quality events is a key issue for the power system monitoring. Voltage sags, swells, harmonics (variations) and interruptions, which produce large losses for commercial and industrial consumers, are the main events [...] Read more.
For the development of the future smart grid, the detection of power quality events is a key issue for the power system monitoring. Voltage sags, swells, harmonics (variations) and interruptions, which produce large losses for commercial and industrial consumers, are the main events to be considered due to the sensitivity of equipment to these electrical anomalies. The steady-state events are even more frequently accompanied by transients, the discrimination and localization being far more exigent and requiring advanced signal separating tools to be incorporated in the measurement equipment. This paper shows the event detection performance of the spectral kurtosis as a signal separating tool in the frequency domain. The disturbances under test are hybrid signals resulting from the coupling between amplitude defects and non-desired higher frequencies. Being a fourth-order spectrum, the kurtosis is confirmed as a noise-resistant tool that enhances impulsiveness, therefore characterizing the electrical anomalies. In the beginning of the analysis, the voltage sag is established as a reference; then, the disturbances (oscillatory transients and harmonics) are coupled at the starting and ending instants of the sag, resulting in complex hybrid events. The results show that the spectral kurtosis enhances the detection Energies 2015, 8 9778 of both types of events (steady state and transients), which are outlined in a bump shape in the fourth-order frequency pattern and centered in the main carrier frequency. Indeed, while the oscillatory transients are associated with softer and lower-amplitude peaks, the harmonics correspond to crisper and higher ones. As these mixed electrical faults are very common in the actual power grid, the article postulates the higher-order spectra to be implemented in prospective online measurement instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Choice Procedure of Magnetic Component Values for Phase Shifted Full Bridge Converters with a Variable Dead-Time Control Method
Energies 2015, 8(9), 9655-9669; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8099655
Received: 12 May 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 4 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic components are important parts of the phase shifted full bridge (PSFB) converter. During the dead-time of switches located in the same leg, the converter can achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) by using the energies stored in magnetic components to discharge or charge the output [...] Read more.
Magnetic components are important parts of the phase shifted full bridge (PSFB) converter. During the dead-time of switches located in the same leg, the converter can achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) by using the energies stored in magnetic components to discharge or charge the output capacitances of switches. Dead-time is usually calculated under a given set of pre-defined load condition which results in that the available energies are insufficient and ZVS capability is lost at light loads. In this paper, the PSFB converter is controlled by variable dead-time method and thus full advantage can be taken of the energies stored in magnetic components. Considering that dead-time has a great effect on ZVS, the relationship between available energies and magnetic component values is formulated by analyzing the equivalent circuits during dead-time intervals. Magnetic component values are chosen based on such relationship. The proposed choice procedure can make the available energies greater than the required energies for ZVS operation over a wide range of load conditions. Moreover, the burst mode control is adopted in order to reduce the standby power loss. Experimental results coincide with the theoretical analysis. The proposed method is a simple and practical solution to extend the ZVS range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Open AccessArticle A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8650-8681; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088650
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as air conditioners (ACs), are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load [...] Read more.
Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as air conditioners (ACs), are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Segmentation Technique for Measured Three-Phase Voltage Dips
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8319-8338; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088319
Received: 25 April 2015 / Revised: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on issues arising from the need to automatically analyze disturbances in the future (smart) grid. Accurate time allocation of events and the sequences of events is an important part of such an analysis. The performance of a joint causal and [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on issues arising from the need to automatically analyze disturbances in the future (smart) grid. Accurate time allocation of events and the sequences of events is an important part of such an analysis. The performance of a joint causal and anti-causal (CaC) segmentation method has been analyzed with a set of real measurement signals, using an alternative detection technique based on a cumulative sum (CUSUM) algorithm. The results show that the location in time of underlying transitions in the power system can be more accurately estimated by combining CaC segmentation methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Open AccessArticle An Optimal PR Control Strategy with Load Current Observer for a Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverter
Energies 2015, 8(8), 7542-7562; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8087542
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2044 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inverter voltage control is an important task in the operation of a DC/AC microgrid system. To improve the inverter voltage control dynamics, traditional approaches attempt to measure and feedforward the load current, which, however, needs remote measurement with communications in a microgrid system [...] Read more.
Inverter voltage control is an important task in the operation of a DC/AC microgrid system. To improve the inverter voltage control dynamics, traditional approaches attempt to measure and feedforward the load current, which, however, needs remote measurement with communications in a microgrid system with distributed loads. In this paper, a load current observer (LCO) based control strategy, which does not need remote measurement, is proposed for sinusoidal signals tracking control of a three-phase inverter of the microgrid. With LCO, the load current is estimated precisely, acting as the feedforward of the dual-loop control, which can effectively enlarge the stability margin of the control system and improve the dynamic response to load disturbance. Furthermore, multiple PR regulators are applied in this strategy conducted in a stationary frame to suppress the transient fluctuations and the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage and achieve faster transient performance compared with traditional dual-loop control in a rotating dq0 frame under instantaneous change of various types of load (i.e., balanced load, unbalanced load, and nonlinear load). The parameters of multiple PR regulators are analyzed and selected through the root locus method and the stability of the whole control system is evaluated and analyzed. Finally, the validity of the proposed approach is verified through simulations and a three-phase prototype test system with a TMS320F28335 DSP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Open AccessArticle Data Mining Techniques for Detecting Household Characteristics Based on Smart Meter Data
Energies 2015, 8(7), 7407-7427; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8077407
Received: 16 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The main goal of this research is to discover the structure of home appliances usage patterns, hence providing more intelligence in smart metering systems by taking into account the usage of selected home appliances and the time of their usage. In particular, we [...] Read more.
The main goal of this research is to discover the structure of home appliances usage patterns, hence providing more intelligence in smart metering systems by taking into account the usage of selected home appliances and the time of their usage. In particular, we present and apply a set of unsupervised machine learning techniques to reveal specific usage patterns observed at an individual household. The work delivers the solutions applicable in smart metering systems that might: (1) contribute to higher energy awareness; (2) support accurate usage forecasting; and (3) provide the input for demand response systems in homes with timely energy saving recommendations for users. The results provided in this paper show that determining household characteristics from smart meter data is feasible and allows for quickly grasping general trends in data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber Security for Distribution Automation Systems
Energies 2015, 8(6), 5266-5286; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8065266
Received: 19 March 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 25 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The distribution automation system (DAS) is vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to the widespread use of terminal devices and standard communication protocols. On account of the cost of defense, it is impossible to ensure the security of every device in the DAS. Given this [...] Read more.
The distribution automation system (DAS) is vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to the widespread use of terminal devices and standard communication protocols. On account of the cost of defense, it is impossible to ensure the security of every device in the DAS. Given this background, a novel quantitative vulnerability assessment model of cyber security for DAS is developed in this paper. In the assessment model, the potential physical consequences of cyber-attacks are analyzed from two levels: terminal device level and control center server level. Then, the attack process is modeled based on game theory and the relationships among different vulnerabilities are analyzed by introducing a vulnerability adjacency matrix. Finally, the application process of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a case study based on bus 2 of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS). The results demonstrate the reasonability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Smart Home Communication Technologies and Applications: Wireless Protocol Assessment for Home Area Network Resources
Energies 2015, 8(7), 7279-7311; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8077279
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 21 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 20 July 2015
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (1046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper discusses Home Area Networks (HAN) communication technologies for smart home and domestic application integration. The work is initiated by identifying the application areas that can benefit from this integration. A broad and inclusive home communication interface is analysed utilizing as a [...] Read more.
The paper discusses Home Area Networks (HAN) communication technologies for smart home and domestic application integration. The work is initiated by identifying the application areas that can benefit from this integration. A broad and inclusive home communication interface is analysed utilizing as a key piece a Gateway based on machine-to-machine (M2M) communications that interacts with the surrounding environment. Then, the main wireless networks are thoroughly assessed, and later, their suitability to the requirements of HAN considering the application area is analysed. Finally, a qualitative analysis is portrayed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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