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Synthesis, Structure, and Sodium Mobility of Sodium Vanadium Nitridophosphate: A Zero-Strain and Safe High Voltage Cathode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

1
Helmholtz Institute Ulm, Helmholtzstraße 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
2
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2017, 10(7), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070889
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
Herein, the nitridophosphate Na3V(PO3)3N is synthesized by solid state method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement confirm the cubic symmetry with P213 space group. The material exhibits very good thermal stability and high operating voltage of 4.0 V vs. Na/Na+ due to V3+/V4+ redox couple. In situ X-ray diffraction studies confirm the two-phase (de-)sodiation process to occur with very low volume changes. The refinement of the sodium occupancies reveal the low accessibility of sodium cations in the Na2 and Na3 sites as the main origin for the lower experimental capacity (0.38 eq. Na+, 28 mAh g−1) versus the theoretical one (1.0 eq. Na+, 74 mAh g−1). These observations provide valuable information for the further optimization of this materials class in order to access their theoretical electrochemical performance as a potentially interesting zero-strain and safe high-voltage cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium-ion battery; cathode; Na3V(PO3)3N; high voltage; safety sodium-ion battery; cathode; Na3V(PO3)3N; high voltage; safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, H.; Buchholz, D.; Passerini, S. Synthesis, Structure, and Sodium Mobility of Sodium Vanadium Nitridophosphate: A Zero-Strain and Safe High Voltage Cathode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries. Energies 2017, 10, 889.

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