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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 19, Issue 8 (April-2 2022) – 508 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): There is still an under-representation of women included in sports and exercise medicine research studies. While the need for specific knowledge of female physiology is key to improving female athletes’ management, the complexities of the menstrual cycle and the difficulty of setting up protocols with elite athletes are considered major barriers to including women in clinical trials. This is why studies on the impact of the menstrual phases on women soccer players’ performance are still scarce in the literature. We followed during three seasons the performances of our players in matches to determine to what extent the menstrual cycle could impact performance in football and thus to advance current knowledge. View this paper.
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6 pages, 283 KiB  
Brief Report
Work-Life Stress during the Coronavirus Pandemic among Latina Farmworkers in a Rural California Region
by Annie J. Keeney, Amy Quandt, Daniela Flores and Luis Flores, Jr.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084928 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3207
Abstract
Objectives: To examine the type and severity of stressors experienced among Latina farmworkers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A survey containing the Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory was administered to 77 female-identifying Latina farmworkers working in a US–Mexico border region. A sub-sample of five [...] Read more.
Objectives: To examine the type and severity of stressors experienced among Latina farmworkers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A survey containing the Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory was administered to 77 female-identifying Latina farmworkers working in a US–Mexico border region. A sub-sample of five participants participated in key-informant interviews. Data collection occurred in Summer 2021. Results: Nearly 40% of Latina farmworkers reported high stress levels indicative of clinical mental health risks. Health and safety concerns and experienced stressors identified included visible substance abuse and poor bathroom conditions at the field site, language barriers, and balancing work and home life demands. Conclusions: Latina farmworkers have unique health and safety needs, and COVID-19 has contributed to the experienced stressors. Understanding the familial and working environment sources of stress specific to female agriculture workers is imperative to implementing culturally and gender-responsive strategies to better support the health and safety of farming populations in future pandemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Stress Exposure on Mental Health and Well-Being)
18 pages, 408 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Psychological Distress in Women with Endometriosis during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Roxana Schwab, Kathrin Stewen, Laura Ost, Tanja Kottmann, Susanne Theis, Tania Elger, Mona Wanda Schmidt, Katharina Anic, Stefanie Roxana Kalb, Walburgis Brenner and Annette Hasenburg
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084927 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
Background: Endometriosis is a multifaceted chronic pain condition that can have a negative impact on mental health. Patients suffering from chronic pain may face an additional psychological burden during adversity, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The main aim of this research was to [...] Read more.
Background: Endometriosis is a multifaceted chronic pain condition that can have a negative impact on mental health. Patients suffering from chronic pain may face an additional psychological burden during adversity, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported depression and anxiety, the influence of demographic, endometriosis-specific, pandemic-specific factors, and resilience on mental health outcomes of patients with endometriosis. Methods: An online survey was conducted through patient support groups of women suffering from endometriosis during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The PHQ-4 questionnaire, which combines two items of the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression (PHQ-2) and two items from the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-2) was used to assess self-reported mental health. The Brief Resilience Score (BRS) was employed to evaluate resilience. Independent risk and protective factors for mental health were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: The PHQ-4 questionnaire was completed by 274 respondents. More than 40% reached depression (PHQ-2) and anxiety (GAD-2) scores of ≥3, and more than 20% achieved PHQ-2 and GAD-2 scores of ≥5. High resilience was found to be a reliable and strong independent protector for the probability of developing adverse psychological outcomes: OR 0.295, p < 0.001 for developing generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-2 ≥ 3), and OR 0.467, p < 0.001 for having major depression (PHQ-2 ≥ 3). Conclusions: Pain-induced disability is an independent risk factor for developing major depression and anxiety, while resilience was identified as a potential protective parameter in terms of positive psychological outcomes in women with endometriosis. The results of this study may help to identify women at risk for adverse mental health outcomes and should encourage healthcare practitioners to establish strategies for the reduction of negative psychological and psychiatric impacts on patients with endometriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Approach to Chronic Pain and Mental Health)
11 pages, 6647 KiB  
Article
The Anthropometric Measure ‘A Body Shape Index’ May Predict the Risk of Osteoporosis in Middle-Aged and Older Korean People
by Bokun Kim, Gwon-min Kim, Eonho Kim, Joonsung Park, Tomonori Isobe, Yutaro Mori and Sechang Oh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084926 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2319
Abstract
A body shape index (ABSI) is a recently introduced index of abdominal adiposity, relative to body mass index and height, and represents an alternative to body mass index and waist circumference. We aimed to determine whether ABSI is associated with osteoporosis and the [...] Read more.
A body shape index (ABSI) is a recently introduced index of abdominal adiposity, relative to body mass index and height, and represents an alternative to body mass index and waist circumference. We aimed to determine whether ABSI is associated with osteoporosis and the ability of ABSI to predict osteoporosis, to investigate the relationship between obesity and osteoporosis In total, 6717 Korean participants (3151 men and 3566 women; 63.6 ± 8.5 years) were recruited and placed into the Normal, Osteopenia, or Osteoporosis groups on the basis of the minimum T-scores of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and femoral neck. The T-scores of each region and ABSI were compared among the groups and odds ratios and cut-off values of ABSI for osteoporosis were calculated. In participants of both sexes, ABSI tended to increase as bone health deteriorated. The men and women in the highest quartile of ABSI were 1.887 and 2.808 times more likely to have osteoporosis, respectively, and the potential ABSI cut-off values for osteoporosis were 0.0813 and 0.0874 for male and female participants, respectively. These findings suggest that augmentation of ABSI and obesity is associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis and that ABSI may predict the risk of osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exercise and Health)
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14 pages, 513 KiB  
Article
Effects of Mixed-Gender Competition: Choking under Pressure in a Dynamic Tournament
by Jungwon Min
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084925 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
In sports, there has been a recent and active movement to promote mixed-gender competitions for achieving gender equality in the field. However, the current debate regarding its effects limitedly focuses on balancing the number of opportunities for females and neglects its effect on [...] Read more.
In sports, there has been a recent and active movement to promote mixed-gender competitions for achieving gender equality in the field. However, the current debate regarding its effects limitedly focuses on balancing the number of opportunities for females and neglects its effect on athlete performance. To address this gap, this study investigated whether and how mixed-gender competitions mitigate gender-specific disadvantages of interim leaders in dynamic tournaments from the perspective of choking under pressure. Using data from 127 international segregated-gender single and mixed-gender pair figure skating competitions organized by the International Staking Union from 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2018, this study showed that female interim leaders in segregated-gender competitions are more likely to make mistakes in task executions under pressure-inducing circumstances than male interim leaders. However, in mixed-gender competitions, all of these gender-specific influences disappear. The findings contribute to the literature on mixed-gender competitions by providing new evidence on the positive impact of them, as well as expanding the literature on the impact of gender on competitive pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport and Health)
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16 pages, 1351 KiB  
Article
Air Pollution and Settlement Intention: Evidence from the China Migrants Dynamic Survey
by Xiao Yu, Jianing Liang and Yanzhe Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4924; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084924 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
This study analyses the effect of air pollution on the settlement intention of migrants in China. In recent years, the willingness of residents to migrate induced by air pollution has received a lot of attention from academics. By matching information from the China [...] Read more.
This study analyses the effect of air pollution on the settlement intention of migrants in China. In recent years, the willingness of residents to migrate induced by air pollution has received a lot of attention from academics. By matching information from the China Migrants Dynamic Survey from 2015 to 2017 with the air quality index (AQI), we used the Probit model to assess the impact of air pollution on the settlement intentions of migrants with different socioeconomic statuses. First, we demonstrated that air pollution has a significant negative effect on migrants’ settlement intention. Second, we found that the effect of air pollution on settlement intention is influenced by individual socioeconomic status; that education level, as an indicator of cognitive ability, affects migrants’ motivation to migrate; and that personal income, as an indicator of economic ability, affects the feasibility of their migration. Motivation to migrate and the feasibility of moving determine together the divergence in settlement intention, and those with higher incomes and higher education levels are more likely to leave cities with serious air pollution. Third, the heterogeneous effects suggested that the negative effect of air pollution was greater for older, male, and married migrants. Our findings suggested that air pollution has a variety of effects on the heterogeneous migrants, resulting in changes in the demographic structure of cities. Full article
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17 pages, 4442 KiB  
Article
Untargeted Metabolomics Profiling of Bioactive Compounds under Varying Digestate Storage Conditions: Assessment of Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity
by Jiaxin Lu, Atif Muhmood, Panagiotis Tsapekos, Xian Cui, Yuwen Guo, Yi Zheng, Yizhan Qiu, Pan Wang and Lianhai Ren
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084923 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
The rapid development of biogas plants in China has generated large quantities of digestate. The disparity between the continuity of biogas plant operation and the seasonality of digestate utilization has led to the need to store digestate. Therefore, untargeted profiling of bioactive compounds [...] Read more.
The rapid development of biogas plants in China has generated large quantities of digestate. The disparity between the continuity of biogas plant operation and the seasonality of digestate utilization has led to the need to store digestate. Therefore, untargeted profiling of bioactive compounds in the digestate stored under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was performed. The antioxidant and antifungal activity of digestate stored under varying conditions was likewise assessed. The results delineated that digestate storage under varying conditions brought about the degradation of organic acids, alkenes, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers, amino acids and their derivatives, and esters, leading to the stabilization of digestate components. Together, these new data revealed that digestate storage for up to 20 days under aerobic conditions promotes glycine, serine, and threonine degradation pathways and enhances biotin and vitamins production. In contrast, anaerobic storage enhances the taurine and hypotaurine metabolic pathways and increases the derivation of antimicrobial substances, such as indole alkaloids. Moreover, digestate storage under anaerobic conditions promotes antioxidant and antifungal activity more than storage under aerobic conditions. These findings can contribute to the future development of high-value agricultural products from digestate and the sustainability of biogas plants. Further studies are required for the untargeted metabolomic of digestate under storage to explore the underlying mechanisms of promoting disease resistance by the digestate upon land application. Full article
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13 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of the Remote Physical Activity Follow-Up Intervention after the Face-to-Face Program for Healthy Middle-Aged Adults: A Randomized Trial Using ICT and Mobile Technology
by Koji Yamatsu and Kenji Narazaki
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084922 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
Although the effectiveness of face-to-face and remote intervention for increasing and maintaining physical activity (PA) have been compared, the effect of combining the two forms of intervention is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of the remote PA [...] Read more.
Although the effectiveness of face-to-face and remote intervention for increasing and maintaining physical activity (PA) have been compared, the effect of combining the two forms of intervention is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of the remote PA follow-up intervention after the face-to-face PA program on changing PA behaviors and some health outcomes in healthy middle-aged adults. As a secondary analysis, we also attempted a preliminary analysis of the difference in the number of behavior change interviews in the remote PA follow-up intervention. After the face-to-face intervention, 30 healthy subjects were randomly divided into four behavior change coaching interviews (BCI4 group) or three BCI (BCI3 group). The results of this study showed that body weight, body fat mass, and waist circumference were significantly reduced after face-to-face intervention, and were further reduced after remote PA follow-up intervention. However, the difference in the number of BCI affected only body fat mass. The remote PA follow-up intervention may have potential to maintain the effects of face-to-face intervention. In the future, it is necessary to refine the research design and conduct a full-scale intervention study. Full article
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22 pages, 1713 KiB  
Review
Current Situation of Palytoxins and Cyclic Imines in Asia-Pacific Countries: Causative Phytoplankton Species and Seafood Poisoning
by Young-Sang Kim, Hyun-Joo An, Jaeseong Kim and You-Jin Jeon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084921 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2447
Abstract
Among marine biotoxins, palytoxins (PlTXs) and cyclic imines (CIs), including spirolides, pinnatoxins, pteriatoxins, and gymnodimines, are not managed in many countries, such as the USA, European nations, and South Korea, because there are not enough poisoning cases or data for the limits on [...] Read more.
Among marine biotoxins, palytoxins (PlTXs) and cyclic imines (CIs), including spirolides, pinnatoxins, pteriatoxins, and gymnodimines, are not managed in many countries, such as the USA, European nations, and South Korea, because there are not enough poisoning cases or data for the limits on these biotoxins. In this article, we review unregulated marine biotoxins (e.g., PlTXs and CIs), their toxicity, causative phytoplankton species, and toxin extraction and detection protocols. Due to global warming, the habitat of the causative phytoplankton has expanded to the Asia-Pacific region. When ingested by humans, shellfish that accumulated toxins can cause various symptoms (muscle pain or diarrhea) and even death. There are no systematic reports on the occurrence of these toxins; however, it is important to continuously monitor causative phytoplankton and poisoning of accumulating shellfish by PlTXs and CI toxins because of the high risk of toxicity in human consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Threads in Environmental Toxicology)
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15 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Ecological Protection Effectiveness of Protected Areas Using Propensity Score Matching: A Case Study in Sichuan, China
by Zhifeng Zhang, Yuping Tang, Hongyi Pan, Caiyi Yao and Tianyi Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084920 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
Protected areas constitute a global strategic resource for enhancing the effectiveness of ecological protection, which can alleviate the impact of unsustainable human production and living activities on the ecological environment. However, the spatiotemporal evolution of ecological protection effectiveness needs to be quantitatively revealed. [...] Read more.
Protected areas constitute a global strategic resource for enhancing the effectiveness of ecological protection, which can alleviate the impact of unsustainable human production and living activities on the ecological environment. However, the spatiotemporal evolution of ecological protection effectiveness needs to be quantitatively revealed. The net primary productivity (NPP) of plants is an important measure of the effectiveness of ecological protection efforts. The main purpose of this study is to use the relative change in the annual average NPP to evaluate the ecological protection effectiveness of protected areas. We compared the historical changes in the annual average NPP of protected areas in Sichuan Province from 2000 to 2019. We added the spatial coordinates to the impact factor system and adopted propensity score matching (PSM) in a quasi-natural experimental method to determine the experimental group and the control group. The ecological protection effectiveness of the protected areas in the study area in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2019 was measured and classified into three types of changes in protection effectiveness, namely effective, ineffective, or fluctuating. According to the administrative level, type, and spatial distribution, we determined the number and type of changes in the protection effectiveness of different protected areas. The results show that the annual average NPP of the protected areas in Sichuan Province generally fluctuated. The annual average NPP increased in 95.47% of the total protected area and decreased in 4.53%. The overall protection effectiveness of protected areas was positive and significant and gradually improved. Effective protected areas at the national, provincial, and county levels accounted for 40.27% of the total number of protected areas, and the other 14.77% of effective protected area was managed at other administrative levels. Among the different types of protected areas, the proportion of effective protected areas was highest in wild animal protected areas, followed by forest ecology protected areas, wild plant protected areas, and wetland ecology protected areas. The results of this study can provide an important reference for the verification and improvement of the ecological protection effectiveness of various protected areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use Change and Its Environmental Effects)
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21 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
Challenges in Working Conditions and Well-Being of Early Childhood Teachers by Teaching Modality during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Kyong-Ah Kwon, Timothy G. Ford, Jessica Tsotsoros, Ken Randall, Adrien Malek-Lasater and Sun Geun Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084919 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3510
Abstract
While a global understanding of teacher well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic is beginning to emerge, much remains to be understood about what early childhood teachers have felt and experienced with respect to their work and well-being. The present mixed-method study examined early care [...] Read more.
While a global understanding of teacher well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic is beginning to emerge, much remains to be understood about what early childhood teachers have felt and experienced with respect to their work and well-being. The present mixed-method study examined early care and education (ECE) teachers’ working conditions and physical, psychological, and professional well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic using a national sample of 1434 ECE teachers in the U.S. We also explored differences in working conditions and well-being among in-person, online, and closed schools, given the unique challenges and risks that ECE teachers may have faced by teaching in these different modalities. From the results of an online survey, we found that in the early months of the pandemic, many ECE teachers faced stressful, challenging work environments. Some were teaching in new, foreign modes and formats, and those still teaching in person faced new challenges. We found many common issues and challenges related to psychological and physical well-being across the three teaching groups from the qualitative analysis, but a more complicated picture emerged from the quantitative analysis. After controlling for education and center type, we found that aspects of professional commitment were lower among those teachers teaching in person. Additionally, there were racial differences across several of our measures of well-being for teachers whose centers were closed. Upon closer examination of these findings via a moderation analysis with teacher modality, we found that Black and Hispanic teachers had higher levels of psychological well-being for some of our indicators when their centers were closed, yet these benefits were not present for Black and Hispanic teachers teaching in person. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing during and beyond COVID-19)
13 pages, 626 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Coping Strategies among Students with Type D Personality
by Alexey N. Sumin, Ingrid Yu. Prokashko and Anna V. Shcheglova
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084918 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
Objective: Personality type D may be associated with a predisposition to develop stress under external adverse influences, for example, in the COVID-19 pandemic. Likewise, type D personality is associated with higher burnout levels; thus, it may contribute to the development of diseases symptoms. [...] Read more.
Objective: Personality type D may be associated with a predisposition to develop stress under external adverse influences, for example, in the COVID-19 pandemic. Likewise, type D personality is associated with higher burnout levels; thus, it may contribute to the development of diseases symptoms. The current study was designed to examine the coping strategies in young healthy persons with personality type D. Methods: The study included 98 medical students, with 30 being males. The participants completed questionnaires to identify personality type D (DS-14) and the coping strategies. Depending on the results of the DS-14 questionnaire, four subgroups were distinguished with different levels of points on the NA and SI subscales. Results: For persons with type D personality, the escape–avoidance strategy was used more often, the accepting responsibility and self-controlling strategies were less common compared with non-type-D individuals. When type D was adjusted for the NA and SI subscales, the correlation remained only with escape–avoidance strategy. We did not find a synergistic effect of the NA and SI subscales in regard to coping. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a link between personality type D and maladaptive coping strategies. The predominance of the maladaptive coping strategy in type D is a possible point of application for psychosocial training in such individuals that requires further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Students' Adjustment and Mental Health)
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12 pages, 849 KiB  
Article
Diverging Trends and Expanding Educational Gaps in Smoking in China
by Lei Jin, Lin Tao and Xiangqian Lao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084917 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Introduction: The male smoking rate in China declined moderately through the 1990s and early 2000s, but the decline has since stagnated. It is unclear why the decline stalled and whether it stalled uniformly across all social strata. Theories that view socioeconomic status as [...] Read more.
Introduction: The male smoking rate in China declined moderately through the 1990s and early 2000s, but the decline has since stagnated. It is unclear why the decline stalled and whether it stalled uniformly across all social strata. Theories that view socioeconomic status as a fundamental cause of health predict that socioeconomic gaps in smoking may widen, but theories emphasizing the cultural context of health behavior cast doubt on the prediction. We investigated changes in the socioeconomic gaps in smoking during recent decades in China. Methods: We applied growth-curve models to examine inter- and intra-cohort changes in socioeconomic gaps in male smoking in China using data from a national longitudinal survey spanning 25 years. Results: We found diverging trends in smoking in men with different education levels among the post-1980 cohorts; for high-education men, smoking participation consistently declined, but for low-education men, the decline stopped and possibly reversed. The stagnation in the decline in overall smoking rate since 2010 was mostly due to the stalling of the decline of smoking among low-education men in the most recent cohorts. The diverging trends were a continuation of a general trend in expanding educational gaps in smoking that emerged in the cohorts born after 1960. Our analysis also identified widening educational gaps over age within each cohort. Conclusion: We identified a long-term widening in educational gaps in smoking in China. An effective way to reduce smoking, social inequality in smoking and possibly health disparities in China is to target the smoking behavior of vulnerable groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Use: How Do We Consider Complexity?)
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10 pages, 901 KiB  
Review
Biomechanical Risks Associated with Foot and Ankle Injuries in Ballet Dancers: A Systematic Review
by Fengfeng Li, Ntwali Adrien and Yuhuan He
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4916; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084916 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 8877
Abstract
Professional ballet dancers can be classified as dance artists and sports performers. This systematic review aims to consider the biomechanical risk factors for foot and ankle injuries in ballet dancers, as this could potentially reduce the impact that ‘cost of injury’ may have [...] Read more.
Professional ballet dancers can be classified as dance artists and sports performers. This systematic review aims to consider the biomechanical risk factors for foot and ankle injuries in ballet dancers, as this could potentially reduce the impact that ‘cost of injury’ may have on ballet companies. An additional outcome was to examine the effects of injury on the career of ballet dancers. This study searched articles in four electronic databases for information in peer-reviewed journals. The included articles examined the relationships between biomechanical factors and the relationship between ballet shoes and foot performance. There were 9 articles included in this review. Among these articles, two focused on the peak force of the foot using two types of pointe shoes, three focused on overuse injuries of the ballet dancer’s foot, one article focused on the loading of the foot of a dancer, and three articles focused on the function and biomechanics of the foot in dancers. This review also found that the pointe shoe condition was the most important factor contributing to a foot injury; overuse injury related to high-intensity training and affected both the ankle and the foot; and metatarsophalangeal joint injury related to the function and structure of the foot. Finally, strengthening the lower extremity muscle is also a recommendation to improve muscle coordination and reduce injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Public Health)
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17 pages, 2370 KiB  
Article
Mass Concentration, Source and Health Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Nine Cities of Northeast China
by Jianwu Shi, Yuzhai Bao, Liang Ren, Yuanqi Chen, Zhipeng Bai and Xinyu Han
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084915 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1734
Abstract
From April 2008 to July 2009, ambient measurements of 58 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics, were conducted in nine industrial cities (Shenyang, Fushun, Changchun, Jilin, Harbin, Daqing, Huludao, Anshan and Tianjin) of the Northeast Region, China (NRC). Daqing had [...] Read more.
From April 2008 to July 2009, ambient measurements of 58 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics, were conducted in nine industrial cities (Shenyang, Fushun, Changchun, Jilin, Harbin, Daqing, Huludao, Anshan and Tianjin) of the Northeast Region, China (NRC). Daqing had the highest concentration of VOCs (519.68 ± 309.88 μg/m3), followed by Changchun (345.01 ± 170.52 μg/m3), Harbin (231.14 ± 46.69 μg/m3), Jilin (221.63 ± 34.32 μg/m3), Huludao (195.92 ± 103.26 μg/m3), Fushun (135.43 ± 46.01 μg/m3), Anshan (109.68 ± 23.27 μg/m3), Tianjin (104.31 ± 46.04 μg/m3), Shenyang (75.2 ± 40.09 μg/m3). Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40%) in concentrations of the quantified VOCs in NRC, and the exception was Tianjin dominated by aromatics (about 52.34%). Although alkanes were the most abundant VOCs at the cities, the most important VOCs contributing to ozone formation potential (OFP) were alkenes and aromatics. Changchun had the highest OFP (537.3 μg/m3), Tianjin had the lowest OFP (111.7 μg/m3). The main active species contributing to OFP in the nine cities were C2~C6 alkanes, C7~C8 aromatic hydrocarbons, individual cities (Daqing) contained n-hexane, propane and other alkane species. Correlation between individual hydrocarbons, B/T ratio and principal component analysis model (PCA) were deployed to explore the source contributions. The results showed that the source of vehicle exhausts was one of the primary sources of VOCs in all nine cities. Additionally, individual cities, such as Daqing, petrochemical industry was founded to be an important source of VOCs. The results gained from this study provided a large of useful information for better understanding the characteristics and sources of ambient VOCs incities of NRC. The non-carcinogenic risk values of the nine cities were within the safe range recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (HQ < 1), and the lifetime carcinogenic risk values of benzene were 3.82 × 10−5~1.28 × 10−4, which were higher than the safety range specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (R < 1.00 × 10−6). The results of risk values indicated that there was a risk of cancer in these cities. Full article
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13 pages, 850 KiB  
Review
Evaluation of the Risk of Birth Defects Related to the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology: An Updated Systematic Review
by Dawid Serafin, Beniamin Oskar Grabarek, Dariusz Boroń, Andrzej Madej, Wojciech Cnota and Bartosz Czuba
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084914 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
Fertility problems constitute a serious medical, social, and demographic problem. With this review, we aim to critically appraise and evaluate the existing literature surrounding the risk of birth defects in offspring conceived using techniques based on assisted reproductive technology (ART). Based on searches [...] Read more.
Fertility problems constitute a serious medical, social, and demographic problem. With this review, we aim to critically appraise and evaluate the existing literature surrounding the risk of birth defects in offspring conceived using techniques based on assisted reproductive technology (ART). Based on searches of the literature in PubMed and ScienceDirect, we obtained a total of 2,003,275 works related to the topic. Ultimately, 11 original papers published in the last 10 years qualified for inclusion in the study. Based on five studies included in this analysis, it was shown that ART significantly increases the risk of congenital malformations in associated newborns. Due to the specifics of given studies, as well as potential confounding risk factors, this influence cannot be ignored. Therefore, considering the information contained in the articles included in this systematic review, it was determined that the risk of birth defects is not directly related to the use of ART itself but also depends on the age of partners, causes of infertility, comorbidities, and the number of fetuses during a pregnancy, as well as many other factors not covered in the literature. It is thus necessary to impress upon infertile couples who wish to have offspring that the use of ART is not risk-free but that the benefits outweigh the risks. Further education in this field, as well as social understanding, is also required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obstetrics and Gynecology in Public Health)
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21 pages, 14582 KiB  
Article
Land Subsidence in Qingdao, China, from 2017 to 2020 Based on PS-InSAR
by Mengwei Li, Xuedong Zhang, Zechao Bai, Haoyun Xie and Bo Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084913 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Land subsidence is a global geological disaster that seriously affects the safety of surface and underground buildings/structures and even leads to loss of life and property. The large-scale and continuous long-time coverage of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time series analysis techniques provide [...] Read more.
Land subsidence is a global geological disaster that seriously affects the safety of surface and underground buildings/structures and even leads to loss of life and property. The large-scale and continuous long-time coverage of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time series analysis techniques provide data and a basis for the development of methods for the investigation and evolution mechanism study of regional land subsidence. Based on the 108 SAR data of Sentinel-1 from April 2017 to December 2020, this study used Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technology to monitor the land subsidence in Qingdao. In addition, detailed analysis and discussion of land subsidence combined with the local land types and subway construction were carried out. From the entire area to the local scale, the deformation analysis was carried out in the two dimensions of time and space. The results reveal that the rate of surface deformation in Qingdao from 2017 to 2020 was mainly −34.48 to 5.77 mm/a and that the cumulative deformation was mainly −126.10 to 30.18 mm. The subsidence areas were mainly distributed in coastal areas (along the coasts of Jiaozhou Bay and the Yellow Sea) and inland areas (northeast Laixi City and central Pingdu City). In addition, it was found that obvious land subsidence occurred near the Health Center Station of Metro Line 8, a logistics company in Qingdao, and near several high-rise residential areas and business office buildings. It is necessary for the relevant departments to take timely action to prevent and mitigate subsidence-related disasters in these areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Application in Environmental Monitoring)
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15 pages, 388 KiB  
Article
Materialism, Egocentrism and Delinquent Behavior in Chinese Adolescents in Mainland China: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study
by Daniel T. L. Shek, Diya Dou, Xiaoqin Zhu, Xiang Li and Lindan Tan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084912 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
Although research generally showed that holding materialistic beliefs would lead to poor developmental outcomes, few studies have used adolescent delinquency as an outcome measure. In addition, the intervening processes between materialism and adolescent developmental outcomes are unclear. In particular, it is not clear [...] Read more.
Although research generally showed that holding materialistic beliefs would lead to poor developmental outcomes, few studies have used adolescent delinquency as an outcome measure. In addition, the intervening processes between materialism and adolescent developmental outcomes are unclear. In particular, it is not clear how materialistic beliefs influence egocentrism and adolescent delinquency. Methodologically, the existing studies have several weaknesses, including small samples, cross-sectional research designs, and being limited to people living in Western cultures. Using two waves of data collected from Sichuan, China (N = 4981), we studied the predictive effect of adolescent materialism on delinquency and the mediating role of egocentrism. Over two occasions separated by six months, students aged 11 and above responded to a questionnaire evaluating adolescent materialism, egocentrism, and delinquency (mean Wave 1 age = 13.15, range between 11 and 20.38). Results of multiple regression analyses suggested that materialism at Time 1 positively predicted Time 2 egocentrism. Additionally, Time 1 materialism positively predicted the level and change in Time 2 delinquency. Finally, based on 5000 bootstrap samples with gender, age, ethnic group, and Time 1 delinquent behavior as covariates, PROCESS analyses showed that egocentrism partially mediated the influence of Time 1 materialism delinquency and its change at Time 2. This study suggests that materialistic beliefs shape egocentrism, which further strengthens adolescent delinquent behavior. This study also replicates the findings of a pioneer study in China reported previously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
11 pages, 356 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Loneliness and Associated Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Sri Susanty, Min-Huey Chung, Hsiao-Yean Chiu, Mei-Ju Chi, Sophia H. Hu, Chien-Lin Kuo and Yeu-Hui Chuang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084911 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3245
Abstract
Loneliness has become one of the most common psychological problems experienced by older adults. Previous studies have indicated that loneliness is correlated with poor physical and psychological health outcomes; therefore, it is important to pay attention to people experiencing loneliness. However, there is [...] Read more.
Loneliness has become one of the most common psychological problems experienced by older adults. Previous studies have indicated that loneliness is correlated with poor physical and psychological health outcomes; therefore, it is important to pay attention to people experiencing loneliness. However, there is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of loneliness, and its associated factors, among community-dwelling older adults in Indonesia, which this study aimed to understand. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational research design. Stratified random sampling was applied to 1360 participants, aged ≥ 60 years, in 15 community health centers in Kendari City, Indonesia. The following questionnaires were used to collect data, including demographic and characteristic information, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form, and a single-item loneliness question. The prevalence of loneliness among older adults was 64.0%. The multivariate logistic regression showed that older adults who were female, lived with family, had fewer children, had a poor health status, had a poor oral status, had more chronic diseases, had no hearing problems, had poor cognitive function, and had depression had a higher chance of feeling lonely. Loneliness is a serious health issue among the older population in Indonesia. The government, social workers, and healthcare professionals should pay immediate attention to this psychological problem. The study also suggests that appropriate strategies for the prevention of loneliness should be developed in the near future. Full article
16 pages, 544 KiB  
Review
Involvement of Non-Parental Caregivers in Obesity Prevention Interventions among 0–3-Year-Old Children: A Scoping Review
by Andrea Ramirez, Alison Tovar, Gretel Garcia, Tanya Nieri, Stephanie Hernandez, Myrna Sastre and Ann M. Cheney
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4910; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084910 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Introduction: We examined the scope of literature including non-parental caregiver involvement in child obesity prevention interventions. Methods: We conducted a scoping review following the Arksey and O’Malley framework, including only studies reporting the effect of an intervention on growth, weight, or early childhood [...] Read more.
Introduction: We examined the scope of literature including non-parental caregiver involvement in child obesity prevention interventions. Methods: We conducted a scoping review following the Arksey and O’Malley framework, including only studies reporting the effect of an intervention on growth, weight, or early childhood obesity risk among children ages 0 to three years, published between 2000 and 2021. Interventions that did not include non-parental caregivers (adults regularly involved in childcare other than parents) were excluded. Results: Of the 14 studies that met the inclusion criteria, all were published between 2013 and 2020, and most interventions (n = 9) were implemented in the United States. Eight of the 14 interventions purposefully included other non-parental caregivers: five included both parents and non-parental caregivers, and the remaining three included only non-parental caregivers. Most interventions (n = 9) showed no significant impact on anthropometric outcomes. All interventions found improvements in at least one behavioral outcome (e.g., food groups intake (n = 5), parental feeding practices (n = 3), and screen time (n = 2)). This review can inform future interventions that plan to involve non-parental caregivers, which may be beneficial in shaping early health behaviors and preventing obesity early in life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
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10 pages, 354 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Workplace Bullying of Indonesian Caregivers and Its Influencing Factors in Taiwan
by Yun-Ping Lu, Bih-O Lee, Chih-Kuang Liu and Ke-Hsin Chueh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084909 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Background: Bullying can pose a risk to the health and safety of humans, including the risk of damage to the emotional, psychosocial, mental, or physical health of employees in the workplace. In this study, we aimed to understand the personal characteristics, mental health, [...] Read more.
Background: Bullying can pose a risk to the health and safety of humans, including the risk of damage to the emotional, psychosocial, mental, or physical health of employees in the workplace. In this study, we aimed to understand the personal characteristics, mental health, sleep quality, and workplace bullying status of Indonesian caregivers and explore the influencing factors of workplace bullying among them. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on a structured questionnaire in Indonesian, which was designed to collect the data of essential personal characteristics, workplace bullying, sleep quality, and mental health using the Indonesian versions of the Negative Acts Questionnaire–Revised (NAQ-R), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Brief Symptoms Rating Scale (BSRS-5). Results: A total of 60.9% of Indonesian caregivers never experienced workplace bullying in Taiwan. A multiple regression analysis revealed that being a household caregiver (β = 0.14, p = 0.021), sleep quality (β = 0.18, p = 0.031), and mental health (β = 0.44, p < 0.001) were significantly correlated with the overall workplace bullying scores of the respondents and revealed that these three variables explained 45% of the variance. Conclusions: Taiwan Indonesian caregivers have a similar workplace bullying rate to Indonesian employees in the workplace. This study indicated the relationships among the workplace bullying of foreign caregivers and demonstrated that being a household caregiver, sleep quality, and mental health were closely related. Full article
9 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Reference Ranges of Selenium in Plasma and Whole Blood for Child-Bearing-Aged Women in China
by Yang Cao, Huidi Zhang, Jingxin Yang, Qingqing Man, Pengkun Song, Deqian Mao, Jiaxi Lu and Lichen Yang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084908 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is a “dual-surface” element. Both Se-deficiency and Se-overload have bad effects on humans. The amount of Se in the blood is a good indicator of Se intake, and there are considerable differences in the reference ranges among different regions and populations. [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is a “dual-surface” element. Both Se-deficiency and Se-overload have bad effects on humans. The amount of Se in the blood is a good indicator of Se intake, and there are considerable differences in the reference ranges among different regions and populations. The purpose of this study was to establish the age-specific reference interval of blood Se in healthy child-bearing-aged women in China. A total of 187 healthy women aged 18–45 years old were enrolled with strict inclusion criteria from the China Adult Chronic Disease and Nutrition Surveillance (2015 CACDNS) database to establish the reference interval of Se. Plasma and whole-blood Se were detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The reference range (RR) estimated as P2.5–P97.5 percentiles (geometric mean) was 73.81–140.75 (100.94) μg/L and P2.5–P97.5 percentiles (median) 81.06–164.75 (121.05) μg/L for plasma and whole-blood Se, respectively. The proposed RR of plasma Se in this study was used to evaluate the Se nutritional status of a representative sample of 1950 women of child-bearing age who were randomly selected from 2015 CACDNS. The proportion of Se level lower than P2.5 cut-off value was 24.05%, and there were 5.08% child-bearing-aged women with plasma Se higher than the upper limit of RR. Women in the western and rural areas tend to have lower Se levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Risk Factors and Prevention in Public Health)
16 pages, 2226 KiB  
Systematic Review
Opioid Prescription Method for Breathlessness Due to Non-Cancer Chronic Respiratory Diseases: A Systematic Review
by Yasuhiro Yamaguchi, K.M. Saif-Ur-Rahman, Motoko Nomura, Hiromitsu Ohta, Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Takashi Yamanaka, Satoshi Hirahara and Hisayuki Miura
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084907 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3095
Abstract
A previous pooled analysis demonstrated significant relief of breathlessness following opioid administration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, in clinical practice, it is important to know the characteristics of patients responding to opioids, the best prescription methods, and the evaluation measures [...] Read more.
A previous pooled analysis demonstrated significant relief of breathlessness following opioid administration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, in clinical practice, it is important to know the characteristics of patients responding to opioids, the best prescription methods, and the evaluation measures that can sufficiently reflect these effects. Thus, we performed a systematic review of systemic opioids for non-cancer chronic respiratory diseases. Fifteen randomized controlled studies (RCTs), four non-randomized studies, two observational studies, and five retrospective studies were included. Recent RCTs suggested that regular oral opioid use would decrease the worst breathlessness in patients with a modified Medical Research Council score ≥ 3 by a degree of 1.0 or less on a scale of 1–10. Ergometer or treadmill tests indicated mostly consistent significant acute effects of morphine or codeine. In two non-randomized studies, about 60% of patients responded to opioids and showed definite improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Furthermore, titration of opioids in these studies suggested that a major proportion of these responders had benefits after administration of approximately 10 mg/day of morphine. However, more studies are needed to clarify the prescription method to reduce withdrawal due to adverse effects, which would lead to significant improvements in overall well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care and Services in Healthy Aging)
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12 pages, 2868 KiB  
Review
Effects of Corrective Exercises on Lumbar Lordotic Angle Correction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Vanja Dimitrijević, Tijana Šćepanović, Vukadin Milankov, Miroslav Milankov and Patrik Drid
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084906 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6452
Abstract
Lumbar lordosis is one of the most important parts of the spine, which is of special importance due to its unique position and direct contact with the pelvis. The aim of this study was to combine the results of several studies and to [...] Read more.
Lumbar lordosis is one of the most important parts of the spine, which is of special importance due to its unique position and direct contact with the pelvis. The aim of this study was to combine the results of several studies and to evaluate the magnitude of the effect of different Lumbar lordotic angle correction programs through meta-analysis. This study has been developed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. Four databases were searched for articles collection: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The key search terms were: “Lumbar Lordotic angle”, “Lordosis”, “Hyperlordosis”, “Corrective exercise”, and “Low back pain. “The articles included in our study were limited to original articles written only in English that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) participants with lumbar lordosis or hyperlordosis or low back pain; (2) different programs of corrective exercises were applied; (3) Lumbar lordotic angle used as outcome measures. Ten studies are included in our systematic review and meta-analysis. The effect size for the Lumbar lordotic angle outcome was (SMD = 0.550, p ˂ 0.001, moderate effect size). Subgroup analysis for Lumbar lordotic angle: Subgroup Younger group (SMD = 0.640, p ˂ 0.001), Subgroup Older group, (SMD = 0.520, p ˂ 0.001). Subgroup Treatment (SMD = 0.527, p ˂ 0.001), Subgroup No treatment (SMD = 0.577, p = 0.002). This was the only outcome assessed in our analysis. The current meta-analysis indicates that different correction methods have a positive effect on subjects with lumbar lordosis or hyperlordosis. In the following research, we should try to determine which corrective methods have the best effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior, Body Posture and Public Health)
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17 pages, 1684 KiB  
Review
Efficacy of Mobile Health Applications to Improve Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis for Physically Inactive Individuals
by Meng Zhang, Wei Wang, Mingye Li, Haomin Sheng and Yifei Zhai
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084905 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3531
Abstract
Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior (SB) have attracted growing attention globally since they relate to noninfectious chronic diseases (NCDs) and could further result in the loss of life. This systematic literature review aimed to identify existing evidence on the efficacy of mobile health [...] Read more.
Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior (SB) have attracted growing attention globally since they relate to noninfectious chronic diseases (NCDs) and could further result in the loss of life. This systematic literature review aimed to identify existing evidence on the efficacy of mobile health (mHealth) technology in inducing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior for physically inactive people. Studies were included if they used a smartphone app in an intervention to improve physical activity and/or sedentary behavior for physically inactive individuals. Interventions could be stand-alone interventions or multi-component interventions, including an app as one of several intervention components. A total of nine studies were included, and all were randomized controlled trials. Two studies involved interventions delivered solely via a mobile application (stand-alone intervention) and seven studies involved interventions that used apps and other intervention strategies (multi-component intervention). Methodological quality was assessed, and the overall quality of the studies was ensured. The pooled data favored intervention in improving physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior. This review provided evidence that mobile health intervention improved physical activity and reduced sedentary behavior among inactive individuals. More beneficial effects can be guaranteed when interventions include multiple components. Further studies that maintain the effectiveness of such interventions are required to maximize user engagement and intervention efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic eHealth and mHealth: Challenges and Prospects)
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12 pages, 353 KiB  
Article
The Prevalence of Tobacco, Heated Tobacco, and E-Cigarette Use in Poland: A 2022 Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey
by Mateusz Jankowski, Aurelia Ostrowska, Radosław Sierpiński, Adam Skowron, Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński, Wojciech Giermaziak, Mariusz Gujski, Waldemar Wierzba and Jarosław Pinkas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084904 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3150
Abstract
Monitoring tobacco use on a regular schedule is a basic tool of tobacco control policy. This study aimed (1) to assess the current prevalence and patterns of tobacco and e-cigarette use, as well as (2) to identify socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior [...] Read more.
Monitoring tobacco use on a regular schedule is a basic tool of tobacco control policy. This study aimed (1) to assess the current prevalence and patterns of tobacco and e-cigarette use, as well as (2) to identify socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior among adults in Poland. This cross-sectional study was carried out in March 2022 on a nationwide, representative sample of 1090 adults in Poland. The computer-assisted web interview (CAWI) technique was used. Daily tobacco smoking was declared by 28.8% of respondents (27.1% of females and 30.8% of males; p = 0.2) and 4.2% were occasional smokers (4.2% of females and 4.3% of males; p = 0.8). Most of the current smokers (62.1%) smoked regular cigarettes and 25.2% smoked hand-rolled cigarettes. The prevalence of daily e-cigarette use was 4.8% (4.0% among females and 5.6% among males; p = 0.2). Daily heated tobacco use was declared by 4.0% of respondents (5.1% of females and 2.9% of males; p = 0.07). Age, having children, and educational level were significantly associated with current daily tobacco smoking. This study revealed a high prevalence of tobacco and e-cigarette use among adults in Poland. The presented data underscore the importance of further improvements in adopting a comprehensive tobacco control strategy in Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Health Behaviors, Risk Factors, NCDs and Health Promotion)
14 pages, 621 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing Consumers’ Purchase Intention on Cold Chain Aquatic Products under COVID-19: An Investigation in China
by Xin Shen, Xun Cao, Sonia Sadeghian Esfahani and Tayyaba Saleem
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084903 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
Following the detection of COVID-19 in cold chain aquatic products (CCAP) at Xinfadi Produce Wholesale Market in Beijing, China, in June 2020, novel coronavirus positive tests of CCAP have been reported in such markets of Dalian, Xi’an, Qingdao, Taiyuan, and other places, which [...] Read more.
Following the detection of COVID-19 in cold chain aquatic products (CCAP) at Xinfadi Produce Wholesale Market in Beijing, China, in June 2020, novel coronavirus positive tests of CCAP have been reported in such markets of Dalian, Xi’an, Qingdao, Taiyuan, and other places, which has aroused the concern of Chinese consumers. The CCAP outbreak puts tremendous pressure on public health management and threatens customer well-being. This article uses the theoretical model of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate Chinese consumers’ purchasing intentions of CCAP under this circumstance. A total of 783 questionnaires were administered in China with empirical analysis through a structural equation model. The results show that attitudes (ATT) towards the safety of CCAP and subjective norms (SN) have significant positive effects on customers’ purchasing behavior intention (BI); the emotional response to the health concern (EM) of CCAP has a significant positive impact on SN, ATT, and BI; and BI of CCAP is significantly affected by individual characteristics. The BI of CCAP for those married consumers living in cities and towns with a low monthly consumption frequency is more likely to be affected by the new coronavirus epidemic events. This paper is one of the first studies that contribute to the literature by exploring the influencing factors of the consumption behavior intention over the COVID-19 pandemic in China from a public health perspective. The findings provide significant implications for cold chain operators, market managers, and policymakers to develop guidelines and offer a framework to initiate and support the produce market and boost consumer health confidence in CCAP at the practitioner level. Full article
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19 pages, 992 KiB  
Article
Active Pregnancy: A Physical Exercise Program Promoting Fitness and Health during Pregnancy—Development and Validation of a Complex Intervention
by Rita Santos-Rocha, Marta Fernandes de Carvalho, Joana Prior de Freitas, Jennifer Wegrzyk and Anna Szumilewicz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4902; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084902 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3904
Abstract
Physical activity during pregnancy is a public health issue. In the view of reproducibility and the successful implementation of exercise interventions, reporting the quality of such study design must be ensured. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a physical [...] Read more.
Physical activity during pregnancy is a public health issue. In the view of reproducibility and the successful implementation of exercise interventions, reporting the quality of such study design must be ensured. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a physical exercise program promoting fitness and health during pregnancy. A qualitative methodological study was carried out. For the description of the exercise program, the Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT) was used. For the validation of the program, the revised guideline of the Criteria for Reporting the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in Health Care (CReDECI2) was followed and went through three stages of development, piloting, and evaluation. The customizable exercise program was designed and validated by exercise and health specialists based on evidence-based, international recommendations and supported by different educational tools to be implemented by qualified exercise professionals in health and fitness settings. A 12-week testing intervention addressing a group of 29 pregnant women was carried out. The program’s feasibility was subsequently evaluated by all the pregnant women. The CReDECI2 process guides practitioners and researchers in developing and evaluating complex educational interventions. The presented intervention may assist exercise specialists, health professionals, and researchers in planning, promoting, and implementing a prenatal exercise program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity during Pregnancy)
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11 pages, 662 KiB  
Article
Talking about Climate Change and Environmental Degradation with Patients in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey on Knowledge, Potential Domains of Action and Points of View of General Practitioners
by Hélène André, Julia Gonzalez Holguera, Anneliese Depoux, Jérôme Pasquier, Dagmar M. Haller, Pierre-Yves Rodondi, Joëlle Schwarz and Nicolas Senn
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084901 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3077
Abstract
Purpose: General practitioners (GPs) could play a role in mitigating climate change by raising awareness of its impact on human health and implementing changes to improve population health and decreasing environmental footprints. The aim of this study was to assess GPs’ knowledge and [...] Read more.
Purpose: General practitioners (GPs) could play a role in mitigating climate change by raising awareness of its impact on human health and implementing changes to improve population health and decreasing environmental footprints. The aim of this study was to assess GPs’ knowledge and perspectives about the health impacts of climate change. Method: A questionnaire was sent to 1972 GPs in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Knowledge of the impact of environmental degradations and climate change on health and willingness to address climate change with patients, to be exemplary and to act as role models were surveyed as well as demographic characteristics of GPs. Results: Respondents (N = 497) expressed a high level of self-reported knowledge regarding climate change, although it was lower for more specific topics, such as planetary health or health–environment co-benefits. Participants mostly agreed that it is necessary to adapt clinical practice to the health impacts of climate change and that they have a role in providing information on climate change and its links to human health. Conclusion: Most of the GPs were concerned about environmental and climate degradation. However, this study revealed a gap between the willingness of GPs to integrate the impact of climate change on health into their clinical activities and their lack of overall knowledge and scientific evidence on effective interventions. A promising way forward may be to develop co-benefit interventions adapted to the clinical setting on diet, active mobility and connecting with nature. Full article
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13 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Associations among Caesarean Section Birth, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Postpartum Depression Symptoms
by Marie-Andrée Grisbrook, Deborah Dewey, Colleen Cuthbert, Sheila McDonald, Henry Ntanda, Gerald F. Giesbrecht and Nicole Letourneau
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4900; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084900 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6359
Abstract
Caesarean section (C-section) deliveries account for nearly 30% of births annually with emergency C-sections accounting for 7–9% of all births. Studies have linked C-sections to postpartum depression (PPD). PPD is linked to reduced quality of parent-child interaction, and adverse effects on maternal and [...] Read more.
Caesarean section (C-section) deliveries account for nearly 30% of births annually with emergency C-sections accounting for 7–9% of all births. Studies have linked C-sections to postpartum depression (PPD). PPD is linked to reduced quality of parent-child interaction, and adverse effects on maternal and child health. New mothers’ perceptions of more negative childbirth experiences, such as unplanned/emergency C-sections, are linked to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which in turn is related to PPD. Our objectives were to determine: (1) the association between C-section type (unplanned/emergency vs. planned) and PPD symptoms, and (2) if postnatal PTSD symptoms mediate this association. Employing secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from 354 mother-child dyads between 2009 and 2013 from the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study, conditional process modeling was employed. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ) were administered at three months postpartum, to assess for postpartum depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms. The direct effect of emergency C-section on PPD symptoms was non-significant in adjusted and non-adjusted models; however, the indirect effect of emergency C-section on PPD symptoms with PTSD symptoms as a mediator was significant after controlling for prenatal depression symptoms, social support, and SES (β = 0.17 (SE = 0.11), 95% CI [0.03, 0.42]). This suggests that mothers who experienced an emergency or unplanned C-section had increased PTSD scores of nearly half a point (0.47) compared to mothers who underwent a planned C-section, even after adjustment. Overall, emergency C-section was indirectly associated with PPD symptoms, through PTSD symptoms. Findings suggest that PTSD symptoms may be a mechanism through which emergency C-sections are associated with the development of PPD symptoms. Full article
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15 pages, 2511 KiB  
Article
Monitoring the Changing Patterns in Perceived Learning Effort, Stress, and Sleep Quality during the Sports Training Period in Elite Collegiate Triathletes: A Preliminary Research
by Yi-Hung Liao, Chih-Kai Hsu, Chen-Chan Wei, Tsung-Chieh Yang, Yu-Chi Kuo, Li-Chen Lee, Li-Ju Lin and Chung-Yu Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084899 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
Background: Few studies have examined the mental profiles and academic status of collegiate triathletes during training/competitive periods. We evaluated the changes in sleep quality, physical fatigue, emotional state, and academic stress among collegiate triathletes across training periods. Methods: Thirteen collegiate triathletes (19–26 years [...] Read more.
Background: Few studies have examined the mental profiles and academic status of collegiate triathletes during training/competitive periods. We evaluated the changes in sleep quality, physical fatigue, emotional state, and academic stress among collegiate triathletes across training periods. Methods: Thirteen collegiate triathletes (19–26 years old) were recruited in this study. Mood state, sleep quality, degree of daytime sleepiness, subjective fatigue, and academic learning states were measured during the following five training periods: before national competitions for 3 months (3M-Pre Comp), 2 months (2M-Pre Comp), 1 month (1M-Pre Comp), 2 weeks (2wk-Pre Comp), and national competition (Comp) according to their academic/training schedule. Results: The academic stress index in 1M-Pre Comp (Final exam) was significantly higher than that in 3M-Pre Comp in these triathletes. No markedly significant differences were observed in overall mood state, sleep quality, individual degree of sleepiness, and fatigue among these five periods. However, the profiles mood state scale (POMS)-fatigue and -anger were lower in 2wk-Pre Comp than that in 1M-Pre com. The POMS-tension score in Comp was significantly higher than that in 3M-Pre Comp and 2M-Pre Comp. POMS-depression in Comp was lower than that in 1M-Pre Comp. Conclusion: We found that training volume was highest one month before a competition, and the academic stress is greatest during their final term exam period (1M-Pre Comp). After comprehensive assessment through analyzing POMS, PSQI, ESS, and personal fatigue (CIS), we found that the collegiate triathletes exhibited healthy emotional and sleep states (PSQI score < 5) across each training period, and our results suggest that these elite collegiate triathletes had proficient self-discipline, time management, and mental adjustment skills. Full article
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