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Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition)

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 April 2023) | Viewed by 54872

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Guest Editor
Department of Social Policy, Sociology, and Criminology, School of Social Policy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Interests: psychological criminology; Asian criminology; psychology and the law; sexual violence; violent offending; stalking behavior; bullying behavior
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am organizing the second edition of a Special Issue on psycho-criminology, crime, and the law in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. For the first edition of this Special Issue, please refer to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph/special_issues/PCCATL. This peer-reviewed scientific journal publishes original articles, critical reviews, research notes, and short communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. 

Psychological criminology is regarded as the convergence of psychology and criminology in which psychological criminology is concerned with the use of psychological knowledge to explain or describe, with the attempt to change, criminal behavior. This Special Issue focuses on the application of psycho-criminological approaches and constructs to crime, criminal and civil law, and the influence of law on behavior. This is to explore how individual criminal behavior is acquired, evoked, maintained, and modified through personality, social, and/or environmental influences. Contributors from criminology, criminal justice, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, legal, forensic sciences, genetics, public health, and allied fields are welcome to submit their work. From a public health perspective, the key aim of this Special Issue is to advance our understanding of psycho-criminological mechanisms (i.e., personal, social, and environmental influences) associated with different criminal behavior in the intersections of the law.

Dr. Heng Choon (Oliver) Chan
Guest Editor

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • crime and delinquency
  • criminal behavior and the law
  • mental health and crime
  • forensic mental health
  • public health perspective of the crime
  • environmental conditions and crime
  • risk and protective factors of criminal behavior
  • crime prevention and intervention
  • offender rehabilitation
  • and civil and criminal mental health law

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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19 pages, 419 KiB  
Article
Risky Sexual Behavior, Paraphilic Interest, and Sexual Offending: The Study of a Community Sample of Young Adults in Hong Kong
by Heng Choon (Oliver) Chan and Wade C. Myers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054279 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
Limited information is available on the prevalence and nature of sexual offending in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional study seeks to explore the role of risky sexual behavior (RSB) and paraphilic interests in self-reported sexual offending behavior (i.e., nonpenetrative-only, penetrative-only, and nonpenetrative-plus-penetrative sexual assault) [...] Read more.
Limited information is available on the prevalence and nature of sexual offending in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional study seeks to explore the role of risky sexual behavior (RSB) and paraphilic interests in self-reported sexual offending behavior (i.e., nonpenetrative-only, penetrative-only, and nonpenetrative-plus-penetrative sexual assault) in a community sample of young adults in Hong Kong. Using a large sample (N = 1885) of university students, the lifetime prevalence of self-reported sexual offending was 18% (n = 342; 23% males (n = 166), 15% females (n = 176)). Based on the study subsample of 342 participants who self-reported sexual offending (aged 18–35), the findings indicated that males reported significantly higher levels of general, penetrative-only, nonpenetrative-plus-penetrative sexual assault; and paraphilic interest in voyeurism, frotteurism, biastophilia, scatophilia, and hebephilia than females; while females reported a significantly higher level of transvestic fetishism than males. No significant difference was found in RSB between males and females. Logistic regressions found that the participants who possessed a higher level of RSB, particularly penetrative behaviors, and paraphilic interest in voyeurism and zoophilia were less likely to engage in a nonpenetrative-only sexual offense. Conversely, the participants who possessed higher levels of RSB, especially penetrative behaviors, and paraphilic interest in exhibitionism and zoophilia, were more likely to engage in nonpenetrative-plus-penetrative sexual assault. The implications for practice in areas such as public education and offender rehabilitation are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
13 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Physical Violence in the Medical-Forensic Approach in the Years 2015–2020 in City and Neighboring Municipalities: Perspectives from Poland—Poznań Study
by Szymon Rzepczyk, Klaudia Dolińska-Kaczmarek, Bartosz Burchardt, Dagmara Skowrońska, Przemysław Hałasiński, Aleksandra Bielecka, Klaudia Koniarek and Czesław Żaba
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 2922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20042922 - 7 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Forensic medical opinions serve the appropriate classification of a crime against health. Violence, a multifaceted phenomenon, requires forensic medical examination in the case of causing damage to health. Due to the effects caused by the perpetrator, the damage to health is divided into [...] Read more.
Forensic medical opinions serve the appropriate classification of a crime against health. Violence, a multifaceted phenomenon, requires forensic medical examination in the case of causing damage to health. Due to the effects caused by the perpetrator, the damage to health is divided into severe, medium, and light. This study analyzed 7689 incidents of violence from 2015–2020, taking place in the area subordinate to the Provincial Police Headquarters in Poznań, based on anonymized documentation of forensic medical examinations performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Poznań at the request of the Police and privately. The analysis took into account: units ordering the test, type of exposure, medical help, sex and age of the victim, places of the incident, classification and localization of injury, manner of impact, attitude of the perpetrator to the victim, profession of the victim, gender of the perpetrator, and remarks. In Poland, statistics on violence victims are underestimated, resulting from the low reporting of crimes committed to law enforcement authorities. There is a need for programs to educate the perpetrator of violence on methods of conflict resolution and programs to prevent violence, covering events taking place in public spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
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21 pages, 361 KiB  
Article
Juvenile Homicide Offenders: Factors in Desistance after Incarceration
by Norair Khachatryan and Kathleen M. Heide
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032354 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
While several prior studies have examined the prevalence and predictors of recidivism among juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs), much less scholarly attention has been devoted to exploring the post-release factors that influence JHOs to desist from criminal behavior. Given relatively recent rulings by the [...] Read more.
While several prior studies have examined the prevalence and predictors of recidivism among juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs), much less scholarly attention has been devoted to exploring the post-release factors that influence JHOs to desist from criminal behavior. Given relatively recent rulings by the U.S. Supreme Court, individuals who commit homicide offenses as juveniles are less likely to spend the rest of their lives in prison. Accordingly, it is important to understand the factors associated with desistance in the post-incarceration lives of JHOs. The present study was designed to assess the effects of post-release factors on JHOs’ recidivism outcomes, using a sample of 19 male JHOs from a southeastern U.S. state who were convicted as adults and sentenced to serve time in prison in the 1980s. These men were interviewed approximately 35 years after their original homicide offense about their adjustment to life in prison and after release, as well as their reasons for engaging in criminal behavior during adolescence. Thematic qualitative analysis was used to identify the post-release factors that were prevalent in the lives of the JHOs who desisted from crime. These five factors included avoiding old neighborhood and friends, positive intimate relationship, stable employment, human agency, and generativity. The implications of the findings for the prevention of recidivism among JHOs, as well as avenues for future research, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
16 pages, 881 KiB  
Article
Childhood Bullying Victimization, Substance Use and Criminal Activity among Adolescents: A Multilevel Growth Model Study
by Jungup Lee, Mijin Choi, Margaret M. Holland, Melissa Radey and Stephen J. Tripodi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010770 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2777
Abstract
Background: This study aims to examine the effects of childhood bullying victimization (CBV) on substance use and criminal activity among adolescents over time. In addition, it identifies the moderating effects of gender and race/ethnicity on the associations of CBV with substance abuse and [...] Read more.
Background: This study aims to examine the effects of childhood bullying victimization (CBV) on substance use and criminal activity among adolescents over time. In addition, it identifies the moderating effects of gender and race/ethnicity on the associations of CBV with substance abuse and criminal activity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: This study included 8984 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (Mage = 14.22 years) assessed biennially at four time points utilizing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The two-level hierarchical linear modeling was employed to test the effects of CBV on substance use and criminal activity. Results: The incidence of substance use increased over time throughout adolescence to young adulthood, while that of criminal activity decreased. CBV increased the risks of cigarette use, marijuana use, and criminal activity. Gender and race/ethnicity significantly moderated the effect of CBV on alcohol use and alcohol binges. The effect of CBV on alcohol use was stronger among females than males. Among Hispanic adolescents, CBV was more strongly related to alcohol use and binges compared to non-Hispanic White. Conclusion: Findings suggest the need for early intervention for children at high risk of being bullied to reduce later substance abuse and involvement in criminal activities. Considering the moderating effects of gender and ethnicity on the associations, target-specified intervention and prevention programs are also required. Further studies focusing on the lifelong effects of CBV beyond adolescence are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
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19 pages, 1248 KiB  
Article
Proactive Criminal Thinking and Restrictive Deterrence: A Pathway to Future Offending and Sanction Avoidance
by Xin Guan and T. Wing Lo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811636 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2314
Abstract
Perceived crime benefit and criminal thinking are essential factors in predicting future offending. However, less is known about how the interaction of the two influences individuals’ perception and cognition of crime. This study explores whether proactive criminal thinking mediates the effect of perceived [...] Read more.
Perceived crime benefit and criminal thinking are essential factors in predicting future offending. However, less is known about how the interaction of the two influences individuals’ perception and cognition of crime. This study explores whether proactive criminal thinking mediates the effect of perceived crime benefit, and tests whether restrictive deterrence influences these pathways. Using a drug dealer sample that was drawn from the Second RAND Inmate Survey, this paper finds that proactive criminal thinking significantly mediates the effect of perceived crime benefit on future offending, criminal self-efficacy, and future sanction avoidance. Mediation pathways are enhanced when taking a heterogeneous crime strategy as a moderator, but only in the experienced drug dealer subsample. These results suggest that proactive criminal thinking is a route for channeling the effects of perceived crime benefit, and an amplifier for bringing restrictive deterrence into play. Both roles apply to experienced offenders rather than less-experienced offenders. Integrating restrictive deterrence with individuals’ perception and cognition of crime is a meaningful attempt to fit restrictive deterrence into a broader theoretical map. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
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14 pages, 4020 KiB  
Article
Identifying the Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Crime in Liangshan Prefecture, China
by Wuxue Cheng, Yajun Rao, Yixin Tang, Jiajia Yang, Yuxin Chen, Li Peng and Jiangcheng Hao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 10862; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710862 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Crime prevention and governance play critical roles in public security management. Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province has a high crime rate, and spatio-temporal analysis of crime in this region could assist with public security management. Therefore, Liangshan Prefecture was selected as [...] Read more.
Crime prevention and governance play critical roles in public security management. Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province has a high crime rate, and spatio-temporal analysis of crime in this region could assist with public security management. Therefore, Liangshan Prefecture was selected as the research object in this study. The spatial crime data were obtained from China Judgments Online, and property crime, violent crime, and special crime (i.e., pornography, gambling, drugs, and guns) were analyzed. The findings were as follows. In terms of time characteristics (month, day, and hour), property crime tended to occur in autumn and winter, in the early month, on Wednesdays and Fridays, and at early morning. Violent crime tended to occur in winter and spring, on Mondays and Thursdays, and at night. Special crime occurred in spring and autumn, on Tuesdays, and in the daytime. In terms of spatial features, the central region of Liangshan Prefecture was the focal area for crime. There were obvious low-aggregation areas in the western region for special crime. The eastern region exhibited a high incidence of various crimes. Regarding the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics from 2013 to 2019, there were some obvious hotspots of violent and property crime in downtown and surrounding townships of Xichang City, which is the capital of Liangshan Prefecture. During the study period, the incidence of special crime has an obvious downward trend which shows that there are more new cold spots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
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20 pages, 20505 KiB  
Article
Knowledge Development Trajectories of Crime Prevention Domain: An Academic Study Based on Citation and Main Path Analysis
by Song-Chia Hsu, Kai-Ying Chen, Chih-Ping Lin and Wei-Hao Su
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 10616; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710616 - 25 Aug 2022
Viewed by 3514
Abstract
This study performed main path analysis to explore the academic field of crime prevention. Studies were collected from the Web of Science database, and main path analysis was used to analyze the studies and identify influential authors and journals on the basis of [...] Read more.
This study performed main path analysis to explore the academic field of crime prevention. Studies were collected from the Web of Science database, and main path analysis was used to analyze the studies and identify influential authors and journals on the basis of the g-index and h-index. Cluster analysis was then performed to group studies with related themes. Wordle was used to output keywords and word clouds for each cluster, both of which were used as reference to name each cluster. Five clusters were identified, namely crime displacement control, crime prevention through environmental design, developmental crime prevention, the effects of communalism on crime prevention, and the effect of childhood sexual abuse on crime. Each cluster was analyzed, and suggestions based on the results are provided. The main purpose of crime prevention is to advance our understanding of the psychological criminal mechanisms (i.e., personal, social and environmental impacts) associated with different criminal behaviors at the intersection of law by using main path analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
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14 pages, 339 KiB  
Article
The Role of Family Life and the Influence of Peer Pressure on Delinquency: Qualitative Evidence from Malaysia
by Ezarina Zakaria, Noor Nasihah Kamarudin, Zhooriyati Sehu Mohamad, Masahiro Suzuki, Balan Rathakrishnan, Soon Singh Bikar Singh, Zaizul Ab Rahman, Vikneswaran Sabramani, Azianura Hani Shaari and Mohammad Rahim Kamaluddin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137846 - 26 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 10610
Abstract
Juvenile delinquency is always seen as a public health problem which needs intervention at various levels. Identifying which factors may lead juveniles to delinquency is a long-standing question among criminologists. This remains the case in Malaysia. There are studies that have explored the [...] Read more.
Juvenile delinquency is always seen as a public health problem which needs intervention at various levels. Identifying which factors may lead juveniles to delinquency is a long-standing question among criminologists. This remains the case in Malaysia. There are studies that have explored the impact of problem-solving skills, low socioeconomic status, and gender differences in predicting the delinquent behavior of youth in Malaysia. However, very few studies have aimed to find an in-depth understanding of the effects of family roles and peer pressure on delinquency in Malaysia. The present qualitative research was designed to fill this gap in the literature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 young male prisoners (juvenile delinquents) in Malaysia to explore the influences of family life and peer pressure on delinquency. The current study showed that parental un-involvement, parent separation, peer pressure, criminal gang membership, and parents’ involvement in crime were the important factors for involvement in delinquency. The findings revealed the importance of guidance and counseling for parents and adolescents, to help them cope with life challenges and to build their social and emotional skills, as well as the necessity of appointing school psychologists and public health experts to help the youths become valuable individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
27 pages, 403 KiB  
Article
Is This Stalking? Perceptions and Victimization Experiences of Stalking and Intrusive Behaviors in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Ghana
by Heng Choon (Oliver) Chan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116689 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Many studies of stalking and intrusive behaviors are conducted with samples from individualist Western cultures, and limited information is available on such behavior in collectivist cultures. By using a sample of 1143 adults (440 males and 703 females) from Hong Kong (n [...] Read more.
Many studies of stalking and intrusive behaviors are conducted with samples from individualist Western cultures, and limited information is available on such behavior in collectivist cultures. By using a sample of 1143 adults (440 males and 703 females) from Hong Kong (n = 305), mainland China (n = 464), and Ghana (n = 374), this study compares perceptions and experiences of stalking and intrusive behaviors as well as the frequency and duration of the participants’ worst experiences with such behaviors. The lifetime prevalence rate of stalking victimization for the overall sample was 34.6%, 22.3% for the Hong Kongers, 32.3% for the mainland Chinese, and 47.3% for the Ghanaians. Relative to the Hong Kongers and Ghanaians, the mainland Chinese were more likely to judge most intrusive activities as unacceptable. However, the mainland Chinese were generally less likely to have experienced the listed intrusive activities than their counterparts. The Ghanaians, in contrast, reported significantly more victimization experiences than the Hong Kongers and the mainland Chinese, especially with aggression and surveillance, unwanted attention, and persistent courtship and imposition types of behaviors. Furthermore, the mainland Chinese and Ghanaians generally reported significantly higher frequencies of stalking and intrusive behavior in their worst experiences than did the Hong Kongers. Conversely, the Hong Kongers and Ghanaians reported significantly more persistent types of stalking and intrusive behaviors than the mainland Chinese. The results of this study indicate the need for anti-stalking legislation in Hong Kong, mainland China, and Ghana, given the devastating nature and consequences of stalking and intrusive behaviors there. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
20 pages, 388 KiB  
Article
Trust in the Police during the Pro-Democracy Movement in Hong Kong: Psychosocial Factors of Perceived Procedural and Distributive Justice
by Heng Choon (Oliver) Chan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116495 - 26 May 2022
Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Hong Kong has experienced social unrest in response to the proposed anti-extradition bill since early June 2019. Demonstrations and rallies have often ended in violent clashes between protestors and the police. Based on a sample of 1024 Hong Kong adults, this study explored [...] Read more.
Hong Kong has experienced social unrest in response to the proposed anti-extradition bill since early June 2019. Demonstrations and rallies have often ended in violent clashes between protestors and the police. Based on a sample of 1024 Hong Kong adults, this study explored the psychosocial factors underlying public perceptions of police procedural and distributive justice among Hong Kongers. Testing the propositions of several criminological theories (i.e., neutralization theory, the general aggression model, general strain theory, and self-control theory), the findings indicated that men reported significantly more positive general perceptions of police procedural and distributive justice, better general mental health, and more negative attitudes toward violence than women did. Young adults perceived significantly higher levels of police general, procedural, and distributive justice than did their middle-aged and older counterparts, who reported significantly better general mental health and greater self-control. Multivariate analyses indicated that across all age groups, better general mental health, greater self-control, and more negative attitudes toward violence were significantly associated with positive perceptions of police general, procedural, and distributive justice. This study concludes with practical guidance for enhancing public perceptions of police procedural and distributive fairness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
15 pages, 388 KiB  
Article
Materialism, Egocentrism and Delinquent Behavior in Chinese Adolescents in Mainland China: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study
by Daniel T. L. Shek, Diya Dou, Xiaoqin Zhu, Xiang Li and Lindan Tan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084912 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2790
Abstract
Although research generally showed that holding materialistic beliefs would lead to poor developmental outcomes, few studies have used adolescent delinquency as an outcome measure. In addition, the intervening processes between materialism and adolescent developmental outcomes are unclear. In particular, it is not clear [...] Read more.
Although research generally showed that holding materialistic beliefs would lead to poor developmental outcomes, few studies have used adolescent delinquency as an outcome measure. In addition, the intervening processes between materialism and adolescent developmental outcomes are unclear. In particular, it is not clear how materialistic beliefs influence egocentrism and adolescent delinquency. Methodologically, the existing studies have several weaknesses, including small samples, cross-sectional research designs, and being limited to people living in Western cultures. Using two waves of data collected from Sichuan, China (N = 4981), we studied the predictive effect of adolescent materialism on delinquency and the mediating role of egocentrism. Over two occasions separated by six months, students aged 11 and above responded to a questionnaire evaluating adolescent materialism, egocentrism, and delinquency (mean Wave 1 age = 13.15, range between 11 and 20.38). Results of multiple regression analyses suggested that materialism at Time 1 positively predicted Time 2 egocentrism. Additionally, Time 1 materialism positively predicted the level and change in Time 2 delinquency. Finally, based on 5000 bootstrap samples with gender, age, ethnic group, and Time 1 delinquent behavior as covariates, PROCESS analyses showed that egocentrism partially mediated the influence of Time 1 materialism delinquency and its change at Time 2. This study suggests that materialistic beliefs shape egocentrism, which further strengthens adolescent delinquent behavior. This study also replicates the findings of a pioneer study in China reported previously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
23 pages, 421 KiB  
Article
Psychosocial Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression among Protesters during the Social Movement in Hong Kong
by Annis Lai Chu Fung
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084679 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
This pioneering study examined how psychosocial factors predicted reactive and proactive aggression among adolescents and young adults in Hong Kong during the Anti-Extradition Bill Movement. A total of 1027 local secondary and tertiary students (578 male, 449 female) aged from 12 to 25 [...] Read more.
This pioneering study examined how psychosocial factors predicted reactive and proactive aggression among adolescents and young adults in Hong Kong during the Anti-Extradition Bill Movement. A total of 1027 local secondary and tertiary students (578 male, 449 female) aged from 12 to 25 years (M = 16.95, SD = 3.30) completed a questionnaire measuring political participation and attitudes, victimization experiences, aggression, life satisfaction, moral disengagement, and psychopathic traits. ANCOVA and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. The results revealed that compared with non-protesters, protestors had more negative traits and poorer well-being (higher levels of reactive aggression, moral disengagement, narcissism, and impulsivity; lower life satisfaction; more experiences of victimization by strangers related to political disputes). Nonetheless, protesters had similar psychosocial correlates of reactive and proactive aggression when compared to the non-protesters. Among the protesters, reactive aggression was positively predicted by anger towards the government, moral justification, diffusion of responsibility, impulsivity, and narcissism and negatively predicted by satisfaction with the government, advantageous comparison, and dehumanization. Furthermore, proactive aggression was positively predicted by narcissism, euphemistic language, and advantageous comparison and negatively predicted by moral justification. The implications of the findings for psychotherapy, school education, parenting, and social policies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
12 pages, 352 KiB  
Article
Examining the Associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences, Health Risk Behaviours, and Psychological Well-Being in a Convenience Sample of Lithuanian University Students
by Ilona Laurinaitytė, Luciana C. Assini-Meytin and Ksenija Čunichina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3253; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063253 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
This study examines the associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), health risk behaviours, and psychological well-being among Lithuanian university students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with a convenience sample of 393 students (80.7% females and 19.3% males) recruited from mostly undergraduate courses [...] Read more.
This study examines the associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), health risk behaviours, and psychological well-being among Lithuanian university students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with a convenience sample of 393 students (80.7% females and 19.3% males) recruited from mostly undergraduate courses (96.4%) in Lithuanian universities. Participants, aged 18–25 years (21.07 ± 1.53), completed a web-based survey in which they were asked to retrospectively self-report on ACEs while answering questions on health risk behaviours (e.g., smoking, substance use, riding a car with a drunk driver) and psychological well-being. Only 8.7% of the study sample experienced no ACEs, and almost half of the sample (48.9%) experienced ≥4 ACEs. Findings from adjusted models showed that, compared with students with no ACEs, those who experienced ≥4 ACEs had higher odds of lifetime illicit drug use (AOR = 2.73, p < 0.05), riding with a drunk driver (AOR = 2.44, p < 0.05), suicidal ideation before age 18 (AOR = 28.49, p < 0.01) and in the past 12 months (AOR = 5.39, p < 0.01). An increased number of ACEs was also associated with lower psychological well-being (B = −3.94, p < 0.001). Findings from this study have implications for mental health professionals as well as university administrators, as students with a higher number of traumatic experiences may require greater levels of support and services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
11 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
The Evolving Regulatory Landscape for Fentanyl: China, India, and Global Drug Governance
by Chao Wang, Nicholas Lassi, Xiaohan Zhang and Vinay Sharma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042074 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5370
Abstract
The rise of the synthetic opioid epidemic has time and time again brought criticism on China and India, the world’s two main producers of fentanyl and its chemical precursors. In the past few years, the two countries have attempted to strengthen regulations over [...] Read more.
The rise of the synthetic opioid epidemic has time and time again brought criticism on China and India, the world’s two main producers of fentanyl and its chemical precursors. In the past few years, the two countries have attempted to strengthen regulations over fentanyl production and distribution, though its effects on global drug governance remain under scrutiny. This study used qualitative and comparative methods to investigate the current regulatory landscape for fentanyl, including its efficiency and potential loopholes in China and India. It concludes that although both China and India are actively and significantly attempting to step away from the global fentanyl supply chain, these efforts remain ineffective due to institutional loopholes, namely inadequate legislation and fragmented regulatory structures. From insights gained on global drug governance, we recommend a binding international convention concentrated on controlling fentanyl and its related substances, with further bilateral and multilateral cooperation among states as necessary complementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
11 pages, 335 KiB  
Article
Who Are the Stalkers in Hong Kong? Examining Stalking Perpetration Behaviors and Motives of Young Adults
by Heng Choon (Oliver) Chan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12798; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312798 - 4 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Information on the stalking perpetration dynamics of young male and female adults in Asian countries is scarce, particularly in relation to stalkers’ offending characteristics, perpetration behaviors, motives, and other violent and nonviolent behaviors. This study compares the stalking perpetration dynamics (i.e., offending characteristics, [...] Read more.
Information on the stalking perpetration dynamics of young male and female adults in Asian countries is scarce, particularly in relation to stalkers’ offending characteristics, perpetration behaviors, motives, and other violent and nonviolent behaviors. This study compares the stalking perpetration dynamics (i.e., offending characteristics, lifetime stalking perpetration behaviors and motives, and other violent and nonviolent behaviors) of young male and female adults in Hong Kong. Of the 2496 participants, recruited from all eight public and two private universities in Hong Kong, 45 participants (1.8%; mean age = 22.84 years) reported stalking perpetration during their lifetimes (33 males (mean age = 22.56 years) and 12 females (mean age = 23.58 years)). Significantly more males than females reported that they had engaged in stalking perpetration in the past 12 months. In general, participants most frequently perpetrated surveillance-oriented stalking behaviors, followed by approach-oriented stalking behaviors and intimidation- and aggression-oriented stalking behaviors. Significantly more females than males reported to have threatened to harm or kill their victims. Additionally, significantly more females than males reported “the victim caught me doing something” as their motive for stalking. The findings of our study provide useful information for prioritization during criminal investigations. Increased understanding of the stalking perpetration dynamics of males and females will help the police and threat assessment professionals to formulate their investigation and management plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

13 pages, 1020 KiB  
Review
Machine Learning and Criminal Justice: A Systematic Review of Advanced Methodology for Recidivism Risk Prediction
by Guido Vittorio Travaini, Federico Pacchioni, Silvia Bellumore, Marta Bosia and Francesco De Micco
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 10594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710594 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4717
Abstract
Recent evolution in the field of data science has revealed the potential utility of machine learning (ML) applied to criminal justice. Hence, the literature focused on finding better techniques to predict criminal recidivism risk is rapidly flourishing. However, it is difficult to make [...] Read more.
Recent evolution in the field of data science has revealed the potential utility of machine learning (ML) applied to criminal justice. Hence, the literature focused on finding better techniques to predict criminal recidivism risk is rapidly flourishing. However, it is difficult to make a state of the art for the application of ML in recidivism prediction. In this systematic review, out of 79 studies from Scopus and PubMed online databases we selected, 12 studies that guarantee the replicability of the models across different datasets and their applicability to recidivism prediction. The different datasets and ML techniques used in each of the 12 studies have been compared using the two selected metrics. This study shows how each method applied achieves good performance, with an average score of 0.81 for ACC and 0.74 for AUC. This systematic review highlights key points that could allow criminal justice professionals to routinely exploit predictions of recidivism risk based on ML techniques. These include the presence of performance metrics, the use of transparent algorithms or explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) techniques, as well as the high quality of input data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

23 pages, 1947 KiB  
Hypothesis
Thwarting Instant Messaging Phishing Attacks: The Role of Self-Efficacy and the Mediating Effect of Attitude towards Online Sharing of Personal Information
by Yi Yong Lee, Chin Lay Gan and Tze Wei Liew
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 3514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20043514 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3031
Abstract
Context: The cause of cybercrime phishing threats in Malaysia is a lack of knowledge and awareness of phishing. Objective: The effects of self-efficacy (the ability to gain anti-phishing knowledge) and protection motivation (attitude toward sharing personal information online) on the risk of instant [...] Read more.
Context: The cause of cybercrime phishing threats in Malaysia is a lack of knowledge and awareness of phishing. Objective: The effects of self-efficacy (the ability to gain anti-phishing knowledge) and protection motivation (attitude toward sharing personal information online) on the risk of instant messaging phishing attacks (phishing susceptibility) are investigated in this study. The protection motivation theory (PMT) was tested in the context of attitudes toward sharing personal information online with a view to improving interventions to reduce the risk of phishing victimisation. Methods: Data were collected using non-probability purposive sampling. An online survey of 328 Malaysian active instant messaging users was collected and analysed in SmartPLS version 4.0.8.6 using partial least squares structural equation modelling. Results: The results showed that a person’s cognitive factor (either high or low self-efficacy) affected their chance of being a victim of instant message phishing. A higher level of self-efficacy and a negative attitude towards sharing personal information online were significant predictors of phishing susceptibility. A negative attitude towards sharing personal information online mediated the relationship between high levels of self-efficacy and phishing susceptibility. A higher level of self-efficacy led to the formation of negative attitudes among internet users. Attitudes toward the sharing of personal information online are critical because they allow phishing attempts to exist and succeed. Conclusions: The findings give government agencies more information on how to organise anti-phishing campaigns and awareness programmes; awareness and education can improve one’s ability to acquire anti-phishing knowledge (self-efficacy). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Criminology, Crime, and the Law (2nd Edition))
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