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Review

Current Situation of Palytoxins and Cyclic Imines in Asia-Pacific Countries: Causative Phytoplankton Species and Seafood Poisoning

1
Laboratory of Marine Bioresource Technology, Department of Marine Life Science, School of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju City 63243, Korea
2
Marine Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju City 63333, Korea
3
Asia Glycomics Reference Site, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
4
Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
5
Water and Eco-Bio Corporation, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 54150, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Miguel Motas Guzmán and Marta Esteban López
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084921
Received: 24 January 2022 / Revised: 11 April 2022 / Accepted: 13 April 2022 / Published: 18 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Threads in Environmental Toxicology)
Among marine biotoxins, palytoxins (PlTXs) and cyclic imines (CIs), including spirolides, pinnatoxins, pteriatoxins, and gymnodimines, are not managed in many countries, such as the USA, European nations, and South Korea, because there are not enough poisoning cases or data for the limits on these biotoxins. In this article, we review unregulated marine biotoxins (e.g., PlTXs and CIs), their toxicity, causative phytoplankton species, and toxin extraction and detection protocols. Due to global warming, the habitat of the causative phytoplankton has expanded to the Asia-Pacific region. When ingested by humans, shellfish that accumulated toxins can cause various symptoms (muscle pain or diarrhea) and even death. There are no systematic reports on the occurrence of these toxins; however, it is important to continuously monitor causative phytoplankton and poisoning of accumulating shellfish by PlTXs and CI toxins because of the high risk of toxicity in human consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine biotoxin; palytoxin; cyclic imine; harmful algal bloom marine biotoxin; palytoxin; cyclic imine; harmful algal bloom
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, Y.-S.; An, H.-J.; Kim, J.; Jeon, Y.-J. Current Situation of Palytoxins and Cyclic Imines in Asia-Pacific Countries: Causative Phytoplankton Species and Seafood Poisoning. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 4921. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084921

AMA Style

Kim Y-S, An H-J, Kim J, Jeon Y-J. Current Situation of Palytoxins and Cyclic Imines in Asia-Pacific Countries: Causative Phytoplankton Species and Seafood Poisoning. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(8):4921. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084921

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Young-Sang, Hyun-Joo An, Jaeseong Kim, and You-Jin Jeon. 2022. "Current Situation of Palytoxins and Cyclic Imines in Asia-Pacific Countries: Causative Phytoplankton Species and Seafood Poisoning" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 8: 4921. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084921

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