Do Smart Cities Represent the Key to Urban Resilience? Rethinking Urban Resilience
1.1. Literature Review
1.1.1. Smart Cities Resilience—An Emerging Concept
- Current economic-social and societal development, assumed by a community roadmap for local sustainable development and sound policies, promoting investment initiatives and integrated hubs for local growth, from a strategic perspective.
- Supporting the development pillars that capitalize the specificity, authenticity and self-sustaining potential of development: industries, including cultural heritage , insufficiently exploit natural and anthropic potential, and valorize existing human capital and demographic support, both by increasing the native population and the mobility of people (internal mobility or immigrants) .
- Promoting FDI to complete/diversify economic and social activities and to retain and develop local skilled labor.
- Local good governing must include at least three components: digitalization and intelligent development of community services, transport and communication, and quality of life.
- The health network under the responsibility of the local community is to focus on services in order to increase quality of life in the metropolitan area and areas of regional influence, specializing on the risk of zonal medical diseases, in order to promote the public–private partnership in preventive, curative and recovery health services, so as to be complementary to the network of health services of national/international interest.
- The education network is to support the educational excellence in specialization fields required by the local and zonal labor market in order to retain the young generation through attractive jobs as alternatives to external migration—whether it is temporary for work or definitely. University education and continuing education services should ensure integration into the national education network as a center of excellence in training or specialization. The education sector should promote the connection between school and businesses through scholarships, internships and pre-employment, increasing the efficiency of the educational act and good management of the structural demand of the labor market.
1.1.2. Urban Resilience vs. Smart City Resilience—Debate and Main Developments in the Pre-Pandemic Period
1.1.3. Measuring Cities’ Resilience the after Pandemic Shock
- Cities were unequally developed from the perspective of modernization and transition to smart cities and hence there were differentiated efforts for digitization;
- The level of economic development has substantially influenced the efficiency of health sector adaptation response to the pandemic pressures;
- The management of inequality and social policies was, in fact, a residual concern, hence the inefficiency of the government in managing major social problems in the community to overcome the effects of the pandemic;
- Cities that adapted best were those that were initially functional and able to deliver high-quality public services for all people , as well as those that efficiently governed at the beginning of the pandemic; further, those that could respond the best to the challenges and risks during the pandemic were those who managed to redistribute their funds, i.e., an adequate prioritization of interventions on most affected activities, e.g., smart financing.
2. Data and Methodology
3. Empirical Results
3.1. A Bibliometric Analysis on Resilience and Smart Cities
3.2. A Bibliometric Analysis on RRF Programs
3.3. Results Regarding the Relationship between Resilience and Smart Cities
- Cluster 1: Germany, Netherland, Switzerland, Sweden, the UK, Austria, Norway, Finland and Ireland;
- Cluster 2: Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Turkey, France, Romania, Ukraine, Russia, Greece and Slovakia;
- Cluster 3: Spain, Czech Republic, Belgium and Poland.
4. Main Findings and Results
- Digital global–local connectivity—digital (local) infrastructure (Austria, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania);
- Promoting the transformation of vulnerable territories into smart and sustainable areas (Italy);
- Digital transformation of businesses (Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain) including digital skills for employees (Slovenia) and digital infrastructure to streamline work- and education-based immigration (Finland);
- Boosting future-oriented, transformative and innovative (national) research (Austria), with a focus on the green and digital transition (Belgium), strengthening the attractiveness of researcher’s careers (Croatia);
- Education 2.0, financing a more inclusive and future-proof education system across communities focused on STEM competencies (Belgium and Romania); e-learning and digital teaching tools (Croatia, France, and Greece); reskilling/upskilling in digital skills (Czech Republic, Ireland, Latvia, Slovenia and Spain); e-training for employability of job seekers (Luxemburg), and digital infrastructure in schools (Slovakia);
- E-governance with specific services for business and population (Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Romania, Slovakia and Spain), interoperability of the government’s information systems (Croatia and Estonia), and next-generation cloud infrastructures and services (Germany);
- E-health transition (Slovenia) and cross-border e-health services (Cyprus), increasing the resilience of health care services (Czech Republic, Malta, Portugal, and Romania), health smart infrastructure and cyber security (Germany, Italy, and Luxemburg) and addressing health workforce shortages (Estonia and Finland).
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Model||Smart City Approach||Components|
|2014 European smart cities 3.0 and 4.0—European medium-sized and larger cities (100 thousand inhabitants to 1 million inhabitants)||“combination of endowments and activities of self-decisive, independent and aware citizens” (http://www.smart-cities.eu/?cid=2&ver=3, accessed on 12 June 2022)||Smart: governance, economy, mobility, living, environment and people|
|Frost and Sullivan, smart cities in 2020||“has an active presence and plan in at least five of the eight criteria” (https://www.frost.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/SmartCities.pdf accessed on 12 June 2022);||Smart: governance, energy, building, infrastructure, technology, health care, citizen|
|World Bank’s Global Smart City Partnership Program (2021 debate)||“is uses technology to efficiently engage citizens and meet their needs” (https://blogs.worldbank.org/sustainablecities/5-views-what-makes-city-smart accessed on 12 June 2022)||Prioritize measures to address inequality and digital divides|
|OECD Programme on Smart Cities and Inclusive Growth (OECD, 2020) ||“Profitability of smart city investment and return on investment. Differences among cities in levels of economic development and on the urban value chain. Building capacity to collect and use the right data.Aligning investments with city’s strategic priorities and citizens’ needs. A multi-criteria approach.Starting small and scaling up after”|
|The Smart Cities Dive Outlook on 2021 ||“A key lesson learned throughout 2020 is that nobody can predict the future, but that won’t stop us from trying”. (https://www.smartcitiesdive.com/news/11-experts-predict-what-will-shape-smart-cities-in-2021/592063/, accessed on 12 June 2022)||New forced changes:|
|Multi-scale models for smart cities ||Stages of smart cities (stage 1.0 to 5.0); a roadmap for the optimized operation of smart city systems||Smart: transportation, power system, (e-)health care, community, warehouse, home, security, industry, education|
|Coefficients||Standard Error||t Stat||p-Value||Lower 95%||Upper 95%|
|Intercept||100.3795||2.665042||37.66527||4.12 × 10−31||94.97963||105.7794|
|SCI||−0.36606||0.048704||−7.51589||5.89 × 10−9||−0.46474||−0.26737|
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Apostu, S.A.; Vasile, V.; Vasile, R.; Rosak-Szyrocka, J. Do Smart Cities Represent the Key to Urban Resilience? Rethinking Urban Resilience. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 15410. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215410
Apostu SA, Vasile V, Vasile R, Rosak-Szyrocka J. Do Smart Cities Represent the Key to Urban Resilience? Rethinking Urban Resilience. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(22):15410. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215410Chicago/Turabian Style
Apostu, Simona Andreea, Valentina Vasile, Razvan Vasile, and Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka. 2022. "Do Smart Cities Represent the Key to Urban Resilience? Rethinking Urban Resilience" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 22: 15410. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215410