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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 17, Issue 21 (November-1 2020) – 591 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Obstetric violence is a concept that is being debated. Despite this, many women around the world report experiencing it. This study provides evidence of obstetric violence in Spain. The results suggest that Spain has a problem with obstetric violence. It is essential to reflect on obstetric practices because it seems that some women are being absorbed by the technical-scientific authority of health personnel and the patriarchal authority of structural violence. It is necessary to invest effort in improving some of the indicators related to maternal and child health. It is important to consider each of the aspects of maternal care as part of the sexual and reproductive life of women, and neither the comprehensive care received in the health system nor the legislation that should exist to protect women from obstetric violence can be dissociated. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Cotinine-Verified Cigarette Exposure with Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Korean Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218291 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Chronic rhinosinusitis is known to be influenced by cigarette exposure; however, this relationship is based on the presence of nasal polyps, and objective measurements of cigarette exposure in chronic rhinosinusitis are not well established. This study aimed to estimate the association between chronic [...] Read more.
Chronic rhinosinusitis is known to be influenced by cigarette exposure; however, this relationship is based on the presence of nasal polyps, and objective measurements of cigarette exposure in chronic rhinosinusitis are not well established. This study aimed to estimate the association between chronic rhinosinusitis and smoking status based on self-reported questionnaires and urinary cotinine levels according to the presence of nasal polyps. We analyzed a total of 23,621 participants who participated from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012). Serum total and specific IgE level were measured. Higher prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps was associated with current smoking status (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.00–2.03). This association was prevalent in participants aged ≤ 50 years (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.01–3.05), and higher urinary cotinine level showed correlation with higher prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in this age group (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.00–1.08). In addition, positive correlation between serum total IgE and urinary cotinine levels was greater in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (β = 0.493, 95% CI = 0.071–0.916) than in controls (β = 0.062, 95% CI = 0.021–0.103). Aggressive smoking interventions should be performed in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp, especially in cases of young adults or high serum IgE levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Correlates of the Mental Fitness of Female High School Freshmen: Focus on Multidimensional Empathy and Brain Function
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8290; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218290 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 470
Abstract
We examined the association between multidimensional empathy, brain function, and mental fitness and identified correlates of mental fitness. In total, 146 female high school freshmen from a South Korean school participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected from March to April 2019, [...] Read more.
We examined the association between multidimensional empathy, brain function, and mental fitness and identified correlates of mental fitness. In total, 146 female high school freshmen from a South Korean school participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected from March to April 2019, using a self-report questionnaire and quantitative electro-encephalographic data (QEEG). Instruments included the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and the Mental Fitness Scale, to access multidimensional empathy and mental fitness. Prefrontal cortex brain function was assessed with the brain quotient measure from the QEEG during free time after school. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis. Mental fitness had statistically significant relationships with multidimensional empathy (r = 0.36, p < 0.001) and brain quotient (r = 0.23, p = 0.005). Demographic factors affecting mental fitness included satisfaction with school life (β = 0.23, p = 0.001) and economic status (β = 0.17, p = 0.024). Factors from the subscales of multidimensional empathy included perspective taking (β = 0.26, p = 0.001), fantasy (β = 0.22, p = 0.004), and personal distress (β = −0.19, p = 0.010); and the brain function factor was brain quotient (β = 0.14, p = 0.038). The explanatory power of the model was 49.4% (F = 14.44, p < 0.001). There is a need for a concrete and objective understanding of mental fitness in adolescents to develop intervention programs for freshmen with various maladaptation problems. Full article
Open AccessReview
Predictive Performance Models in Long-Distance Runners: A Narrative Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218289 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Physiological variables such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max), running economy (RE) and changes in lactate levels are considered the main factors determining performance in long-distance races. The aim of this review [...] Read more.
Physiological variables such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max), running economy (RE) and changes in lactate levels are considered the main factors determining performance in long-distance races. The aim of this review was to present the mathematical models available in the literature to estimate performance in the 5000 m, 10,000 m, half-marathon and marathon events. Eighty-eight articles were identified, selections were made based on the inclusion criteria and the full text of the articles were obtained. The articles were reviewed and categorized according to demographic, anthropometric, exercise physiology and field test variables were also included by athletic specialty. A total of 58 studies were included, from 1983 to the present, distributed in the following categories: 12 in the 5000 m, 13 in the 10,000 m, 12 in the half-marathon and 21 in the marathon. A total of 136 independent variables associated with performance in long-distance races were considered, 43.4% of which pertained to variables derived from the evaluation of aerobic metabolism, 26.5% to variables associated with training load and 20.6% to anthropometric variables, body composition and somatotype components. The most closely associated variables in the prediction models for the half and full marathon specialties were the variables obtained from the laboratory tests (VO2max, vVO2max), training variables (training pace, training load) and anthropometric variables (fat mass, skinfolds). A large gap exists in predicting time in long-distance races, based on field tests. Physiological effort assessments are almost exclusive to shorter specialties (5000 m and 10,000 m). The predictor variables of the half-marathon are mainly anthropometric, but with moderate coefficients of determination. The variables of note in the marathon category are fundamentally those associated with training and those derived from physiological evaluation and anthropometric parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Social Ecological Approach to Hazardous Alcohol Use among Flemish Higher Education Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218288 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Hazardous use of alcohol is a global public health concern. Statistics suggest that this is particularly common in Europe, and among higher education students. Although it has been established that various factors—ranging from the individual to the overarching societal level—are associated with misuse [...] Read more.
Hazardous use of alcohol is a global public health concern. Statistics suggest that this is particularly common in Europe, and among higher education students. Although it has been established that various factors—ranging from the individual to the overarching societal level—are associated with misuse of alcohol, few studies take multiple levels of influence into account simultaneously. The current study, therefore, used a social ecological framework to explore associations between variables from multiple levels of influence and the hazardous use of alcohol. Data were obtained from a representative sample of higher education students from Flanders, Belgium (n = 21,854), and explored using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The results demonstrated that the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels, were all associated with risky alcohol consumption. When devising interventions, policymakers should, therefore, take into consideration that variables from multiple levels of influence are at play. Students’ capacities to change or maintain their alcohol consumption behaviors may be undermined if social settings, overarching environments, social norms, and policies are not conducive to their motivations and social expectations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Determinants for Food Safety Push Notifications on Continuance Intention in an E-Appointment System for Public Health Medical Services: The Perspectives of UTAUT and Information System Quality
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218287 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Compared to other appointment methods in public hospitals, registering through the Internet or utilizing e-appointments, or registering online as an outpatient, can provide more information to the user. This research investigated the integration of unified theory of the acceptance and use of technology [...] Read more.
Compared to other appointment methods in public hospitals, registering through the Internet or utilizing e-appointments, or registering online as an outpatient, can provide more information to the user. This research investigated the integration of unified theory of the acceptance and use of technology and information system quality in determining factors that influence the adoption of e-appointments by patients, based on the requirements of food safety consultation in Taiwan. Empirical data from 369 valid samples were assessed using Partial Least Squares (PLS). The key findings of this study indicated that patients’ acceptance of e-appointments was influenced by users’ perceptions (i.e., performance expectancy and facilitating conditions), along with information quality and service quality. The practical and academic implications are provided for future practitioners and scholars, and to enhance patients’ usage of e-appointments in their healthcare activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharyngeal Detection of Staphylococcus aureus as a Possible Factor Related to Disgust Sensitivity in Humans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218286 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Disgust triggers behavioral avoidance of pathogen-carrying and fitness-reducing agents. However, because of the cost involved, disgust sensitivity should be flexible, varying as a function of an individual’s immunity. Asymptomatic colonization with Staphylococcus aureus often results from weakened immunity and is a potential source [...] Read more.
Disgust triggers behavioral avoidance of pathogen-carrying and fitness-reducing agents. However, because of the cost involved, disgust sensitivity should be flexible, varying as a function of an individual’s immunity. Asymptomatic colonization with Staphylococcus aureus often results from weakened immunity and is a potential source of subsequent infections. In this study, we tested if pharyngeal colonization with S. aureus, evaluated based on a single swab collection, is related to an individual’s disgust sensitivity, measured with the Three Domain Disgust Scale. Levels of immunomodulating hormones (cortisol and testosterone), general health, and body adiposity were controlled. Women (N = 95), compared to men (N = 137), displayed higher sexual disgust sensitivity, but the difference between individuals with S. aureus and without S. aureus was significant only in men, providing support for prophylactic hypothesis, explaining inter-individual differences in disgust sensitivity. Men (but not women) burdened with asymptomatic S. aureus presence in pharynx exhibit higher pathogen disgust (p = 0.04) compared to individuals in which S. aureus was not detected. The positive relationship between the presence of the pathogen and sexual disgust was close to the statistical significance level (p = 0.06), and S. aureus colonization was not related with moral disgust domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology of Human Psychology and Behavior)
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Habitat Suitability Models for Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann in North America to Determine Its Potential Geographic Range
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218285 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann, 1901 is a vector of many pathogens of public and veterinary health importance in its native range in East Asia and introduced range in Oceania. In North America, this tick was first detected in New Jersey in 2017. Currently, this [...] Read more.
Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann, 1901 is a vector of many pathogens of public and veterinary health importance in its native range in East Asia and introduced range in Oceania. In North America, this tick was first detected in New Jersey in 2017. Currently, this tick has been reported from 15 states of the United States. In this study, we modeled the habitat suitability of H. longicornis using the MaxEnt modeling approach. We separated occurrence records from the published literature from four different geographical regions in the world and developed MaxEnt models using relevant environmental variables to describe the potential habitat suitability of this tick in North America. The predictive accuracy of the models was assessed using the U.S. county locations where this tick species has been reported. Our best model predicted that the most suitable North American areas for geographic expansion of H. longicornis are from Arkansas–South Carolina to the south of Quebec–Nova Scotia in the east, and from California to the coast of British Columbia in the west. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are required to gain a better understanding of the role that this tick might play in the transmission of diseases to humans and animals in North America. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Physical Activity, Anxiety, Resilience and Engagement on the Optimism of Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218284 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 477
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to learn how physical activity, anxiety, resilience and engagement can influence optimism in older adults. An observational, quantitative, descriptive and transversal design was used with non-probabilistic sampling. A descriptive statistical analysis of the sample, Cronbach’s alpha test [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to learn how physical activity, anxiety, resilience and engagement can influence optimism in older adults. An observational, quantitative, descriptive and transversal design was used with non-probabilistic sampling. A descriptive statistical analysis of the sample, Cronbach’s alpha test of internal consistency and linear correlation using Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) were performed. In addition, a t-Student test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of normality and Levene test of homogeneity, as well as a multivariate linear regression model, were conducted. Participants who had not engaged in physical activity showed an increased total anxiety and significantly greater decrease in concentration compared to those who had engaged in physical activity. The Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and resilience of participants who had not engaged in physical activity were significantly lower than those of the participants who had engaged in physical activity. Those with a partner showed significantly lower decreases in concentration compared to single women. Regarding UWES, the current scores and dedication of couples were significantly higher than singles, as for resilience. In addition, the levels of pessimism in participants living on the coast were significantly higher compared to those living inland; in addition, a greater number of days with less anxiety is seen in those who performed physical activity. A multivariate linear regression model, F(7, 349) = 30.6, p < 0.001, explained 38% of the variance of LOT-R; those attending a public center had a lower LOT-R than those who did not, and high values of anxiety were associated with low levels of LOT-R, while high values of resilience were associated with high values of LOT-R. The results from the study provide support for future programs for older adults, in order to be able to determine in a much more precise way the objectives of programs intended for users of this age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active/Healthy Ageing and Quality of Life)
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Open AccessArticle
“There Is No Link Between Resource Allocation and Use of Local Data”: A Qualitative Study of District-Based Health Decision-Making in West Bengal, India
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218283 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Background: Effective coordination among multiple departments, including data-sharing, is needed for sound decision-making for health services. India has a district planning process involving departments for local resource-allocation based on shared data. This study assesses the decision-making process at the district level, with a [...] Read more.
Background: Effective coordination among multiple departments, including data-sharing, is needed for sound decision-making for health services. India has a district planning process involving departments for local resource-allocation based on shared data. This study assesses the decision-making process at the district level, with a focus on the extent of local data-use for resource allocation for maternal and child health. Methods: Direct observations of key decision-making meetings and qualitative interviews with key informants were conducted in two districts in the State of West Bengal, India. Content analysis of the data maintained within the district health system was done to understand the types of data available and sharing mechanisms. This information was triangulated thematically based on WHO health system blocks. Results: There was no structured decision-making process and only limited inter-departmental data-sharing. Data on all 21 issues discussed in the district decision-making meetings observed were available within the information systems. Yet indicators for only nine issues—such as institutional delivery and immunisation services were discussed. Discussions about infrastructure and supplies were not supported by data, and planning targets were not linked to health outcomes. Conclusion: Existing local data is highly under-used for decision-making at the district level. There is strong potential for better interaction between departments and better use of data for priority-setting, planning and follow-up. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How to Find Vacant Green Space in the Process of Urban Park Planning: Case Study in Ningbo (China)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218282 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Nature-based recreation in urban areas is essential for the well-being of citizens. Park green space (PGS) is a necessary urban infrastructure and a critical step of urban planning and policy-making. The existing research on PGS only focuses on service allocation problems existing in [...] Read more.
Nature-based recreation in urban areas is essential for the well-being of citizens. Park green space (PGS) is a necessary urban infrastructure and a critical step of urban planning and policy-making. The existing research on PGS only focuses on service allocation problems existing in the current urban development, ignoring changes in residential communities accessibility. This research provides new ideas to evaluate PGS. Based on parks and residential communities’ data, we adopt an improved Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method to evaluate PGS accessibility in Ningbo (China) and its matching with different levels of residential areas. We present a case study in Ningbo, and discuss its implications for PGS management. This study contains two elements: (a) Compare the current and initial PGS accessibility of each community to accurately identify the communities with PGS vacancies. (b) Analyze and discuss the association between community accessibility and residential house prices. Compare the PGS coverage ratios of communities at different levels to determine the equity of PGS planning in Ningbo. We found that the level of PGS allocation in the central area of Ningbo is high. Obviously, high-value clusters are formed in Sanjiangkou, Zhenhai New Town, Southern and Eastern Yinzhou. The accessibility level in the middle area of Yinzhou is low, and there are super high accessibility residential communities in the outer city area. There is an exact period of green space vacancy in the middle and the outer area. The residential areas with ultra-high accessibility did not configure PGS services at the beginning of their construction. There is no noticeable difference in PGS accessibility of residential communities of different levels at present, but 149 low- and middle-income residential communities lack green space service when the construction was completed. High-end residential communities have priority on enjoying park green space services. Our study suggests that PGS accessibility should be studied temporally and spatially for each residential community. The Ningbo government should strengthen the balanced construction of green space in parks and guarantee green space services for low-end residential communities to improve green space equity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Digitalising the Age-Friendly City: Insights from Participatory Action Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218281 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 603
Abstract
The World Health Organization’s age-friendly city initiative emerged as a response to the intersecting global trends of population ageing and urbanisation. However, a third global trend—digitalisation—has largely been overlooked in research and policy making relating to age-friendly cities and communities. Within the context [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization’s age-friendly city initiative emerged as a response to the intersecting global trends of population ageing and urbanisation. However, a third global trend—digitalisation—has largely been overlooked in research and policy making relating to age-friendly cities and communities. Within the context of a general shift towards online civic participatory activities, this article explores older adults’ digital citizenship in an age-friendly city in the North of England. Drawing on interviews, observations and field notes from design workshops as part of an ongoing participatory action research project, we consider two key questions. First, how does an age-friendly city stakeholder organisation of older adults make use of digital technologies in order to provide digital information and communications? Second, what is the potential of digital audio to increase civic participation in later life and local engagement with age-friendly issues? Our analysis focuses on two domains of the World Health Organization’s age-friendly city framework: Communication and information and civic participation. First, we report on the stakeholder organisation’s efforts to re-design their digital newsletter in order to provide information and communications to older residents about local work on ageing projects. We then outline the organisation’s efforts, in a public setting, to engage with digital audio as a way to increase the participation of older residents with age-friendly topics. We conclude by suggesting the need to re-frame the role of digital technologies within the age-friendly city, broadening the scope from accessibility towards enhancing digital citizenship opportunities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experiences of a Teacher in Relation to the Student’s Feelings of Learned Helplessness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218280 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 422
Abstract
This paper is based on the concern of a novice physical education teacher to reinforce the self-esteem and motor competence sensations of students during lessons. This concern arises from the experiences gained as a student. I draw on autobiographical narratives to delve into [...] Read more.
This paper is based on the concern of a novice physical education teacher to reinforce the self-esteem and motor competence sensations of students during lessons. This concern arises from the experiences gained as a student. I draw on autobiographical narratives to delve into how these experiences led me to develop a feeling of learned incompetence, a sense of failure within the educational system and, consequently, an obvious difficulty to shape my personal and professional identity. However, it is these same experiences that condition professional development and teaching practice. Thus, I attempt to break from pedagogical models and to offer a dignified and democratic education to students. I attempt to engage the reader by communicating the subjectivity of different moments in a provocative, fragmented, physical, and emotional manner. Thus, I share the concerns, reflections, and manner of working, as a teacher, in the form of autobiographical reports and class journals. The intention is to understand how this manner of working responds to the feelings of incompetence learned by school children. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Effects and Sex Differences in Anthropometric Measures of Obesity and Elevated High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218279 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Background: It remains unclear which anthropometric measure best predicts elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. This study investigated the association and synergistic interaction of two obesity indices with elevated hs-CRP levels in a national sample of Korean adults, stratified by sex. Methods: The [...] Read more.
Background: It remains unclear which anthropometric measure best predicts elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. This study investigated the association and synergistic interaction of two obesity indices with elevated hs-CRP levels in a national sample of Korean adults, stratified by sex. Methods: The present cross-sectional study used data from the 2015–2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 18,610 subjects aged ≥20 years after excluding those with missing variables. Multiple logistic regression analyses and chi-squared tests were performed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with elevated hs-CRP levels. Interaction analysis was used to examine the synergistic effect between BMI and WC on the risk of having elevated hs-CRP levels. Results: Elevated hs-CRP levels exceeding 3 mg/L were present in 9.3% and 7.5% of men and women, respectively. The relationship between each obesity index and elevated hs-CRP levels was significant in women (high WC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24–2.54), high BMI (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.58–2.74)) but not in men (high WC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.86–1.64), high BMI (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.77–1.29)). Furthermore, combined measures of the two obesity indices and interaction analysis results revealed a synergistic association in men (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.33–1.85; relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) = 0.39, 95% CI = −0.09–0.86), and women (OR = 3.70, 95% CI = 3.09–4.43; RERI = 0.85, 95% CI = −0.06–1.75). Conclusion: BMI and WC were significantly associated with a risk of elevated hs-CRP levels in women but not in men. Nevertheless, significant synergistic interactions were seen in combined measures of BMI and WC, regardless of sex. These findings emphasize the need to use both measures of adiposity concurrently in the assessment of obesity and when identifying cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
The Health Consequences of Neocolonialism for Latin American Immigrant Women Working as Caregivers in Spain: A Multisite Qualitative Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218278 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 551
Abstract
In Spain, most jobs available for Latin American immigrant women are in intimate labour (caregiving and domestic work). This work is usually performed under informal employment conditions. The objective of this study was to explain how the colonial logic mediates the experiences of [...] Read more.
In Spain, most jobs available for Latin American immigrant women are in intimate labour (caregiving and domestic work). This work is usually performed under informal employment conditions. The objective of this study was to explain how the colonial logic mediates the experiences of Latin American women working in intimate labour in Spain, and the effects of such occupation on their health and wellbeing, using a decolonial theoretical framework. A multi-site secondary data analysis of qualitative data from four previous studies was performed utilizing 101 interviews with Latin American immigrant women working as caregivers in Spain. Three interwoven categories show how the dominant colonial logic in Spain creates low social status and precarious jobs, and naturalizes intimate labour as their métier while producing detrimental physical and psychosocial health consequences for these immigrant caregivers. The caregivers displayed several strategies to resist and navigate intimate labour and manage its negative impact on health. Respect and integration into the family for whom they work had a buffering effect, mediating the effects of working conditions on health and wellbeing. Based on our analysis, we suggest that employment, social, and health protection laws and strategies are needed to promote a positive working environment, and to reduce the impact of caregiving work for Latin American caregivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health and Wellbeing of Migrant Populations)
Open AccessReview
Guidelines for Pregnancy Management During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Public Health Conundrum
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218277 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Pregnant women seem to be at risk for developing complications from COVID-19. Given the limited knowledge about the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy, management guidelines are fundamental. Our aim was to examine the obstetrics guidelines released from December 2019 to April 2020 to [...] Read more.
Pregnant women seem to be at risk for developing complications from COVID-19. Given the limited knowledge about the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy, management guidelines are fundamental. Our aim was to examine the obstetrics guidelines released from December 2019 to April 2020 to compare their recommendations and to assess how useful they could be to maternal health workers. We reviewed 11 guidelines on obstetrics management, assessing four domains: (1) timeliness: the time between the declaration of pandemics by WHO and a guideline release and update; (2) accessibility: the readiness to access a guideline by searching it on a common browser; (3) completeness: the amount of foundational topics covered; and (4) consistency: the agreement among different guidelines. In terms of timeliness, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) was the first organization to release their recommendation. Only four guidelines were accessible with one click, while only 6/11 guidelines covered more than 80% of the 30 foundational topics we identified. For consistency, the study highlights the existence of 10 points of conflict among the recommendations. The present research revealed a lack of uniformity and consistency, resulting in potentially challenging decisions for healthcare providers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How does a (Smart) Age-Friendly Ecosystem Look in a Post-Pandemic Society?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218276 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 826
Abstract
COVID-19 has impacted not only the health of citizens, but also the various factors that make up our society, living environments, and ecosystems. This pandemic has shown that future living will need to be agile and flexible to adapt to the various changes [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has impacted not only the health of citizens, but also the various factors that make up our society, living environments, and ecosystems. This pandemic has shown that future living will need to be agile and flexible to adapt to the various changes in needs of societal populations. Digital technology has played an integral role during COVID-19, assisting various sectors of the community, and demonstrating that smart cities can provide opportunities to respond to many future societal challenges. In the decades ahead, the rise in aging populations will be one of these challenges, and one in which the needs and requirements between demographic cohorts will vary greatly. Although we need to create future smart age-friendly ecosystems to meet these needs, technology still does not feature in the WHO eight domains of an age-friendly city. This paper extends upon Marston and van Hoof’s ‘Smart Age-friendly Ecosystem’ (SAfE) framework, and explores how digital technology, design hacking, and research approaches can be used to understand a smart age-friendly ecosystem in a post-pandemic society. By exploring a series of case studies and using real-life scenarios from the standpoint of COVID-19, we propose the ‘Concept of Age-friendly Smart Ecologies (CASE)’ framework. We provide an insight into a myriad of contemporary multi-disciplinary research, which are capable to initiate discussions and bring various actors together with a positive impact on future planning and development of age-friendly ecosystems. The strengths and limitations of this framework are outlined, with advantages evident in the opportunity for towns, regions/counties, provinces, and states to take an agile approach and work together in adopting and implement improvements for the greater benefits of residents and citizens. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Health and Wellness Impacts of Traditional Physical Activity Experiences on Indigenous Youth: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218275 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Traditional physical activities have numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits for Indigenous youth around the world. Little is known about the positive health and wellness impacts of traditional physical activity experiences on Indigenous youths. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the [...] Read more.
Traditional physical activities have numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits for Indigenous youth around the world. Little is known about the positive health and wellness impacts of traditional physical activity experiences on Indigenous youths. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the holistic health and wellness impacts of traditional physical activities on Indigenous youth from certain North American and Oceania geographic areas. A systematic search of four electronic databases (PubMed, ERIC, Scopus and Web of Science) was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications of qualitative research exploring the diverse health experiences of traditional physical activities for Indigenous youth in Canada, the United States of America, New Zealand and Australia. A qualitative synthesis of studies between 2006 and 2018 were included, and findings were synthesized using an integrated Indigenous-ecological model, which broadly captures health and wellness impacts under intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community and policy level outcomes using medicine wheel teachings. In total, nine studies were identified via this search. Overall, the literature described numerous emotional, mental and spiritual benefits of traditional physical activity, and youth experiences were affected by familial and communal relationships, and systemic factors. Among Indigenous youth, this research shows the importance of including traditional physical activity in future programs and partnerships with community expertise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indigenous Health Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Are the Self-esteem, Self-efficacy, and Interpersonal Interaction of Junior College Students Related to the Solitude Capacity?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218274 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Background: Studies on the solitude capacity of university students have been extremely limited and failed to clearly illustrate the correlation of solitude capacity with internal psychological variables and the favorability of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation [...] Read more.
Background: Studies on the solitude capacity of university students have been extremely limited and failed to clearly illustrate the correlation of solitude capacity with internal psychological variables and the favorability of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation of college students’ solitude capacity with scores for self-esteem, self-efficacy, and interpersonal relationships. Method: A cross-sectional study was adopted for this study. Data were collected from a university in southern Taiwan using a structured questionnaire, the content of which included demographic data and scores from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), the Interpersonal Relationship Scale (IRS), and the Solitude Capacity Scale (SCS). Results: The final sample comprised 562 participants (mean age = 17.51 ± 1.27 years). Adjustment of the demographic variables yielded a significantly positive correlation in the total RSE and SCS (p < 0.01) scores and that in the total GSE and SCS (p < 0.01) scores. Moreover, the relationship with family (IRS subscale) and total SCS score (p < 0.05) exhibited a significant positive correlation. Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal that solitude capacity is significantly correlated with self-esteem, self-efficacy, and the favorability of family relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Open AccessArticle
A Study Investigating How the Characteristics of High Reliability Organisations Can Be Measured in the Construction Industry in Australia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218273 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Construction activities involve a lot of risk as workers are exposed to a wide range of job hazards, such as working at height, moving vehicles, toxic substances, and confined spaces. The hazards related to a construction project are mostly unpredictable because construction projects [...] Read more.
Construction activities involve a lot of risk as workers are exposed to a wide range of job hazards, such as working at height, moving vehicles, toxic substances, and confined spaces. The hazards related to a construction project are mostly unpredictable because construction projects move quickly due to project deadlines, and changing work environments. As a result of this, the industry accounts for one of the highest numbers of work-related claims, and the fourth highest incidence rate of serious claims in Australia. This research investigates how key safety management factors can measure the characteristics of high reliability organisations (HROs) in the construction industry in New South Wales Australia. To address the problem, a model is presented that can predict characteristics of HRO in construction (CHC). Using structural equation modeling (SEM), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the model and measurement instruments are tested and validated from data collected from construction workers. The results identified the factors that effectively measure CHC, and the findings can also be used as a safety management strategy and will contribute to the body of knowledge in research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Safety and Risks in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Health Anxiety Predicts Postponing or Cancelling Routine Medical Health Care Appointments among Women in Perinatal Stage during the Covid-19 Lockdown
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8272; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218272 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 526
Abstract
To avoid spreading the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), health authorities have forced people to reorganize their working and private lives and to avoid open and public spaces as much as possible. This has also been the case for women both during pregnancy [...] Read more.
To avoid spreading the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), health authorities have forced people to reorganize their working and private lives and to avoid open and public spaces as much as possible. This has also been the case for women both during pregnancy and after delivery. Here, we investigated the associations between subjective beliefs in risk of infections and health anxiety, depression, stress, and other perinatal dimensions. To this end, we assessed 103 women (mean age: 28.57 years) during pregnancy and after delivery. They completed a series of questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, perinatal information, health anxiety, post-partum depression, and stress. Sixty-six participants (64.1%) were in the pre-partum stage, and 37 (35.9%) were post-partum. Health anxiety was unrelated to depression or stress. Knowing and being close to infected people was associated with higher health anxiety. Strict following of the safety recommendations was associated with greater health anxiety, depression, and stress. Postponing or cancelling routine medical check appointments was observed among participants with high health anxiety scores. Higher illness severity, overall health anxiety scores, and lower stress scores predicted those participants who postponed or cancelled their routine medical check appointments. Post-partum stage and a larger number of children were associated with higher stress scores, but not with depression or stress. The results are of practical and clinical importance; it appears that health anxiety, which is to say fear of getting infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy or at the post-partum stage, was associated with postponing or cancelling routine medical check appointments, but not with stress or depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Use of Acid Suppressants and Risk of Dementia in the Elderly: A Pharmaco-Epidemiological Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8271; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218271 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Background: Results of studies regarding the potential link between acid suppressant use and dementia risk are inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association of cumulative exposure to histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with dementia risk in an [...] Read more.
Background: Results of studies regarding the potential link between acid suppressant use and dementia risk are inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association of cumulative exposure to histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with dementia risk in an Asian older cohort aged ≥65 years. Methods: Patients initiating H2RA (the H2RA user cohort, n = 21,449) or PPI (the PPI user cohort, n = 6584) and those without prescription for H2RA (the H2RA non-user cohort, n = 21,449) or PPI (the PPI non-user cohort, n = 6584) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2005 without a prior history of dementia were identified from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The outcome of interest was all-cause dementia. Patients’ exposure to H2RAs or PPIs was followed-up from dates of initial prescription to the earliest outcome of incident dementia, death, or the end of 2013. Potential associations between acid suppressant use and dementia risk were analyzed using time-dependent Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After mutual adjustment for H2RA and PPI use and other potential confounders, patients with H2RA use had significantly higher risk of developing dementia as compared to those not treated with H2RAs (adjusted HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.49–2.20). Likewise, PPI users had significantly elevated risk of dementia compared to PPI non-users (adjusted HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07–1.84). Conclusions: Our results indicate that exposures to H2RAs and PPIs are associated with increased dementia risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Russia’s National Concept to Reduce Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol-Dependence in the Population 2010–2020: Which Policy Targets Have Been Achieved?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218270 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 592
Abstract
In the 2000s, Russia was globally one of the top 5 countries with the highest levels of alcohol per capita consumption and prevailing risky patterns of drinking, i.e., high intake per occasion, high proportion of people drinking to intoxication, and high frequency of [...] Read more.
In the 2000s, Russia was globally one of the top 5 countries with the highest levels of alcohol per capita consumption and prevailing risky patterns of drinking, i.e., high intake per occasion, high proportion of people drinking to intoxication, and high frequency of situations where alcohol is consumed and tolerated. In 2009, in response to these challenges, the Russian government formed the Federal Service for Alcohol Market Regulation and published a national strategy concept to reduce alcohol abuse and alcohol-dependence at the population level for the period 2010–2020. The objectives of the present contribution are to analyze the evidence base of the core components of the concept and to provide a comprehensive evaluation framework of measures implemented (process evaluation) and the achievement of the formulated targets (effect evaluation). Most of the concept’s measures were found to be evidence-based and aligned with eight out of 10 areas of the World Health Organization (WHO) policy portfolio. Out of the 14 tasks, 7 were rated as achieved, and 7 as partly achieved. Ten years after the concept’s adoption, alcohol consumption seems to have declined by about a third and alcohol is conceptualized as a broad risk factor for the population’s health in Russia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Control Policy and Health in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle
Awareness, Attitudes, Prevention, and Perceptions of COVID-19 Outbreak among Nurses in Saudi Arabia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8269; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218269 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 512
Abstract
The newly discovered coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, infecting thousands of people around the world. This study examines nurses’ demographic information (age, gender, marital status, area of practice, total years of experience in the current hospital, work region, monthly salary, educational level, [...] Read more.
The newly discovered coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, infecting thousands of people around the world. This study examines nurses’ demographic information (age, gender, marital status, area of practice, total years of experience in the current hospital, work region, monthly salary, educational level, workplace, nationality, working hours per day, total nursing experience, and the respondents’ main source of information on COVID-19), awareness, attitudes, prevention, and perceptions of COVID-19 during the outbreak in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional descriptive design of 500 nurses working at government and non-governmental hospitals in five regions in Saudi Arabia were selected using convenience sampling. The Kruskal–Wallis test was applied and the Mann–Whitney test was utilized as a post hoc test. The majority of nurses in this study, 96.85%, had excellent knowledge of COVID-19. Some (83.2%) of nurses reported significant prevention knowledge and treatment skills about COVID-19, while 7.6% had little knowledge about prevention. More than half of the nurses (60.4%) had high positive attitudes toward caring for COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, female nurses, married nurses, and bachelor’s degree nurses had greater awareness, better attitude, and prevention clinical experience towards COVID-19. Meanwhile, non-Saudi nurses had higher self-reported awareness, positive attitudes, optimal prevention, and positive perceptions compared to Saudi nurses. This study provides baseline information immediately needed to enable health authorities to prioritize training programs that support nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Food Insecurity, Depression, and Race: Correlations Observed Among College Students at a University in the Southeastern United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218268 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Food insecurity is common among college students in the United States and is associated with poorer health-related outcomes and academic performance. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of food insecurity at a large, public university in Mississippi, a state [...] Read more.
Food insecurity is common among college students in the United States and is associated with poorer health-related outcomes and academic performance. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of food insecurity at a large, public university in Mississippi, a state with the second highest rate of food insecurity in the nation, and to examine the associations between food insecurity, depression, and race in this group of students. Food security was measured using the United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form, and depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. In total, 131 students ages 18–24 participated in the study. Food insecurity was present in 38.2% of students surveyed. The odds of food insecurity were higher among African American students compared to Caucasian students (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.38, 8.90). Students with very low food security had 4.52-times greater odds of having depression than food-secure students (p = 0.011, 95% CI: 1.42, 14.36). Neither body mass index nor body fat percentage were associated with food security status. Further research is needed on strategies to address the risk of depression among food-insecure college students and the racial disparity in food insecurity rates present among college students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Social Media Used and Teaching Methods Preferred by Generation Z Students in the Nursing Clinical Learning Environment: A Cross-Sectional Research Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218267 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Generation Z nursing students have a distinctive combination of attitudes, beliefs, social norms, and behaviors that will modify education and the nursing profession. This cross-sectional research study aimed to explore the social media use and characteristics of Generation Z in nursing students and [...] Read more.
Generation Z nursing students have a distinctive combination of attitudes, beliefs, social norms, and behaviors that will modify education and the nursing profession. This cross-sectional research study aimed to explore the social media use and characteristics of Generation Z in nursing students and to identify what were the most useful and preferred teaching methods during clinical training. Participants were Generation Z nursing degree students from a Spanish Higher Education Institution. A 41-item survey was developed and validated by an expert panel. The consecutive sample consisted of 120 students. Participants used social media for an average of 1.37 h (SD = 1.15) for clinical learning. They preferred, as teaching methods, linking mentorship learning to clinical experiences (x¯ = 3.51, SD = 0.88), online tutorials or videos (x¯ = 3.22, SD = 0.78), interactive gaming (x¯ = 3.09, SD = 1.14), and virtual learning environments (x¯ = 3, SD = 1.05). Regarding generational characteristics, the majority either strongly agreed or agreed with being high consumers of technology and cravers of the digital world (90.1%, n = 108 and 80%, n = 96). The authors consider it essential to expand our knowledge about the usefulness or possible use of teaching methods during clinical learning, which is essential at this moment because of the rapidly changing situation due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nursing)
Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Consumption among Hill-Tribe Adolescents below the Legal Drinking Age—A Community-based Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Thailand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218266 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Alcohol drinking has been prevalent among various hill tribes of northern Thailand due to their distinctively different lifestyles, traditions, cultures and beliefs than the general Thai population; the majority of these traditions involve annual rounds of customary rituals that make alcohol abundantly accessible [...] Read more.
Alcohol drinking has been prevalent among various hill tribes of northern Thailand due to their distinctively different lifestyles, traditions, cultures and beliefs than the general Thai population; the majority of these traditions involve annual rounds of customary rituals that make alcohol abundantly accessible to all age groups. To study the prevalence and predictors of alcohol use, a community-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2017–September 2018 among 480 sampled adolescents aged 12 through 18 years drawn by stratified random sampling. A proprietary questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to collect the data which were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of alcohol use in the previous 30 days was 46.7%. Drinking predictors were: having at least a drinking parent, drinking peers, ever been sent to buy alcohol, smoking, cordial relationship with peers, gambling, family violence experience, stress and leisure time company. Therefore, our results suggest that prevention interventions should be designed with a focus on discouraging parents from sending children to buy alcohol and drinking or smoking in their presence; to reduce both social and commercial access to alcohol, age limits should be imposed on alcohol intake at all ceremonious events, while strictly reinforcing the law that prohibits selling alcohol to minors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescents)
Open AccessArticle
Examining Negative Emotional Symptoms and Psychological Wellbeing of Australian Sport Officials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8265; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218265 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Sports officials are exposed to numerous performance and personal stressors, however little is known about their mental health and psychological wellbeing. This study investigated levels of mental health and psychological wellbeing of sports officials in Australia, and the demographic, officiating, and workplace factors [...] Read more.
Sports officials are exposed to numerous performance and personal stressors, however little is known about their mental health and psychological wellbeing. This study investigated levels of mental health and psychological wellbeing of sports officials in Australia, and the demographic, officiating, and workplace factors associated with these outcomes. An online survey consisting of demographic and officiating questions, and measures of work engagement, mental health and psychological wellbeing was completed by 317 officials. A negative emotional symptoms score was computed. Associations between key demographic, officiating, and workplace factors with negative emotional symptoms and psychological wellbeing were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Officials who were younger, not in a committed relationship, having lower levels of education, and less officiating experience reported higher levels of negative emotional symptoms, while males, older than 50 years, in a committed relationship and more officiating experience had higher levels of psychological wellbeing. The ability to self-manage workload and demonstrate professional autonomy were strongly associated with negative emotional symptoms and psychological wellbeing. Officials reported high negative emotional symptoms, but also high levels of psychological wellbeing. The ability to manage workload and to express professional autonomy are important determinants of mental health and wellbeing levels of sports officials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Wellbeing in the Sport Workforce)
Open AccessReview
Effect of Active Video Games on Healthy Children’s Fundamental Motor Skills and Physical Fitness: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8264; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218264 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Objective: The present study aimed to synthesize the most updated literature regarding the casual evidence of the effects of active video games (AVGs) on fundamental motor skills (FMS; locomotor skills and object control skills) and physical fitness among healthy children. Methods: [...] Read more.
Objective: The present study aimed to synthesize the most updated literature regarding the casual evidence of the effects of active video games (AVGs) on fundamental motor skills (FMS; locomotor skills and object control skills) and physical fitness among healthy children. Methods: Electronic databases were searched through October 2020. Peer-reviewed randomized control trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs examining the effectiveness of AVGs on FMS and physical fitness development among healthy children (3–12 years) were screened. Results: A total of nine RCTs and one quasi-experimental study were included. Of the five studies examining the effect of AVGs on FMS, two reported significant improvements, while three reported no significant improvements in motor skills development as compared to control. Of the five studies assessing the effects of AVGs on physical fitness, four reported significant improvements in physical fitness such as balance, agility, and speed, whereas one reported significant improvements in skill-related executive function, but not in physical competence. Conclusions: Overall, the current available evidence supports AVGs as an effective means to improve physical fitness, such as balance, postural stability, and agility, among healthy children. However, the findings of AVGs on healthy children’s object control and locomotor skills remain inconclusive. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes in Water from Filter Jugs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218263 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Careless use conditions of filter jugs were applied to simulate and evaluate the behavior of two ubiquitous aquatic bacterial species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. According to a reference protocol, nine different jugs of popular brands sold in the Italian market were [...] Read more.
Careless use conditions of filter jugs were applied to simulate and evaluate the behavior of two ubiquitous aquatic bacterial species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. According to a reference protocol, nine different jugs of popular brands sold in the Italian market were used for the test. Separately, a suspension of the two bacteria was spiked in water used for filling the jugs. The concentration of the test organisms and total aerobic microbial count (TAMC) was measured daily in the filtered water along a period corresponding to the cartridge lifetime. Results showed a different trend of bacterial behavior. E. aerogenes was detectable exclusively on the first day after jug filling, while P. aeruginosa confirmed its persistence over time in all the jugs and its ability to potentially colonize surfaces and cartridges. The TAMC was detected at a concentration range from 102 to 107 CFU/100 mL in all the tests, high values that were not far from those raised in bottled flat natural mineral water weeks after bottling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Pre-Workout Multi-Ingredient Supplement on Anaerobic Performance: Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218262 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this research was to investigate the acute effects of a pre-workout supplement on anaerobic performance in resistance-trained men. Methods: Twenty-three men underwent three randomized, double-blind testing sessions separated by a seven-day break. The participants performed three tests: isokinetic strength, [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this research was to investigate the acute effects of a pre-workout supplement on anaerobic performance in resistance-trained men. Methods: Twenty-three men underwent three randomized, double-blind testing sessions separated by a seven-day break. The participants performed three tests: isokinetic strength, three repetition maximum (3-RM) strength and Wingate. Statistical analysis was conducted in R environment. Linear mixed models were estimated via R package lme4. Results: Mean [email protected] s was significantly greater in supplemented condition for right and left knee flexors (PL: 103.2 ± 37.6 Nm; supplemented condition: 131.8 ± 29.3 Nm (p = 0.001)), and PL: 103.7 ± 39.3; supplemented condition: 129.4 ± 28.4 (p = 0.001)). [email protected] s for right and left knee extensors (PL: 202.6 ± 58.6 Nm; supplemented condition: 237.2 ± 54.7 Nm (p = 0.001); PL: 203.3 ± 63.2 Nm, supplemented condition: 229.8 ± 50.8 Nm (p = 0.002)). Significant difference was in mean anaerobic power between supplemented and PL condition for right and left knee flexors (p = 0.002, p = 0.005) and for right and left knee extensors (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002). TTP was significantly shorter in supplemented condition for both sides knee flexors (p = 0.002). There was a significant difference for mean power in the Wingate test (placebo: 8.5 ± 0.6 W/kg; supplemented condition: 8.7 ± 0.5 W/kg (p = 0.038)). Mean 3-RM was significantly greater in supplemented condition (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The supplement significantly improves upper and lower body strength and power output in resistance-trained men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport and Health)
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