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Special Issue "Mental Health of Child and Young People"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Caterina Fiorilli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Developmental Psychology and Education, LUMSA University, Rome, Italy
Interests: teachers; students; school; well-being; emotional competence
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Katariina Salmela-Aro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Educational Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Interests: school engagement; burnout; optimal learning moments; experience sampling; life-span model of motivation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mental health is defined as a state of well-being that allows people to acquire and develop cognitive, emotional, and social competences, allowing them to resiliently cope with life stressors and deal with life challenges. It is well-established in the existing literature that children and young people who experience positive support from parents and teachers may develop psychological resilience. Children and adolescents with higher levels of psychological well-being have higher levels of academic achievement, with high engagement in school life and satisfaction in their later life and jobs. In fact, having experience of positive relationships in early childhood with caregivers and emotional support in school-life experiences may positively impact children’s and young people’s resilience. Conversely, when children and adolescents are exposed to multiple risk factors their risk of developing mental health problems and poor outcomes in adulthood increases. Furthermore, schooling and teaching do not occur in a vacuum. The relationship between teachers, their colleagues, and their headmaster, as well as, in general, all those involved in the school environment, has an impact on the social and emotional development of pupils. Therefore, the quality of the school environment plays a relevant role in generating resilience in children and young people. Nevertheless, there is a strong need to deepen our knowledge on how to reduce risk factors and promote protective environments to foster resilience. Factors that should be observed are many and different, such as parenting styles, teachers’ support, training programs, evidence-based interventions, policy programs, and school cultures. This Special Issue addresses this topic by inviting scholars to share findings, perspectives, and approaches, with the aim to promote and build a resilient environment.

Prof. Caterina Fiorilli
Prof. Katariina Salmela-Aro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Well-being
  • Resilience
  • Mental health
  • Parenting
  • Teaching
  • Academic achievement
  • Job satisfaction
  • Young people
  • Children
  • Adolescent

Published Papers (33 papers)

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Article
Social Support, Health Literacy and Depressive Symptoms among Medical Students: An Analysis of Mediating Effects
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020633 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Depressive symptoms are prevalent in university students and may impair their social, educational, and economic transition into adulthood. Identifying the factors that determine depressive symptoms is crucial for the design of effective policy interventions. This study aims to examine the associations between health [...] Read more.
Depressive symptoms are prevalent in university students and may impair their social, educational, and economic transition into adulthood. Identifying the factors that determine depressive symptoms is crucial for the design of effective policy interventions. This study aims to examine the associations between health literacy and depressive symptoms among medical students, and to evaluate the effect of different types of social support as a potential mediator. A cross-sectional survey of medical students was conducted through convenience sampling in East China. Associations between variables were explored using OLS and the mediation effect was estimated using the Karlson, Holm and Breen method. A total of 746 valid questionnaires were collected. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among the sample was 32.4%. Higher health literacy levels and social supports were significantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Social support partially mediated the association between health literacy and depressive symptoms, accounting for a 54.03% of the total effect size. These findings suggest that interventions for medical student mental wellbeing could improve health literacy. Whilst family support reflects greatest impact, Universities can also lead and innovate novel interventions for this critical stage of life. Future research can extend this study by exploring the dynamic interactions between health literacy, depressive symptoms, and other sources of social support. Comparisons of these findings across the different regions of China and in other university subject disciplines are also warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Exploring the Role of Personal Demands in the Health-Impairment Process of the Job Demands-Resources Model: A Study among Master Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020632 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
Research shows that students experience substantial levels of burnout during their studies. This study explores the role of personal demands on students’ well-being. After providing a conceptualization of personal demands, we examined the role of personal demands in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. [...] Read more.
Research shows that students experience substantial levels of burnout during their studies. This study explores the role of personal demands on students’ well-being. After providing a conceptualization of personal demands, we examined the role of personal demands in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Based on the Transactional Model of Stress, we hypothesized that students with high personal demands experience more burnout symptoms because they perceive more elements in their study as demanding (i.e., mediation hypothesis). At the same time, we hypothesized that the associations between study demands and burnout might be stronger for students with high versus low personal demands (i.e., moderation hypothesis). In order to test both hypotheses, we collected data from 578 master students. The data were analyzed with latent moderation and mediation analyses in Mplus. The results showed that students’ personal demands predicted burnout symptoms via the perception of study demands. Personal demands did not moderate the relationship between study demands and burnout. The findings of the present study expand the JD-R model by indicating that personal demands relate to burnout symptoms via the perception of study demands. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Temperamental Constellations and School Readiness: A MultiVariate Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010055 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 727
Abstract
This study uses canonical correlation analyses to explore the relationship between multiple predictors of school readiness (i.e., academic readiness, social readiness, and teacher-child relationship) and multiple temperamental traits using data from the second wave (age 54 months, n = 1226) of the longitudinal [...] Read more.
This study uses canonical correlation analyses to explore the relationship between multiple predictors of school readiness (i.e., academic readiness, social readiness, and teacher-child relationship) and multiple temperamental traits using data from the second wave (age 54 months, n = 1226) of the longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; NICHD ECCRN 1993). This longitudinal study collected data on a large cohort of children and their families from birth through age 15. For academic readiness, only one temperamental constellation emerged, representing the construct of effortful control (i.e., high attentional focusing, high inhibitory control). For peer interactions, two significant constellations emerged: “dysregulated” (low inhibitory control, low shyness, and high activity), and “withdrawn” (high shyness, low inhibitory control, low attentional focusing). Finally, the analyses exploring child-teacher relationships revealed two significant constellations: “highly surgent” (high activity, low inhibitory control, low shyness) and “emotionally controlled” (low anger/frustration and high inhibitory control). Results of this study form a more nuanced exploration of relationships between temperamental traits and indicators of school readiness than can be found in the extant literature, and will provide the groundwork for future research to test specific hypotheses related to the effect temperamental constellations have on children’s school readiness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Article
The Shirom-Melamed Vigor Measure for Students: Factorial Analysis and Construct Validity in Spanish Undergraduate University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249590 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 812
Abstract
Students suffer from a decrease in physical activity during their education period. This lower level of activity could affect, through various paths, their academic performance, mental health, and satisfaction with life. In these two studies, we assumed that vigor, a positive affect variable, [...] Read more.
Students suffer from a decrease in physical activity during their education period. This lower level of activity could affect, through various paths, their academic performance, mental health, and satisfaction with life. In these two studies, we assumed that vigor, a positive affect variable, would act as a mediating variable in the above relationship, and thus, we proposed an instrument for evaluating vigor in academic contexts. In Study 1, 707 undergraduates (59.7% women) responded to the vigor scale adapted for students to test factorial validation (through confirmatory factor analysis) and obtain reliability indicators. In Study 2, 309 undergraduates (55.3% women) completed a questionnaire measuring physical activity, mental health, satisfaction with life, vigor, and academic performance to test a structural model of the relationships between the variables to obtain construct validity. A measurement model with three related factors, each representing one dimension of vigor, optimally fit the data, and the reliability indices were adequate (Study 1). Moreover, the mediational model confirmed a complete influence of physical activity on satisfaction with life, academic performance, and mental health levels through students’ vigor levels with optimal adjusting values (Study 2). Proposing an instrument such as the Shirom-Melamed Vigor Measure for students allows the opening of a research venue that is focused on the study of positive affects in academic contexts, as well as the testing of the physical activity pathways of action in obtaining positive results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Parents’ Creative Self-Concept and Creative Activity as Predictors of Family Lifestyle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9558; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249558 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 620
Abstract
Family rules, routines, and resources shape children’s creativity. However, little is known about how parents’ creative self-concepts and creative activity are related to the lifestyle adults create in their families. Family lifestyle might be operationalized as referring to domain-general dimensions of family social [...] Read more.
Family rules, routines, and resources shape children’s creativity. However, little is known about how parents’ creative self-concepts and creative activity are related to the lifestyle adults create in their families. Family lifestyle might be operationalized as referring to domain-general dimensions of family social functioning (cohesion, flexibility, communication, and family satisfaction) and domain-specific factors related to creativity, namely, family climate for creativity (encouragement to experience novelty and varieties, encouragement to nonconformism, support of perseverance in creative efforts, encouragement to fantasize). To explore the link between parents’ creativity-related characteristics and family lifestyle, 303 Polish parents (57% mothers) of children aged between 6 and 10 (M = 7.99; SD = 1.38) reported on their creative self-concept (creative self-efficacy and creative personal identity), creative activity, overall family lifestyle, and climate for creativity in their families. We found that parents’ creative self-concept and their creative activity predict support for creativity in the family and more general balanced and satisfying family relationships. We discuss these findings, point new paths for future research, and suggest possible interventions to strengthen families as creativity-fostering environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Promoting Higher Quality Teacher–Child Relationships: The INSIGHTS Intervention in Rural Schools
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249371 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
Children’s relationships with teachers in kindergarten are crucial for academic and social success. Research shows that teacher–child relationships are predicated, in part, on children’s temperament. The “INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament” intervention was intended to improve children’s and teachers’ understanding of their and others’ [...] Read more.
Children’s relationships with teachers in kindergarten are crucial for academic and social success. Research shows that teacher–child relationships are predicated, in part, on children’s temperament. The “INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament” intervention was intended to improve children’s and teachers’ understanding of their and others’ temperament, and has been shown to improve children’s social skills and self-regulation in urban, under-resourced schools. The current study is part of a replication of the effects of INSIGHTS with a sample in rural schools. The purpose was to test the effectiveness of INSIGHTS for promoting positive relationships between teachers and children in kindergarten. Two cohorts of kindergarten students (N = 127) and teachers (N = 30) were randomized into INSIGHTS or control conditions by school. Teachers reported on the quality of the teacher–child relationship before and after the INSIGHTS intervention (Time 1 and 2) using the Student–Teacher Relationship Scale: Short Form and provided a rating of children’s temperament with the Teacher School-Age Temperament Inventory at Time 1. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling. Two significant findings emerged. First, INSIGHTS promoted more closeness between teachers and children, regardless of temperament. Second, the INSIGHTS intervention was protective against the development of conflictual teacher–child relationships for children with negative reactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Are the Self-esteem, Self-efficacy, and Interpersonal Interaction of Junior College Students Related to the Solitude Capacity?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218274 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 902
Abstract
Background: Studies on the solitude capacity of university students have been extremely limited and failed to clearly illustrate the correlation of solitude capacity with internal psychological variables and the favorability of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation [...] Read more.
Background: Studies on the solitude capacity of university students have been extremely limited and failed to clearly illustrate the correlation of solitude capacity with internal psychological variables and the favorability of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation of college students’ solitude capacity with scores for self-esteem, self-efficacy, and interpersonal relationships. Method: A cross-sectional study was adopted for this study. Data were collected from a university in southern Taiwan using a structured questionnaire, the content of which included demographic data and scores from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), the Interpersonal Relationship Scale (IRS), and the Solitude Capacity Scale (SCS). Results: The final sample comprised 562 participants (mean age = 17.51 ± 1.27 years). Adjustment of the demographic variables yielded a significantly positive correlation in the total RSE and SCS (p < 0.01) scores and that in the total GSE and SCS (p < 0.01) scores. Moreover, the relationship with family (IRS subscale) and total SCS score (p < 0.05) exhibited a significant positive correlation. Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal that solitude capacity is significantly correlated with self-esteem, self-efficacy, and the favorability of family relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Article
Bleeding Bodies, Untrustworthy Bodies: A Social Constructionist Approach to Health and Wellbeing of Young People in Kenya
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207555 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 540
Abstract
The Sustainable Development Goals provide a global development agenda that is meant to be inclusive of all people. However, the development needs for vulnerable populations such as youth are not reflected within the policy agenda of some developing countries. One of the reasons [...] Read more.
The Sustainable Development Goals provide a global development agenda that is meant to be inclusive of all people. However, the development needs for vulnerable populations such as youth are not reflected within the policy agenda of some developing countries. One of the reasons for this is that research that explores health and wellbeing concerns for young people are sparse in the region and where they exist, the focus has been on marginalized subgroups. To address this gap, this cross-sectional study explored the health and wellbeing of youth in Kenya. We conducted 10 focus group discussions and 14 in-depth interviews with youth ages 15 to 24 years. A thematic analysis of the data revealed that structural factors are important influencers of youth perceptions and their social constructions of health and wellbeing. Kenyan youth are concerned about the health status and healthcare services in their communities, as well as issues of community trust of youths and perceived risks of political misuse and emotional suffering. Our findings suggest that youth transitioning into adulthood in resource-constrained areas experience feelings of powerlessness and inability to take charge over their own life. This impacts how they perceive and socially construct health and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours Are Associated with Children’s Psychological Health: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7509; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207509 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
Protecting children’s mental health is important and studies have shown that diet and exercise can have a positive impact. There are limited data available, however, from representative populations of children on the relationship between regular healthy lifestyle behaviours and psychological health. Data were [...] Read more.
Protecting children’s mental health is important and studies have shown that diet and exercise can have a positive impact. There are limited data available, however, from representative populations of children on the relationship between regular healthy lifestyle behaviours and psychological health. Data were obtained from the New South Wales Child Population Health Survey, 2013–2014. Parents were asked about diet, physical activity and screen time behaviours and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for one child aged 5–15. Higher SDQ scores indicate poorer psychological health and risk for mental health problems. Multivariable linear and logistic regression examined the relationships among dietary consumption, physical activity, screen time and SDQ scores, adjusting for potential confounding. Meeting screen time recommendations was most strongly associated with a lower SDQ total difficulties score (5–10 years: −1.56 (−2.68, −0.44); 11–15 years: −2.12 (−3.11, −1.12)). Children and adolescents who met screen time recommendations were also significantly less likely to have any score in the at-risk range. Children and adolescents meeting vegetable intake guidelines had significantly lower total difficulties scores (5–10 years: −1.54 (−3.03, −0.05); 11–15 years: −1.19 (−3.60, −0.39)), as did adolescents meeting discretionary food guidelines (−1.16 (−2.14, −0.18)) and children consuming the recommended fruit intake (−1.26 (−2.42, −0.10)). Our findings indicate that more effective interventions to increase the proportion of young Australians who meet the guidelines for diet and screen time would contribute to protecting their mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Article
A Qualitative Study of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Educational Contexts in Chile: An Approach Based on Adolescents’ Voices
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186927 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
The application of mindfulness-based interventions in school settings has increased considerably in recent years, showing that differences between the characteristics of programmes can impact on the receptivity and effectiveness of mindfulness training. However, few studies have explored the learning process from the perspective [...] Read more.
The application of mindfulness-based interventions in school settings has increased considerably in recent years, showing that differences between the characteristics of programmes can impact on the receptivity and effectiveness of mindfulness training. However, few studies have explored the learning process from the perspective of the children and adolescents who participate in mindfulness practice. The goal of this paper is to analyse the subjective experience of a group of adolescents following the completion of a mindfulness-based intervention developed for schools in Chile. The intervention studied is the “.b curriculum”, which is part of the Mindfulness in School Project (MiSP) developed in the UK. Twenty adolescents participated in semi-structured interviews within their school, in which three key areas were explored: pedagogy, perceived effects, and mechanisms of action, each of them being analysed from the perspective of thematic analysis. The results support the view that pedagogy is a very relevant consideration in the implementation, development, and efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions within the school context. We propose that the inclusion of structure, contents, process/mindful practices, and teachers’ expertise provides the pedagogical-relational framework required for students to successfully develop mindfulness skills, which enables them to experience their cognitive, emotional, and somatic effects. These effects are linked to self-regulation strategies, based on paying attention to one’s somatic experience with kindness and curiosity, which works as an attentional anchor. It is hoped that these results will contribute to the spread of mindfulness research in adolescents in Latin America, thus facilitating cross-cultural and international comparisons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
The Impacts of Air Pollution on Mental Health: Evidence from the Chinese University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186734 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 844
Abstract
A growing number of developing countries have experienced worsening air pollution, which has been shown to cause significant health problems. However, few studies have explored the impact of air pollution on the mental health of university students, particularly in the Chinese context. In [...] Read more.
A growing number of developing countries have experienced worsening air pollution, which has been shown to cause significant health problems. However, few studies have explored the impact of air pollution on the mental health of university students, particularly in the Chinese context. In order to address this gap, through a large-scale cross-sectional survey, this study aims to examine the effects of air pollution on final-year Chinese university undergraduates’ (due to graduate in 2020) mental health by employing multivariable logistic regression. Our findings show that, first, although normal air quality is not strongly associated with lower levels of negative mental health, there is a strong link between poor air quality and higher levels of negative mental health. More specifically, life satisfaction hedonic unhappiness and depression measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies’ Depression scale (CES-D) are statistically associated with air pollution. In addition, we also found that gender is a significant factor, as males had more than 1.6 times greater odds of increased mental health problems compared to their female counterparts. Place of birth also plays a significant role in participants’ mental health. Moreover, undergraduates with urban household registration experienced significant levels of hedonic unhappiness and depression on the CES-D scale. Finally, we found that there is an association between respondents’ economic situation and their mental health too. Overall, this study contributes to the research on air pollution management and mental health intervention, particularly in relation to student groups. The undergraduate curriculum should provide more guidance and suggestions on promoting mental health and establishing positive attitudes to life and academic study of the final year students, under the context of air pollution in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Article
Assessment of Alcohol Consumption and Anxiety as Predictors of Risk of Anorexia and Bulimia in Non-Clinicals Samples
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176293 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the effect of alcohol consumption, anxiety, and food restriction before and after consuming alcohol and body image on the risk of anorexia and bulimia in college students from Tijuana, Baja California, through predictive statistical models. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to assess the effect of alcohol consumption, anxiety, and food restriction before and after consuming alcohol and body image on the risk of anorexia and bulimia in college students from Tijuana, Baja California, through predictive statistical models. A quantitative, descriptive, and cross-sectional design and a non-probabilistic sample of 526 college students from Tijuana, Baja California, México were used. Application of the scales (with acceptable psychometric properties) was conducted in classrooms. Through path analyses, four models were found with adequate indicators of goodness of fit: (1) risk of anorexia in women [Chi Square (X2) = 5.34, p = 0.376, Adjusted Determination Coefficient (R2)= 0.250]; (2) anorexia risk for men (X2 = 13.067, p = 0.192, R2 = 0.058); (3) risk of bulimia in women (X2 = 3.358, p = 0.645, R2 = 0.202); and bulimia risk for men (X2 = 14.256, p = 0.075, R2 = 0.284). The findings provide empirical evidence for the food and alcohol disturbance model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Social Media Use and Depressive Symptoms—A Longitudinal Study from Early to Late Adolescence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165921 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2537
Abstract
An increasing number of studies have addressed how adolescents’ social media use is associated with depressive symptoms. However, few studies have examined whether these links occur longitudinally across adolescence when examined at the individual level of development. This study investigated the within-person effects [...] Read more.
An increasing number of studies have addressed how adolescents’ social media use is associated with depressive symptoms. However, few studies have examined whether these links occur longitudinally across adolescence when examined at the individual level of development. This study investigated the within-person effects between active social media use and depressive symptoms using a five-wave longitudinal dataset gathered from 2891 Finnish adolescents (42.7% male, age range 13–19 years). Sensitivity analysis was conducted, adjusting for gender and family financial status. The results indicate that depressive symptoms predicted small increases in active social media use during both early and late adolescence, whereas no evidence of the reverse relationship was found. Yet, the associations were very small, statistically weak, and somewhat inconsistent over time. The results provide support for the growing notion that the previously reported direct links between social media use and depressive symptoms might be exaggerated. Based on these findings, we suggest that the impact of social media on adolescents’ well-being should be approached through methodological assumptions that focus on individual-level development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
The Relationships between a Dietary Pattern Linked to Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155489 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 778
Abstract
Little is known about the contribution of dietary patterns of poor quality on life satisfaction among Malaysian children. We evaluated associations between an empirically derived ”high sugar, high fibre, high dietary energy dense (DED) and low fat” dietary pattern and life satisfaction score [...] Read more.
Little is known about the contribution of dietary patterns of poor quality on life satisfaction among Malaysian children. We evaluated associations between an empirically derived ”high sugar, high fibre, high dietary energy dense (DED) and low fat” dietary pattern and life satisfaction score in adolescents. A total of 548 adolescents aged 13 years were recruited from randomly selected public schools located in three southern states of Peninsular Malaysia. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) while life satisfaction was measured using a Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS). Z-score for a ”high sugar, high fibre, high DED and low fat” dietary pattern was estimated by applying reduced rank regression analysis. Relationships between the dietary pattern and life satisfaction scores were assessed using regression models. Mean and SD of life satisfaction score was higher in girls (70.5 (12.8)) compared to boys (67.6 (15.4)), p < 0.05. The overall life satisfaction score (β = −0.119; 95% CI: −0.125, −0.004) was inversely associated with dietary pattern z-score as well as scores for self (β = −0.13; 95% CI: −0.170, −0.015) and living environment (β = −0.12; 95% CI: −0.163, −0.007) domains in girls. An opposite trend was observed for school domain in boys whereby an increasing dietary pattern score was positively associated with increasing life satisfaction score (β = 0.216; 95% CI: 0.054, 0.36). The finding of this study highlights the role of free sugar and DED particularly, within the framework of whole diet, and target population at risk to improve life satisfaction among adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Article
Mobile Phone Addiction and Risk-Taking Behavior among Chinese Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155472 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
Objectives: The mobile phone (MP) is an indispensable digital device in adolescents’ daily lives in the contemporary era, but being addicted to MP can lead to more risk-taking behavior. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. [...] Read more.
Objectives: The mobile phone (MP) is an indispensable digital device in adolescents’ daily lives in the contemporary era, but being addicted to MP can lead to more risk-taking behavior. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. To address the gaps in the literature, the present study examined the idea that MP addiction is associated with reduced self-control, which further associates with increased risk-taking behavior. In addition, this study also investigated the moderation effect of adolescent sex in the association between MP addiction and self-control. Methods: A three-wave longitudinal study, each wave spanning six months apart, was conducted in a sample of Chinese adolescents (final N = 333, 57.4% girls). Results: Results of the moderated mediation model suggest that after controlling for demographic variables and baseline levels of self-control and risk-taking behavior, MP addiction at T1 positively predicted increased risk-taking behavior at T3 through reduced self-control at T2 for girls but not for boys. Conclusions: Theoretically, these findings contribute to the understanding about the working processes in the association between MP addiction and risk-taking behavior in adolescents. Practically, the results implied that boosting self-control appeared as a promising way to reduce girls’ risk-taking behavior, particularly for those who are addicted to MPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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The Influence of the Scout Movement as a Free Time Option on Improving Academic Performance, Self-Esteem and Social Skills in Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145215 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
The word scouting refers to the Scout movement, born more than a hundred years ago, which educates millions of young people between the ages of six and twenty-one in their leisure time. We aimed to study the effects of scouting on the academic [...] Read more.
The word scouting refers to the Scout movement, born more than a hundred years ago, which educates millions of young people between the ages of six and twenty-one in their leisure time. We aimed to study the effects of scouting on the academic results, social skills, and self-esteem of high school youths compared to a non-scout sample. The selected sample consisted of 430 secondary students aged between thirteen and seventeen. Self-esteem and social skills were measured, and the average mark of the total sample was analysed. After the study, it was shown that belonging to the scout movement significantly influences the improvement of academic results in formal education and conflict resolution; however, there are no statistically significant differences in self-esteem and other social skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
The Association between Perceived Social Hardship and Future Orientation among Hong Kong Young People: The Mediation Role of Belief in a Just World
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 4957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144957 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
A positive future orientation (FO) is associated with a range of positive outcomes. It is a crucial resilience factor that assists individuals to navigate developmental difficulties during the transition to young adulthood and during periods of social adversity. Exposure to negative social context [...] Read more.
A positive future orientation (FO) is associated with a range of positive outcomes. It is a crucial resilience factor that assists individuals to navigate developmental difficulties during the transition to young adulthood and during periods of social adversity. Exposure to negative social context threatens young people’s FO. The social demonstrations and the outbreak of coronavirus disease in Hong Kong over the past year have caused considerable hardship to the local society. Under such circumstance, young people in Hong Kong may develop a negative FO. Scant research has directly examined the relationship between perceived social hardship and FO as well as the underlying mechanism among Hong Kong young people. In this study, we tested the idea that young people’s perceived social hardship would be negatively related to FO via belief in a just world, a well-known foundation for individuals to think, feel, and plan their future. Participants were 554 students recruited from eight universities in Hong Kong. They filled in self-report questionnaires online. Results of structural equation modeling supported our hypothesis. These findings shed light on how to nurture Hong Kong young people to develop a positive mindset during periods of social hardship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Students’ Trait Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Teacher Emotional Support in Preventing Burnout: The Moderating Role of Academic Anxiety
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134771 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
The current study sought to investigate the role of trait emotional intelligence and perceived teacher emotional support in school burnout. Furthermore, the moderating role of academic anxiety in these relationships was examined. A sample of 493 Italian high school students (81.9% female) aged [...] Read more.
The current study sought to investigate the role of trait emotional intelligence and perceived teacher emotional support in school burnout. Furthermore, the moderating role of academic anxiety in these relationships was examined. A sample of 493 Italian high school students (81.9% female) aged 14–19 years (M = 16.27, SD = 1.48) was involved in the study. A latent moderated structural equation approach was performed to test the hypothesized model. The results showed that both trait emotional intelligence and perceived teacher emotional support were negatively associated with school burnout. Moreover, academic anxiety moderated the relation between perceived teacher emotional support and school burnout. Specifically, when the level of anxiety was high, the protective role of perceived teacher emotional support toward burnout was weakened. Findings are discussed in light of the protective role of resources on burnout and considering the detrimental impact of academic anxiety in school settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Teacher–Student Interaction and Chinese Students’ Mathematics Learning Outcomes: The Mediation of Mathematics Achievement Emotions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4742; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134742 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 910
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate secondary students’ mathematics achievement emotions and their mediating effects on the relationships between classroom environmental characteristics, namely, teacher–student interactional styles (i.e., teacher leadership and student freedom styles), and students’ mathematics learning outcomes in mainland China. A sample of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate secondary students’ mathematics achievement emotions and their mediating effects on the relationships between classroom environmental characteristics, namely, teacher–student interactional styles (i.e., teacher leadership and student freedom styles), and students’ mathematics learning outcomes in mainland China. A sample of 1423 Grade 7 to 9 junior secondary students responded to a questionnaire that comprised three sets of scales for assessing students’ perceived teacher–student interactional styles, mathematics achievement emotions, and cognitive and affective learning outcomes. The results indicated that students’ mathematics learning outcomes were positively associated with both teacher leadership and student freedom styles. Moreover, students’ mathematics achievement emotions mediated the relationships between these two interactional styles and their mathematics learning outcomes. These results highlight the importance of mathematics achievement emotions in student learning, and provide implications for the improvement of mathematics classroom environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Perceived Academic Self-Efficacy among Romanian Upper Secondary Education Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134689 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
Perceived academic self-efficacy represents an important component of students’ mental health and well-being. The link between efficacy beliefs and level of academic performances relies on the fact that they regulate the anxiety and foster motivation, school engagement, effort, and perseverance of students. This [...] Read more.
Perceived academic self-efficacy represents an important component of students’ mental health and well-being. The link between efficacy beliefs and level of academic performances relies on the fact that they regulate the anxiety and foster motivation, school engagement, effort, and perseverance of students. This paper aims to identify factors that are conducive for more efficacious beliefs in different socio-economic and educational contexts. We build our analysis on data collected from a sample of Romanian upper secondary education students on their beliefs in relation to their ability to perform at the baccalaureate exam. We employ decision tree models in order to unveil the way factors interact and predict perceived academic self-efficacy, with focus on the positive support received from parents and teachers, as well as on features of the school environment. Our results can be useful for building more resilient educational environments that support mental health and academic well-being of students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Positive Youth Development and Adolescent Depression: A Longitudinal Study Based on Mainland Chinese High School Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124457 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
There are several limitations of the scientific literature on the linkage between positive youth development (PYD) attributes and adolescent psychological morbidity. First, longitudinal studies in the field are limited. Second, few studies have used validated PYD measures to explore the related issues. Third, [...] Read more.
There are several limitations of the scientific literature on the linkage between positive youth development (PYD) attributes and adolescent psychological morbidity. First, longitudinal studies in the field are limited. Second, few studies have used validated PYD measures to explore the related issues. Third, few studies have used large samples. Fourth, limited studies have been conducted in mainland China. In this study, we conducted a longitudinal study using two waves of data collected from 2648 junior high school students in mainland China. In each wave, participants responded to a validated PYD scale (Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale: CPYDS) and other measures of well-being, including the 20-item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). After controlling for the background demographic variables, different measures of CPYDS (cognitive–behavioral competence, prosocial attributes, general positive youth development qualities, positive identity, and overall PYD qualities) were negatively associated with CES-D scores in Wave 1 and Wave 2. Longitudinal analyses also revealed that PYD measures in Wave 1 negatively predicted Wave 2 depression scores and the changes over time. The present findings highlight the protective role of PYD attributes in protecting adolescents from depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Article
Understanding the Role of Social Interactions in the Development of an Extracurricular University Volunteer Activity in a Developing Country
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124422 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
The relevance of participating in structured extracurricular activities (ECA from here onwords) in higher education is increasing. Involvement in these activities helps students develop personal and social skills that positively affect academic and professional training, well-being, and the development of attitudes toward community [...] Read more.
The relevance of participating in structured extracurricular activities (ECA from here onwords) in higher education is increasing. Involvement in these activities helps students develop personal and social skills that positively affect academic and professional training, well-being, and the development of attitudes toward community involvement. This study analyzes the role of social interactions in the perceived benefits of students, who have participated in an ECA in a developing country. Moreover, this research aspires to explore whether students perceive that these interactions positively impact academic training, professional development, and adjustment to the university context, psychological well-being, and development of community involvement attitudes. As a result, 46 in-depth interviews were conducted with 23 students who participated in the experience. 23 in-depth interviews were conducted before the experience and another 23 after it. Data analysis was carried out using the IRaMuTeQ software to conduct a descending hierarchical classification (DHC). This study highlights the value of social interactions in an ECA to increase the motivation of students to improve academic and professional performance, to build shared knowledge with others, and to develop personal and social skills that contribute to the integral development of participants. ECAs help students reflect on their actions and privileges and develop positive attitudes toward themselves and others. This fact is linked to the achievement of high levels of well-being that allow the enhancement of the students’ self-esteem. Finally, this experience has allowed volunteers to become aware of other sociocultural realities and to reflect on the possible ways of contributing to the development of a more sustainable society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Evaluating the Implementation Quality of a Social and Emotional Learning Program: A Mixed Methods Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3249; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093249 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
School-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs have been shown to be effective in producing positive outcomes for adolescents. However, variability in implementation quality can have a negative impact on these program effects. The aim of this current study is to examine the [...] Read more.
School-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs have been shown to be effective in producing positive outcomes for adolescents. However, variability in implementation quality can have a negative impact on these program effects. The aim of this current study is to examine the variability in implementation quality for schools implementing the MindOut program and to identify factors that were likely to contribute to this variability. Employing a mixed methods approach, quantitative and qualitative implementation data were collected from teachers (n = 16) and students (n = 280) who participated in the MindOut program. Quantitative indicators were used to score schools’ implementation quality across four dimensions (dosage, adherence/fidelity, quality of delivery and participant responsiveness), and these were averaged to determine overall level of implementation (high/low). Qualitative data identified factors that contributed to implementation quality, and factors were then analyzed in accordance with the schools’ implementation level grouping. Findings indicated that variability in implementation quality existed both between and within schools. A total of eight schools were assigned as high implementers and another eight as low implementers. Influencing factors were categorized into five themes: (i) program factors, (ii) participant factors, (iii) teacher factors, (iv) school contextual factors, and (v) organizational capacity factors. Several differences between high and low implementers were found in relation to these influencing factors. The findings contribute to the evidence on implementation quality in schools by advancing knowledge on measuring implementation quality across multiple dimensions and informants successfully. These findings can also inform practitioners of the main influencing factors in schools so that strategies can be developed to optimize implementation quality in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Trait Emotional Intelligence and School Burnout: The Mediating Role of Resilience and Academic Anxiety in High School
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093058 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
The main aim of the current study was to investigate the role of trait emotional intelligence (TEI) in preventing students’ school burnout directly and indirectly via anxiety and academic resilience. The data were derived from a sample of 1235 high school students (962 [...] Read more.
The main aim of the current study was to investigate the role of trait emotional intelligence (TEI) in preventing students’ school burnout directly and indirectly via anxiety and academic resilience. The data were derived from a sample of 1235 high school students (962 females and 273 males), ranging in age between 13 and 17 years (mean = 15.46; stand deviation = 1.22). Structural equation modelling revealed a strong indirect effect of TEI on school burnout, mediated via anxiety and resilience. Overall, students with high TEI were less likely to experience school anxiety and more likely to exhibit resilience which, in turn, reduced school burnout risk. Findings are discussed with reference to the wider role of TEI in educational contexts and highlight the need and potential for scientifically driven interventions to enhance emotional adjustment at school and in life, more generally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
The Influence of Negative Life Events on Suicidal Ideation in College Students: The Role of Rumination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082646 - 12 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the influence of negative life events on suicidal ideation in college students and the role of rumination. Using a cluster sampling method, 894 college students were asked to fill out the adolescent life event scale, ruminative response scale, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the influence of negative life events on suicidal ideation in college students and the role of rumination. Using a cluster sampling method, 894 college students were asked to fill out the adolescent life event scale, ruminative response scale, and suicidal ideation scale. The study revealed the following: (1) negative life events, rumination, and suicidal ideation were significantly positively correlated with each other; (2) rumination played a full mediating role in the influence of negative life events on suicidal ideation; and (3) rumination also played a moderating role in the influence of negative life events on suicidal ideation. Under a high level of rumination, negative life events had a significant positive effect on suicidal ideation in college students; however, under a low level of rumination, negative life events did not have a significant effect on suicidal ideation. Rumination played mediating and moderating roles in the relationship between negative life events and suicidal ideation among college students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Caregiver-Attributed Etiologies of Children’s Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Study in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051652 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
The aim of this survey study was to examine the etiologies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) attributed by caregivers of Taiwanese children with ADHD, particularly factors affecting such attribution. This study had 400 caregivers of children with ADHD as participants. We examined the caregiver-attributed [...] Read more.
The aim of this survey study was to examine the etiologies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) attributed by caregivers of Taiwanese children with ADHD, particularly factors affecting such attribution. This study had 400 caregivers of children with ADHD as participants. We examined the caregiver-attributed etiologies of ADHD and factors affecting such attribution. Caregivers completed the self-report questionnaire to rate how likely they perceived various etiologies of ADHD to be; the Affiliate Stigma Scale for the level of affiliate stigma; and the short Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV Scale for child’s ADHD and oppositional symptoms. Brain dysfunction (84.8%) was the most commonly attributed etiology, followed by failure of caregivers in disciplining the child (44.0%); a poor diet, such as a sugar-rich diet (40.8%); a poor living environment (38.8%); the child imitating their peers’ improper behavior (37.3%); failure of school staff in disciplining the child (29.0%); the education system’s overemphasis on academic performance (27.3%); and supernatural beings or divination-based reasons (3.8%). Caregivers’ affiliate stigma was significantly associated with the attribution of several nonbiological etiologies other than brain dysfunction. Caregivers’ education level and children’s sex, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and oppositional symptoms were significantly associated with various caregiver-attributed etiologies. Therefore, to deliver more accurate knowledge about ADHD in educational programs, health professionals should consider those etiologies that are attributed by caregivers of children with ADHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Article
Association between Breakfast Consumption and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese College Students: A Cross-Sectional and Prospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051571 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Skipping breakfast has been suggested to increase the risk of depressive symptoms, but there is no information regarding young adults. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the frequency of breakfast consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms among Chinese college students. We [...] Read more.
Skipping breakfast has been suggested to increase the risk of depressive symptoms, but there is no information regarding young adults. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the frequency of breakfast consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms among Chinese college students. We investigated a cross-sectional (n = 1060) and one-year prospective (n = 757) relationship between the frequency of breakfast consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms. The frequency of breakfast consumption was categorized into “≤1 time/week”, “2–5 times/week”, or “≥6 times/week”. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) with an SDS score of ≥50 to indicate moderate to severe depressive symptoms. In the cross-sectional analysis, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depressive symptoms related with the breakfast consumption categories were 1.00 (reference) for ≥6 times/week, 1.761 (95% CI: 1.131, 2.742) for 2–5 times/week, and 3.780 (95% CI: 1.719, 8.311) for ≤1 time/week (p for trend: <0.001) after adjusting for these potential confounders. Similarly, in the one-year prospective analysis, we found that 10.2% of participants was classified as having moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regressions analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between the frequency of breakfast consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms. The ORs (95% CI) for depressive symptoms with decreasing breakfast consumption frequency were 1.00 (reference) for ≥6 times/week, 2.045 (1.198, 3.491) for 2–5 times/week, and 2.722 (0.941, 7.872) for ≤1 time/week (p for trend: 0.005). This one-year prospective cohort study showed that skipping breakfast is related to increased risk of depressive symptoms among Chinese college students. Future research using interventional or experimental studies is required to explore the causal relationship between the effects of breakfast consumption and depressive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Article
What Types of Educational Practices Impact School Burnout Levels in Adolescents?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041152 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
This study explores the relationship between educational practices perceived by high school students and their level of burnout, as defined by emotional exhaustion, cynicism and inadequacy. A total of 287 adolescents (146 girls) aged between 14 and 19 years old (M = [...] Read more.
This study explores the relationship between educational practices perceived by high school students and their level of burnout, as defined by emotional exhaustion, cynicism and inadequacy. A total of 287 adolescents (146 girls) aged between 14 and 19 years old (M = 16.08, SD = 1.01) and recruited from a public high school in French-speaking Switzerland completed a questionnaire regarding perceived educational practices and school burnout. Results from path analysis showed that the three dimensions of burnout were negatively associated with certain teacher- and school-related educational practices. More precisely, support for struggling students (ß = −0.24, p < 0.001) as well as teaching time (ß = −0.16, p < 0.05) were predictors of exhaustion (R2 = 0.27). Teachers’ instructional behavior (ß = −0.22, p < 0.01) and teacher motivation (ß = −0.31, p < 0.001) were predictors of cynicism (R2 = 0.20) and application of rules (ß = −0.21, p < 0.01) predicted inadequacy (R2 = 0.09). These educational practices should be of particular interest when it comes to strengthening the protective role of schools and teachers against school burnout in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
Factorial Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Stigma (AAQ-S) in Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020658 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to validate and adapt the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Stigma (AAQ-S) to the Spanish context. Method: The study included the participation of 1212 subjects, with an average age of 17.12 years old. Results: The confirmatory factorial analysis [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to validate and adapt the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Stigma (AAQ-S) to the Spanish context. Method: The study included the participation of 1212 subjects, with an average age of 17.12 years old. Results: The confirmatory factorial analysis revealed a number of adequate fit indices for the new version of the scale χ2/df = 3.24; Comparative Fit Index = 0.96; Incremental Fit Index = 0.96; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.060; Standardized Root Mean Square Residual = 0.035, in which the factorial structures displayed gender invariance. The two factors comprise the scale both exhibited high internal consistency (+0.90) and temporal stability. Conclusion: The Spanish version of the AAQ-S proved to be a robust and adequate psychometric instrument. In this sense, future lines of research focused on determining the role of psychological flexibility in stigma and the processes of change at the base of interventions could benefit substantially from the use of AAQ-S. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Article
The Mediating Effect of Sleep Quality on the Relationship between Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Suicidal Ideation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244963 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
Emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents are associated with suicidal ideation, but different dimensions of problems may be associated with different levels of suicidal ideation. The aim of this large-scale study was to explore the relationship between different dimensions of emotional and behavioral [...] Read more.
Emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents are associated with suicidal ideation, but different dimensions of problems may be associated with different levels of suicidal ideation. The aim of this large-scale study was to explore the relationship between different dimensions of emotional and behavioral problems and suicidal ideation in Chinese adolescents and to determine whether sleep disorders play a mediating role in the relationship. In total, 20,475 students completed the questionnaire regarding emotional and behavioral problems, sleep quality and suicidal ideation. After adjustment for covariates, total emotional and behavioral difficulties (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21–1.23) and sleep disorders (AOR = 4.17, 95% CI = 3.82–4.54) increased the risk of suicidal ideation, while prosocial problems (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.90–0.93) decreased the risk of suicidal ideation. Sleep quality partially mediated the relationship between emotional and behavioral problems and suicidal ideation. The standardized indirect effects of emotional and behavioral difficulties on suicidal ideation (standardized β estimate = 0.031, 95% CI = 0.020, 0.044) and the effects of prosocial problems on suicidal ideation (standardized β estimate = −0.039, 95% CI = −0.045, −0.035) mediated by sleep quality were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Our study indicates that emotional and behavioral problems increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Additionally, sleep quality plays a mediating role in the association between emotional and behavioral problems and suicidal ideation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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Addendum
Addendum: Rudasill, K.M.; et al. Promoting Higher Quality Teacher–Child Relationships: The INSIGHTS Intervention in Rural Schools. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9371
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073519 - 29 Mar 2021
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The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Brief Report
The Effect of Students’ Perception of Teachers’ Emotional Support on School Burnout Dimensions: Longitudinal Findings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041922 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 678
Abstract
School burnout is linked to relevant adverse consequences for students’ academic careers. Thus, several authors have focused on the internal and external factors that reduce burnout, highlighting the role of teachers’ support. Nonetheless, few studies addressed how students’ perception of teachers’ emotional support [...] Read more.
School burnout is linked to relevant adverse consequences for students’ academic careers. Thus, several authors have focused on the internal and external factors that reduce burnout, highlighting the role of teachers’ support. Nonetheless, few studies addressed how students’ perception of teachers’ emotional support protects them from school maladaptive behaviors. The present study aimed to longitudinally investigate in a final sample of 295 Italian high school students (F = 78.6%; M = 15.78, SD = 1.48) the protective role of students’ perception of teachers’ emotional support dimensions on school burnout across a school year. We expected that teachers’ emotional support dimensions had a significant inverse effect on students’ burnout. We preliminarily investigated the study variables’ associations and whether the mean levels of burnout dimensions increased throughout the school year. Correlation analysis supported the associations among the study variables, and repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) analyses highlighted that the mean levels of school burnout dimensions increased over time. Moreover, hierarchical multiple regression analyses have shown that at the beginning of the school year (T1), the teacher sensitivity dimension significantly and inversely affected emotional exhaustion by the end of the school year (T2). Our findings shed light on the role played by teacher emotional support and give suggestions on which specific facet should have to be improved to shield students from later burnout-related exhaustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
Brief Report
Excellent Self-Rated Health among Swedish Boys and Girls and Its Relationship with Working Conditions in School: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031310 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which school demands, teacher support, and classmate support were associated with excellent self-rated health among students, and to examine if any such statistical predictions differed by gender. Data were drawn from the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which school demands, teacher support, and classmate support were associated with excellent self-rated health among students, and to examine if any such statistical predictions differed by gender. Data were drawn from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study of 2017/18, performed among adolescents in grades five, seven, and nine (n = 3701). Linear probability models showed that school demands were negatively associated with excellent self-rated health, whereas teacher and classmate support showed positive associations. The link with school demands was stronger for girls than boys, driven by the finding that in grades five and nine, school demands were associated with excellent self-rated health only among girls. In conclusion, the study suggests that working conditions in school in terms of manageable school demands and strong teacher and classmate support may benefit adolescents’ positive health. The finding that the link between school demands and excellent self-rated health was more evident among girls than among boys may be interpreted in light of girls’ on average stronger focus on schoolwork and academic success. The study contributes with knowledge about how working conditions in school may impede or promote students’ positive health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of Child and Young People)
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