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Medicina, Volume 60, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 162 articles

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18 pages, 2239 KiB  
Article
Silymarin Supplementation in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: Outcomes of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Study
by Georgeta Stefanovici Zugravu, Carmen Pintilescu, Carmen-Marinela Cumpat, Sorin Dan Miron and Anca Miron
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060999 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 110
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Coadministration of natural products to enhance the potency of conventional antirheumatic treatment is of high interest. This study aimed to assess the impact of administration of silymarin (a nutritional supplement) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis under treatment with conventional disease-modifying [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Coadministration of natural products to enhance the potency of conventional antirheumatic treatment is of high interest. This study aimed to assess the impact of administration of silymarin (a nutritional supplement) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis under treatment with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and twenty-two patients diagnosed with active rheumatoid arthritis and treated with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were randomly assigned to either control or intervention groups; the latter was supplemented with silymarin (300 mg/day) for 8 weeks. Indicators of disease activity, inflammatory markers, disease activity and disability indices, European League Against Rheumatism responses, fatigue, depression, and anxiety scores were determined at baseline and week 8. Results: Silymarin supplementation significantly reduced the number of tender and swollen joints, duration of morning stiffness, severity of pain, disease activity and disability indices, European League Against Rheumatism responses, levels of fatigue, depression, and anxiety. According to our results, silymarin substantially improved patients’ general condition. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence for the benefits of silymarin supplementation to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology and Immunology)
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20 pages, 1766 KiB  
Review
Hepatitis E Virus: What More Do We Need to Know?
by Endrit Shahini, Antonella Argentiero, Alessandro Andriano, Francesco Losito, Marcello Maida, Antonio Facciorusso, Raffaele Cozzolongo and Erica Villa
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060998 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is typically a self-limiting, acute illness that spreads through the gastrointestinal tract but replicates in the liver. However, chronic infections are possible in immunocompromised individuals. The HEV virion has two shapes: exosome-like membrane-associated quasi-enveloped virions (eHEV) found in [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is typically a self-limiting, acute illness that spreads through the gastrointestinal tract but replicates in the liver. However, chronic infections are possible in immunocompromised individuals. The HEV virion has two shapes: exosome-like membrane-associated quasi-enveloped virions (eHEV) found in circulating blood or in the supernatant of infected cell cultures and non-enveloped virions (“naked”) found in infected hosts’ feces and bile to mediate inter-host transmission. Although HEV is mainly spread via enteric routes, it is unclear how it penetrates the gut wall to reach the portal bloodstream. Both virion types are infectious, but they infect cells in different ways. To develop personalized treatment/prevention strategies and reduce HEV impact on public health, it is necessary to decipher the entry mechanism for both virion types using robust cell culture and animal models. The contemporary knowledge of the cell entry mechanism for these two HEV virions as possible therapeutic target candidates is summarized in this narrative review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Hepatitis Research: Updates and Challenges)
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13 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
Inflammatory Biomarkers to Predict Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Carotid Artery Stenosis
by Ben Li, Farah Shaikh, Abdelrahman Zamzam, Rawand Abdin and Mohammad Qadura
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060997 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Inflammatory proteins and their prognostic value in patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS) have not been adequately studied. Herein, we identified CAS-specific biomarkers from a large pool of inflammatory proteins and assessed the ability of these biomarkers to predict adverse [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Inflammatory proteins and their prognostic value in patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS) have not been adequately studied. Herein, we identified CAS-specific biomarkers from a large pool of inflammatory proteins and assessed the ability of these biomarkers to predict adverse events in individuals with CAS. Materials and Methods: Samples of blood were prospectively obtained from 336 individuals (290 with CAS and 46 without CAS). Plasma concentrations of 29 inflammatory proteins were determined at recruitment, and the patients were followed for 24 months. The outcome of interest was a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death). The differences in plasma protein concentrations between patients with vs. without a 2-year MACE were determined using the independent t-test or Mann–Whitney U test to identify CAS-specific prognostic biomarkers. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses with adjustment for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were performed to assess the prognostic value of differentially expressed inflammatory proteins in predicting a 2-year MACE in patients with CAS. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 68.8 (SD 10.2) years and 39% were female. The plasma concentrations of two inflammatory proteins were significantly higher in individuals with a 2-year MACE relative to those without a 2-year MACE: IL-6 (5.07 (SD 4.66) vs. 3.36 (SD 4.04) pg/mL, p = 0.03) and CD163 (233.825 (SD 230.306) vs. 159.673 (SD 175.669) pg/mL, p = 0.033). Over a follow-up period of 2 years, individuals with elevated levels of IL-6 were more likely to develop MACE (HR 1.269 (95% CI 1.122–1.639), p = 0.042). Similarly, over a 2-year period, patients with high levels of CD163 were more likely to develop MACE (HR 1.413 (95% CI 1.022–1.954), p = 0.036). Conclusions: The plasma levels of inflammatory proteins IL-6 and CD163 are independently associated with adverse outcomes in individuals with CAS. These CAS-specific prognostic biomarkers may assist in the risk stratification of patients at an elevated risk of a MACE and subsequently guide further vascular evaluation, specialist referrals, and aggressive medical/surgical management, thereby improving outcomes for patients with CAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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11 pages, 5174 KiB  
Article
Grading Challenges and Prognostic Insights in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study of 72 Patients
by Dimitrios Papanikolaou, Ioannis Sokolakis, Kyriakos Moysidis, Nikolaos Pyrgidis, Mattheos Bobos, Soultana Meditskou and Konstantinos Hatzimouratidis
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060996 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 177
Abstract
Chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) carries the best prognosis among all RCC subtypes, yet it lacks a proper grading system. Various systems have been suggested in the past, causing much controversy, and Avulova et al. recently proposed a promising four-tier grading system that takes into [...] Read more.
Chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) carries the best prognosis among all RCC subtypes, yet it lacks a proper grading system. Various systems have been suggested in the past, causing much controversy, and Avulova et al. recently proposed a promising four-tier grading system that takes into consideration tumor necrosis. Dysregulation of the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a key role in ChRCC pathogenesis, highlighting its molecular complexity. The present retrospective study aimed to evaluate the prognostic factors associated with a more aggressive ChRCC phenotype. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients diagnosed with ChRCC between 2004 and 2017 were included in our study. Pathology reports and tissue blocks were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed in order to assess the expressions of CYLD (tumor-suppressor gene) and mTOR, among other markers. Univariate analysis was performed, and OS was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: In our study, 74% of patients were male, with a mean age of 60 years, and the mean tumor size was 63 mm (±44). The majority (54%) were followed for more than 10 years at intervals ranging between 44 and 222 months. The risk of death was significantly higher for patients that were classified as Grade 4 in the Avulova system (HR: 5.83; 95% CI, 1.37–24.7; p: = 0.017). As far as the IHC is concerned, mTOR expression was associated with an HR of 8.57 (95% CI, 1.91–38.5; p = 0.005), and CYLD expression was associated with an HR of 17.3 (95% CI, 1.57–192; p = 0.02). Conclusions: In our study, the Avulova grading system seems to be positively correlated with OS in patients diagnosed with ChRCC. Furthermore, an elevated mTOR expression also shows a negative correlation with OS, whereas an elevated CYLD expression does not seem to exert a protective role. However, because only a small proportion (4.2%) of our patients died due to ChRCC, despite the long follow-up period, the results must be interpreted with caution. Further research is needed to validate our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urology & Nephrology)
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10 pages, 2004 KiB  
Article
The Potential Neurological Impact of Intraoperative Hyponatremia Using Histidine–Tryptophan–Ketoglutarate Cardioplegia Infusion in Adult Cardiac Surgery
by Yu-Ning Hu, Tsung-Hao Hsieh, Sheng-Fu Liang, Meng-Ta Tsai, Chung-Yao Chien, Chung-Dann Kan and Jun-Neng Roan
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060995 - 18 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: The relationship between histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate (HTK)-induced hyponatremia and brain injury in adult cardiac surgery patients is unclear. This study analyzed postoperative neurological outcomes after intraoperative HTK cardioplegia infusion. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 60 [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The relationship between histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate (HTK)-induced hyponatremia and brain injury in adult cardiac surgery patients is unclear. This study analyzed postoperative neurological outcomes after intraoperative HTK cardioplegia infusion. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 60 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Of these patients, 13 and 47 received HTK infusion and conventional hyperkalemic cardioplegia, respectively. The patients’ baseline characteristics, intraoperative data, brain injury markers, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) data were collected. Electrolyte changes during cardiopulmonary bypass, the degree of hyponatremia, and any associated brain insults were evaluated. Results: The HTK group presented with acute hyponatremia during cardiopulmonary bypass, which was intraoperatively corrected through ultrafiltration and normal saline administration. Postoperative sodium levels were higher in the HTK group than in the conventional cardioplegia group. The change in neuron-specific enolase levels after cardiopulmonary bypass was significantly higher in the HTK group (p = 0.043). The changes showed no significant differences using case–control matching. qEEG analysis revealed a significant increase in relative delta power in the HTK group on postoperative day (POD) 7 (p = 0.018); however, no significant changes were noted on POD 60. The MMSE scores were not significantly different between the two groups on POD 7 and POD 60. Conclusions: HTK-induced acute hyponatremia and rapid correction with normal saline during adult cardiac surgeries were associated with a potential short-term but not long-term neurological impact. Further studies are required to determine the necessity of correction for HTK-induced hyponatremia. Full article
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13 pages, 2442 KiB  
Article
Advanced Interatrial Block across the Spectrum of Renal Function
by Marco Marano, Luigi Senigalliesi, Rossella Cocola, Mariarosaria Fontana, Erika Parente and Vincenzo Russo
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60061001 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Abstract
Background and Objective: Interatrial block (IAB) is defined as a conduction delay between the right and left atria. No data are available about the prevalence of both partial IAB and advanced IAB among the different stages of chronic kidney disease. The aim [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: Interatrial block (IAB) is defined as a conduction delay between the right and left atria. No data are available about the prevalence of both partial IAB and advanced IAB among the different stages of chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and type of advanced IAB across the spectrum of renal function, including patients on dialysis and the clinical characteristics associated with advanced IAB. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, single-center study of 151 patients consecutively admitted to the Nephrology and Ophthalmology Unit for 3 months. The study population was divided into three groups according to stages of chronic kidney disease. We evaluated the prevalence and pattern of IAB among the groups and the clinical characteristics associated with advanced IAB. Results: The prevalence of partial IAB was significantly lower in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) group compared to control group (36.7% vs. 59.6%; p = 0.02); in contrast the prevalence of advanced IAB was significantly higher in both chronic kidney disease (CKD) (17.8% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.04) and ESKD group (24.5% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.005) compared to control group. The atypical pattern of advanced IAB was more frequent in both the ESKD and CKD group than in the control group (100% and 75% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.02). Overall, among patients that showed advanced IAB, 17 (73.9%) showed an atypical pattern by morphology and 2 (8.7%) showed an atypical pattern by duration of advanced IAB. The ESKD group was younger than the control group (65.7 ± 12.3 years vs. 71.3 ± 9.9 years; p = 0.01) and showed a higher prevalence of beta blockers (42.9% vs. 19.3%; p = 0.009), as in the CKD group (37.8% vs. 19.3%; p= 0.04). Conclusions: The progressive worsening of renal function was associated with an increasing prevalence of advanced IAB. Advanced IAB may be a sign of uremic cardiomyopathy and may suggest further evaluation with long-term follow-up to investigate its prognostic significance in chronic kidney disease. Full article
20 pages, 454 KiB  
Review
The Role of Virtual Reality in the Management of Football Injuries
by Andrea Demeco, Antonello Salerno, Marco Gusai, Beatrice Vignali, Vera Gramigna, Arrigo Palumbo, Andrea Corradi, Goda Camille Mickeviciute and Cosimo Costantino
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60061000 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Injuries represent a serious concern for football players, with a significant loss in terms of sport participation and long periods of rehabilitation. According to the 2019/20 UEFA Élite Club Injury Report, the average incidence of injuries during training is 2.8 per 1000 h [...] Read more.
Injuries represent a serious concern for football players, with a significant loss in terms of sport participation and long periods of rehabilitation. According to the 2019/20 UEFA Élite Club Injury Report, the average incidence of injuries during training is 2.8 per 1000 h of training, with an average absence from training of 20 days. In addition, injured athletes are 4 to 7 times more likely to relapse than uninjured athletes. High workloads and reduced recovery periods represent two of the most important modifiable risk factors. In this context, prevention and an adequate rehabilitation protocol are vital in managing injuries, reducing their incidence, and improving the return to competition. In recent years, technological development has provided new tools in rehabilitation, and Virtual reality (VR) has shown interesting results in treating neurologic and orthopedic pathologies. Virtual Reality (VR) technology finds application in the sports industry as a tool to examine athletes’ technical movements. The primary objective is to detect the biomechanical risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Additionally, VR can be used to train athletes in field-specific techniques and create safe and controlled therapeutic environments for post-injury recovery. Moreover, VR offers a customizable approach to treatment based on individual player data. It can be employed for both prevention and rehabilitation, tailoring the rehabilitation and training protocols according to the athletes’ specific needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancement in Upper Limb Rehabilitation and Injury Prevention)
11 pages, 1907 KiB  
Article
Feasibility and Safety of Uniportal Thoracoscopic Segmentectomy Using a Unidirectional Dissection Approach without Dissecting a Fissure
by Hitoshi Igai, Mitsuhiro Kamiyoshihara, Kazuki Numajiri, Fumi Ohsawa and Kazuhito Nii
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060994 - 17 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Background: Few original articles describe the perioperative outcomes of uniportal thoracoscopic segmentectomy using a unidirectional dissection approach. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of this procedure. Methods: This study included 119 patients who underwent uniportal thoracoscopic segmentectomy [...] Read more.
Background: Few original articles describe the perioperative outcomes of uniportal thoracoscopic segmentectomy using a unidirectional dissection approach. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of this procedure. Methods: This study included 119 patients who underwent uniportal thoracoscopic segmentectomy in our department between February 2019 and December 2022. The patients were divided into unidirectional (group U, n = 28) and conventional (group C, n = 91) dissection approach groups. While the dominant pulmonary vessels and bronchi were transected at the hilum without dissecting a fissure in the unidirectional (U) group, the dominant pulmonary artery was exposed and divided at a fissure in the conventional (C) group. Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes were compared between groups U and C. Results: The proportions of simple and complex segmentectomies were statistically similar between the groups. The operating time was shorter (group U: 110 [interqurtile range: 90–140] min, group C: 135 [interqurtile range: 105–166] min, p = 0.012) and there was less blood loss (group U: 0 [interqurtile range: 0–0] g, group C: 0 [interqurtile range: 0–50] g, p = 0.003) in group U than in group C. However, there were no significant intergroup differences in other perioperative outcomes. Conclusions: The unidirectional dissection approach in uniportal thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy is safe and feasible and enables a smoother operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Lung Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment)
10 pages, 404 KiB  
Article
Programmed Intermittent Epidural Bolus Reduces Workloads in Labor Analgesia: A Single Center’s Experience
by Chia-Hung Ou and Wei-Ting Chen
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060993 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Labor epidural analgesia can be maintained through programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB), continuous epidural infusion (CEI), or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). Our department changed from CEI+PCEA to PIEB+PCEA as the maintenance method. The higher hourly dose setting in the current [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Labor epidural analgesia can be maintained through programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB), continuous epidural infusion (CEI), or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). Our department changed from CEI+PCEA to PIEB+PCEA as the maintenance method. The higher hourly dose setting in the current regimen brought to our concern that side effects would increase with proportional staff workloads. This study aimed to investigate the validity of our proposal that PIEB+PCEA may function as a feasible tool in reducing the amount of work in the obstetrics anesthesia units. Materials and methods: This 2-year retrospective review included parturients with vaginal deliveries under epidural analgesia. We compared the staff burden before and after the switch from CEI (6 mL/h, PCEA 6 mL lockout 15 min, group A) to PIEB (8 mL/h, PCEA 8 mL lockout 10 min, group B). The primary outcome was the difference of proportion of parturients requiring unscheduled visits between groups. Side effects and labor and neonatal outcomes were compared. Results: Of the 694 parturients analyzed, the proportion of those requiring unscheduled visits were significantly reduced in group B (20.8% vs. 27.7%, chi-square test, p = 0.033). The multivariate logistic regression showed that PIEB was associated with fewer unscheduled visits than CEI (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.36–0.80], p < 0.01). Group B exhibited a significantly lower incidence of asymmetric blockade, as well as motor blockade. In nulliparous subjects, obstetric anal sphincter injury occurred less frequently when PIEB+PCEA was used. Significantly more multiparous women experienced vacuum extraction delivery in group B than in group A, and they had a longer second stage of labor. Conclusion: The PIEB+PCEA protocol in our study reduced workloads in labor epidural analgesia as compared to CEI+PCEA, despite that a higher dose of analgesics was administered. Future studies are warranted to investigate the effect of manipulating the PIEB settings on the labor outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General and Regional Anesthesia for Perioperative Analgesia)
5 pages, 1274 KiB  
Case Report
Bilateral Visual Impairment following Combination Chemotherapy with Carboplatin in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report
by Jaeha Kim, Junwoo Lee, Seungyeon Lee and Kiyoung Kim
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060992 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Background: Platinum-based combination chemotherapy, including cisplatin and carboplatin, are important cytotoxic anti-cancer agents that are widely used to treat various solid tumors. Carboplatin has a similar effect on survival in small cell lung cancer, but generally has a milder toxicity profile when compared [...] Read more.
Background: Platinum-based combination chemotherapy, including cisplatin and carboplatin, are important cytotoxic anti-cancer agents that are widely used to treat various solid tumors. Carboplatin has a similar effect on survival in small cell lung cancer, but generally has a milder toxicity profile when compared with cisplatin. Both may cause moderate or severe neurotoxicity, but ocular neurotoxicity from carboplatin is rarely reported. Case presentation: A 79-year-old man underwent intravenous polychemotherapy (atezolizumab, etoposide, and carboplatin) for small cell lung cancer. One week after the second cycle of chemotherapy, he reported bilateral visual loss as hand motion in both eyes. Dilated fundus examination showed retinal arterial narrowing without hemorrhage, and diffuse choroidal and retinal thinning was observed in an optical coherence tomography scan. Fluorescein angiography revealed significantly delayed circulation without evidence of obstructive lesions. 30-Flicker electroretinogram testing showed a complete absence of cone response in both eyes. The patient’s visual acuity aggravated to no light perception in both eyes, even after the cessation of chemotherapy. Conclusions: Carboplatin combination chemotherapy administered at therapeutic doses can result in irreversible visual loss, a side effect that is not widely acknowledged. When using carboplatin, physicians should be aware of its potential ocular toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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18 pages, 977 KiB  
Article
Diverse Strategies for Modulating Insulin Resistance: Causal or Consequential Inference on Metabolic Parameters in Treatment-Naïve Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes
by Eiji Kutoh, Alexandra N. Kuto, Rumiko Okada, Midori Akiyama and Rumi Kurihara
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060991 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Bacground and Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate how different therapies modulating insulin resistance, either causally or consequently, affect metabolic parameters in treatment-naïve subjects with T2DM. Subjects and Methods: A total of 212 subjects were assigned to receive [...] Read more.
Bacground and Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate how different therapies modulating insulin resistance, either causally or consequently, affect metabolic parameters in treatment-naïve subjects with T2DM. Subjects and Methods: A total of 212 subjects were assigned to receive either a tight Japanese diet (n = 65), pioglitazone at doses ranging from 15–30 mg/day (n = 70), or canagliflozin at doses ranging from 50–100 mg/day (n = 77) for a duration of three months. Correlations and changes (Δ) in metabolic parameters relative to insulin resistance were investigated. Results: Across these distinct therapeutic interventions, ΔHOMA-R exhibited significant correlations with ΔFBG and ΔHOMA-B, while demonstrating a negative correlation with baseline HOMA-R. However, other parameters such as ΔHbA1c, ΔBMI, ΔTC, ΔTG, Δnon-HDL-C, or ΔUA displayed varying patterns depending on the treatment regimens. Participants were stratified into two groups based on the median value of ΔHOMA-R: the lower half (X) and upper half (Y). Group X consistently demonstrated more pronounced reductions in FBG compared to Group Y across all treatments, while other parameters including HbA1c, HOMA-B, TC, TG, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, or UA exhibited distinct regulatory responses depending on the treatment administered. Conclusions: These findings suggest that (1) regression to the mean is observed in the changes in insulin resistance across these therapies and (2) the modulation of insulin resistance with these therapies, either causally or consequentially, results in differential effects on glycemic parameters, beta-cell function, specific lipids, body weight, or UA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Clinical Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolic Diseases)
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11 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration
by Enrico Borrelli, Sonia Serafino, Federico Ricardi, Andrea Coletto, Giovanni Neri, Chiara Olivieri, Lorena Ulla, Claudio Foti, Paola Marolo, Mario Damiano Toro, Francesco Bandello and Michele Reibaldi
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060990 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Background and objectives: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex and multifactorial condition that can lead to permanent vision loss once it progresses to the neovascular exudative stage. This review aims to summarize the use of deep learning in neovascular AMD. Materials [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex and multifactorial condition that can lead to permanent vision loss once it progresses to the neovascular exudative stage. This review aims to summarize the use of deep learning in neovascular AMD. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search. Results: Deep learning has demonstrated effectiveness in analyzing structural OCT images in patients with neovascular AMD. This review outlines the role of deep learning in identifying and measuring biomarkers linked to an elevated risk of transitioning to the neovascular form of AMD. Additionally, deep learning techniques can quantify critical OCT features associated with neovascular AMD, which have prognostic implications for these patients. Incorporating deep learning into the assessment of neovascular AMD eyes holds promise for enhancing clinical management strategies for affected individuals. Conclusion: Several studies have demonstrated effectiveness of deep learning in assessing neovascular AMD patients and this has a promising role in the assessment of these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinal Diseases: Clinical Presentation and Novel Treatments)
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11 pages, 6669 KiB  
Article
CBP Expression Contributes to Neuropathic Pain via CREB and MeCP2 Regulation in the Spared Nerve Injury Rat Model
by Chae-Chil Lee, Ki-Bong Park, Min Seok Kim and Young Dae Jeon
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060989 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between neuropathic pain and CREB-binding protein (CBP) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) expression levels in a rat model with spared nerve injury (SNI). Materials and Methods: Rat (male Sprague-Dawley white rats) [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between neuropathic pain and CREB-binding protein (CBP) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) expression levels in a rat model with spared nerve injury (SNI). Materials and Methods: Rat (male Sprague-Dawley white rats) models with surgical SNI (n = 6) were prepared, and naive rats (n = 5) were used as controls. The expression levels of CBP and MeCP2 in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were compared through immunohistochemistry at 7 and 14 days after surgery. The relationship between neuropathic pain and CBP/MeCP2 was also analyzed through intrathecal siRNA administration. Results: SNI induced a significant increase in the number of CBPs in L4 compared with contralateral DRG as well as with naive rats. The number of MeCP2 cells in the dorsal horn on the ipsilateral side decreased significantly compared with the contralateral dorsal horn and the control group. SNI induced a significant decrease in the number of MeCP2 neurons in the L4 ipsilateral DRG compared with the contralateral DRG and naive rats. The intrathecal injection of CBP siRNA significantly inhibited mechanical allodynia induced by SNI compared with non-targeting siRNA treatment. MeCP2 siRNA injection showed no significant effect on mechanical allodynia. Conclusions: The results suggest that CBP and MeCP2 may play an important role in the generation of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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10 pages, 948 KiB  
Article
Prevalence, Predictors, and Outcomes of Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Lupus Nephritis
by Sixiu Chen, Junhan Guo, Xiamin Huang, Wei He, Xueqing Yu, Xi Xia and Wei Chen
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060988 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Materials and Methods: Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of 387 patients with LN were retrospectively collected from 2007 to 2017. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Materials and Methods: Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of 387 patients with LN were retrospectively collected from 2007 to 2017. PH was defined as pulmonary artery systolic pressure ≥40 mmHg assessed by resting transthoracic echocardiography. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The secondary endpoint was renal events, defined as the doubling of baseline serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease. Associations between PH and outcomes were analyzed by Cox regression models. Results: A total of 15.3% (59/387) of patients with LN were diagnosed with PH, and the prevalence of PH was higher for patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to those with an eGFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (31.5% vs. 12.6%). Higher mean arterial pressure, lower hemoglobin, and lower triglyceride levels were associated with greater odds of having PH. After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, PH was independently associated with a higher risk for death (HR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.01–4.00; p = 0.047) and renal events (HR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.04–4.12; p = 0.039). Conclusions: PH is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality and adverse renal outcomes in patients with LN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Hypertension: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Management)
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13 pages, 1502 KiB  
Article
Lichen Planus of the Lip—Case Series and Review of the Literature
by Corina Andreea Marcu (Selaru), Ioanina Parlatescu, Serban Tovaru, Carmen Larisa Nicolae, Mariana Costache and Mihaela Tovaru
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060987 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Lichen planus of the lip (LPL) is a chronic inflammatory condition that resembles actinic cheilitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, graft-versus-host disease, and lichenoid reaction to dental materials or drugs. The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Lichen planus of the lip (LPL) is a chronic inflammatory condition that resembles actinic cheilitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, graft-versus-host disease, and lichenoid reaction to dental materials or drugs. The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review on lichen planus lip involvement and to report a retrospective observational study that characterises and explores the clinical, histopathological, and evolution of the lesions in a group of patients with unique involvement of LPL. Materials and Methods: Clinical data of patients diagnosed with LPL was retrieved from the medical charts of the patients referred to the Oral Pathology Department of the “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy. A concurrent electronic literature research was carried out using PubMed and Web of Science from 2003 to 2023. Results: Eleven patients diagnosed with unique LPL were analysed (male/female ratio was 1.75, mean age 63.64 years ± 12.52). All patients presented lesions of the lower lip; the clinical forms were atrophic (six cases) and erosive (five cases), and the histopathological exam confirmed the diagnosis. After topical treatment with corticosteroids, most of the patients had complete remission. The literature review revealed 24 studies (sixteen case reports and eight case series) which comprised 84 patients. Isolated lip involvement was reported in 17 studies, and five articles with concomitant oral lichen planus, while two articles did not mention this criterion. Conclusions: Our study brings new data on isolated lichen planus of the lip that primarily affects the lower lip with predominance in male patients. It was reported worldwide in patients between 22 and 75 years old. Topical corticosteroids were the main treatment prescribed and they usually brought remission of the lesions. Lichen planus of the lip is a challenging diagnosis for oral health practitioner providers as well as for dermatologists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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12 pages, 876 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Bowing Measurement of Distal Femur at Actual Size and Clinical Implications of Total Knee Arthroplasty
by Gu-Hee Jung, Young-Jue An and Dong-Geun Kang
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060986 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Background and Objectives: To assess femoral shaft bowing (FSB) in coronal and sagittal planes and introduce the clinical implications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by analyzing a three-dimensional (3D) model with virtual implantation of the femoral component. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: To assess femoral shaft bowing (FSB) in coronal and sagittal planes and introduce the clinical implications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by analyzing a three-dimensional (3D) model with virtual implantation of the femoral component. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight patients (average age: 69.1 years) underwent 3D model reconstruction of medullary canals using computed tomography (CT) data imported into Mimics® software(version 21.0). A mechanical axis (MA) line was drawn from the midportion of the femoral head to the center of the intercondylar notch. Proximal/distal straight centerlines (length, 60 mm; diameter, 1 mm) were placed in the medullary canal’s center. Acute angles between these centerlines were measured to assess lateral and anterior bowing. The acute angle between the distal centerline and MA line was measured for distal coronal and sagittal alignment in both anteroposterior (AP) and lateral views. The diameter of curve (DOC) along the posterior border of the medulla was measured. Results: The mean lateral bowing in the AP view was 3.71°, and the mean anterior bowing in the lateral view was 11.82°. The average DOC of the medullary canal was 1501.68 mm. The average distal coronal alignment of all femurs was 6.40°, while the distal sagittal alignment was 2.66°. Overall, 22 femurs had coronal bowing, 42 had sagittal bowing, and 15 had both. Conclusions: In Asian populations, FSB can occur in coronal, sagittal, or both planes. Increased anterolateral FSB may lead to cortical abutment in the sagittal plane, despite limited space in the coronal plane. During TKA, distal coronal alignment guides the distal femoral valgus cut angle, whereas distal sagittal alignment aids in predicting femoral component positioning to avoid anterior notching. However, osteotomies along the anterior cortical bone intended to prevent notching may result in outliers due to differences between the distal sagittal alignment and the distal anterior cortical axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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Article
Sutureless Dehydrated Amniotic Membrane (Omnigen) Application Using a Specialised Bandage Contact Lens (OmniLenz) for the Treatment of Dry Eye Disease: A 6-Month Randomised Control Trial
by Sònia Travé-Huarte and James S. Wolffsohn
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060985 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Dry Eye Disease (DED) is a chronic condition characterised by tear film instability and ocular surface disruption, significantly impacting patients’ quality of life. This study aimed to provide top-level clinical evidence for the long-term efficacy of dehydrated amniotic membrane [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Dry Eye Disease (DED) is a chronic condition characterised by tear film instability and ocular surface disruption, significantly impacting patients’ quality of life. This study aimed to provide top-level clinical evidence for the long-term efficacy of dehydrated amniotic membrane (dAM, Omnigen®) delivered via a specialised bandage contact lens (sBCL, OmniLenz) for managing moderate-to-severe DED. Materials and Methods: This randomised controlled trial (NCT04553432) involved 93 participants with moderate-to-severe DED, randomised to receive a 1-week bilateral treatment of either dAM (17 mm diameter with 6 mm central ‘window’) applied under a sBCL or sBCL alone. Participants were assessed at baseline and followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months post-treatment. Outcomes included changes in symptomatology, tear film and ocular surface measurements, and in vivo confocal microscopy imaging of corneal nerve parameters and corneal dendritic cell (CDC) counts. Results: The dAM-sBCL group demonstrated a 65% reduction in OSDI scores at 6 months (p < 0.001), with 88% of participants showing improvement at 1 month. Corneal staining was significantly reduced in both groups. dAM-sBCL provided significant improvements in corneal nerve parameters at 1 month, with sustained positive trends at 3 months. Additionally, dAM-sBCL significantly reduced mature CDC counts, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Conclusions: Treatment with dAM-sBCL for just 1 week significantly and rapidly improved dry eye symptoms as well as ocular surface signs for at least 3 months. It also enhanced corneal nerve health while reducing activated/mature corneal inflammatory cell numbers, presenting a safe and promising new treatment for moderate-to-severe DED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Management of Ocular Surface Disease)
11 pages, 757 KiB  
Article
Serum Endocan Is a Risk Factor for Aortic Stiffness in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis
by Tsung-Jui Wu, Chih-Hsien Wang, Yu-Hsien Lai, Chiu-Huang Kuo, Yu-Li Lin and Bang-Gee Hsu
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060984 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Endocan, secreted from the activated endothelium, is a key player in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and angiogenesis. We aimed to investigate the link between endocan and aortic stiffness in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. Materials [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Endocan, secreted from the activated endothelium, is a key player in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and angiogenesis. We aimed to investigate the link between endocan and aortic stiffness in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. Materials and Methods: After recruiting HD patients from a medical center, their baseline characteristics, blood sample, and anthropometry were assessed and recorded. The serum endocan level was determined using an enzyme immunoassay kit, and carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) measurement was used to evaluate aortic stiffness. Results: A total of 122 HD patients were enrolled. Aortic stiffness was diagnosed in 53 patients (43.4%), who were found to be older (p = 0.007) and have a higher prevalence of diabetes (p < 0.001) and hypertension (p = 0.030), higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.011), and higher endocan levels (p < 0.001), when compared with their counterparts. On the multivariate logistic regression model, the development of aortic stiffness in patients on chronic HD was found to be associated with endocan [odds ratio (OR): 1.566, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.224–2.002, p < 0.001], age (OR: 1.040, 95% CI: 1.001–1.080, p = 0.045), and diabetes (OR: 4.067, 95% CI: 1.532–10.798, p = 0.005), after proper adjustment for confounders (adopting diabetes, hypertension, age, systolic blood pressure, and endocan). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.713 (95% CI: 0.620–0.806, p < 0.001) for predicting aortic stiffness by the serum endocan level, at an optimal cutoff value of 2.68 ng/mL (64.15% sensitivity, 69.57% specificity). Upon multivariate linear regression analysis, logarithmically transformed endocan was proven as an independent predictor of cfPWV (β = 0.405, adjusted R2 change = 0.152; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The serum endocan level positively correlated with cfPWV and was an independent predictor of aortic stiffness in chronic HD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Disease and Hemodialysis)
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17 pages, 930 KiB  
Article
Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Risk of Perceived Stress and Poor Sleep Quality in Young Adults
by Antonios Dakanalis, Gavriela Voulgaridou, Olga Alexatou, Sousana K. Papadopoulou, Constantina Jacovides, Agathi Pritsa, Maria Chrysafi, Elena Papacosta, Maria G. Kapetanou, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Marina Antonopoulou, Maria Mitsiou, Georgios Antasouras and Constantinos Giaginis
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060983 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Overweight and obesity are growing public health challenges, particularly concerning young adults. University life presents a unique set of stressors that may influence weight management alongside sleep quality. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate the association between [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Overweight and obesity are growing public health challenges, particularly concerning young adults. University life presents a unique set of stressors that may influence weight management alongside sleep quality. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate the association between overweight or obesity, stress, and sleep quality in a large sample of Greek university students. Materials and Methods: The study recruited 2116 active students from across various Greek universities. Participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, academic performance, and physical activity levels using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Stress and sleep quality were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), respectively. Body weight and height were directly measured to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Results: Our analysis of 2116 Greek university students revealed significant associations between various factors and overweight/obesity. Compared to their rural counterparts, young adults in urban areas had an 88% higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (p = 0.0056). Regular smokers were twice as likely to be overweight or obese (p = 0.0012). Notably, those with low physical activity levels displayed a more than two-fold increased risk (p = 0.0008) compared to those with moderate or high activity levels. Similarly, students with moderate or high perceived stress levels had a more than two-fold prevalence of overweight/obesity compared to those with low stress (p = 0.0005). Inadequate sleep quality was also associated with an 86% higher risk of overweight/obesity (p = 0.0007). Interestingly, good academic performance showed a 57% greater prevalence of overweight/obesity compared to very good/excellent performance (p = 0.0103). Conclusions: Our findings reveal that perceived stress and poor sleep quality are significant risk factors for overweight and obesity in this young adult population. Full article
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7 pages, 3724 KiB  
Case Report
Cardiac-to-Bronchial Fistula in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case Report
by Hung-Hsu Chen, Yu-Hung Lai, Chin-Chu Wu and Wen-Pei Hsieh
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060982 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stands as a significant contributor to cancer-related mortality globally. While the acute and often fatal manifestations of locally advanced HCC primarily present within the abdomen, it is crucial to recognize that the respiratory and circulatory systems can also fall victim [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stands as a significant contributor to cancer-related mortality globally. While the acute and often fatal manifestations of locally advanced HCC primarily present within the abdomen, it is crucial to recognize that the respiratory and circulatory systems can also fall victim due to the liver’s unique anatomical position within the body. Here, we present the case of a 63-year-old male recently diagnosed with locally advanced HCC with vascular invasion. Shortly after receiving target therapy and focal radiotherapy, the patient developed repeated secondary infections and a persistent diaphragmatic defect. As the necrotic tissue invaded the pleural space, subsequent tumor-to-bronchial and tumor-to-cardiac fistulas emerged, resulting in an abnormal connection between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, leading to massive air emboli in circulation. This report highlights the risk of supradiaphragmatic complications in HCC patients with post-treatment secondary infections, particularly in patients predisposed to developing diaphragmatic defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatology)
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3 pages, 216 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Bažadona et al. The Interconnection between Carotid Intima–Media Thickness and Obesity: Anthropometric, Clinical and Biochemical Correlations. Medicina 2023, 59, 1512
by Christian Saleh
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060981 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 133
Abstract
In a recently published paper in Medicina, Bažadona et al [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology)
9 pages, 5399 KiB  
Case Report
Gastric Metastasis Mimicking Early Gastric Cancer from Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast: Case Report and Literature Review
by Kwon Cheol Yoo, Dae Hoon Kim, Sungmin Park, HyoYung Yun, Dong Hee Ryu, Jisun Lee and Seung-Myoung Son
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060980 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Backgound and Objectives: Gastric metastasis from invasive ductal breast cancer (BC) is rare. It mainly occurs in patients with lobular BC. The occurrence of multiple metastases is typically observed several years after the primary diagnosis. Endoscopic findings of gastric metastasis of the [...] Read more.
Backgound and Objectives: Gastric metastasis from invasive ductal breast cancer (BC) is rare. It mainly occurs in patients with lobular BC. The occurrence of multiple metastases is typically observed several years after the primary diagnosis. Endoscopic findings of gastric metastasis of the BC were usually the linitis plastic type. Case presentation: A 72-year-old women who underwent right modified radical mastectomy (MRM) 10 month ago was referred after being diagnosed with early gastric cancer (EGC) during systemic chemotherapy. EGC type I was found at gastric fundus, and pathologic finding showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Metachronous double primary tumor EGC was considered. Management and Outcome: A laparoscopic total gastrectomy was performed, and postoperative pathology revealed submucosa invasion and two lymph node metastases. A pathologic review that focused on immunohistochemical studies of selected antibodies such as GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), cytokeratin 7 (CK7) was performed again, comparing previous results. As a result, gastric metastasis from BC was diagnosed. After totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy, palliative first-line chemotherapy with paclitaxel/CDDP was performed. Two months after gastrectomy, she was diagnosed with para-aortic lymph node metastasis and multiple bone metastases. She expired six months after gastrectomy. Conclusions: Gastric metastasis from invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, which is clinically manifested as EGC, is a very rare condition. If there is a history of BC, careful pathological review will be required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgery)
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15 pages, 350 KiB  
Review
Diagnosis and Medical Treatment of Acute and Chronic Idiopathic Pouchitis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Corina Meianu, Tudor Stroie, Doina Istratescu, Carmen Monica Preda and Mihai Mircea Diculescu
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060979 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Despite the decreased rates in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) colectomies due to high advances in therapeutic options, a significant number of patients still require proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPPA) for ulcerative colitis (UC). Pouchitis is the most common complication in these patients, [...] Read more.
Despite the decreased rates in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) colectomies due to high advances in therapeutic options, a significant number of patients still require proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPPA) for ulcerative colitis (UC). Pouchitis is the most common complication in these patients, where up to 60% develop one episode of pouchitis in the first two years after UC surgery with IPAA with severe negative impact on their quality of life. Acute cases usually respond well to antibiotics, but 15% of patients will still develop a refractory disease that requires the initiation of advanced immunosuppressive therapies. For chronic idiopathic pouchitis, current recommendations suggest using the same therapeutic options as for IBD in terms of biologics and small molecules. However, the available data are limited regarding the effectiveness of different biologics or small molecules for the management of this condition, and all evidences arise from case series and small studies. Vedolizumab is the only biologic agent that has received approval for the treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active chronic refractory pouchitis. Despite the fact that IBD treatment is rapidly evolving with the development of novel molecules, the presence of pouchitis represents an exclusion criterion in these trials. Recommendations for the approach of these conditions range from low to very low certainty of evidence, resulting from small randomized controlled trials and case series studies. The current review focuses on the therapeutic management of idiopathic pouchitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
17 pages, 1211 KiB  
Article
Beyond the Preventive Measures: A Delphi Method-Based Study of the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mental Health of Different Age Groups
by Eva Sedlašek, Nina Krohne, Polonca Borko, Ives Zemljarič, Robert Masten, Matej Vinko, Diego De Leo and Vita Poštuvan
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060978 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preventive measures affected various aspects of people’s lives, while also representing an important risk factor for people’s mental health. In the present study, we examined the negative psychological consequences of the preventive measures on people’s [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preventive measures affected various aspects of people’s lives, while also representing an important risk factor for people’s mental health. In the present study, we examined the negative psychological consequences of the preventive measures on people’s mental health and the protective factors that strengthened their mental health and well-being during the pandemic. Materials and Methods: A study, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods based on a Delphi protocol, was conducted with a sample of Slovenian professionals who worked with people from different demographic groups (i.e., children and adolescents, emerging adults, the adult working population, the elderly) during the pandemic. We conducted (i) a qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 11 professionals and (ii) a quantitative study where 73 professionals completed a structured online questionnaire. Results: Experts recognized the disruption of informal face-to-face social contacts as the measure with the greatest impact on people’s lives across all groups studied, the effect being particularly evident in relation to individuals’ development period and socio-demographic characteristics. An individual’s ability to adapt to change and emotional support provided by family or other close persons contributed significantly to maintaining mental health and well-being during the pandemic. Conclusions: Considering the interplay of various COVID-19-related risk and protective factors for mental health, enabling and promoting the maintenance and development of social relationships (including through alternative pathways) should be a priority aspect of (mental health) intervention for all demographic groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Mental Health Crisis during SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic—Part 2)
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8 pages, 2227 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness and Complications of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis of Kellgren–Lawrence Grades II–III
by Ji-Hoon Baek, Su Chan Lee, Dong Nyoung Lee, Hye Sun Ahn and Chang Hyun Nam
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060977 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 210
Abstract
This study aimed to identify the effectiveness and potential complications on the harvest site and knee of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) treatment of patients with Kellgren–Lawrence (K–L) grades II–III knee osteoarthritis (OA) over a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. This study [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify the effectiveness and potential complications on the harvest site and knee of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) treatment of patients with Kellgren–Lawrence (K–L) grades II–III knee osteoarthritis (OA) over a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. This study retrospectively evaluated data from 231 patients (285 knees) with knee OA treated with BMAC articular injection at a single center from August 2023 to October 2023. The inclusion criteria were a longstanding knee pain unresponsive to conservative treatments for at least 6 weeks with K–L grades II–III OA. The exclusion criteria were age of <40 years or >80 years, previous knee surgery, rheumatological or other systemic disease, malignancy, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or infections. Bone marrow was aspirated from the anterior iliac crest and concentrated by the single-spin centrifugation technique. The visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and Knee Society Score were used to evaluate the clinical outcomes and complications associated with harvest and injection sites were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 7.2 months (range: 6–8 months). The pretreatment VAS pain score decreased from 4.3 to 0.4 points at the final follow-up (p < 0.05). Pretreatment Knee Society knee and function scores were improved from 86.9 to 98.1 (p < 0.05) and from 68.4 to 83.3 points (p < 0.05), respectively. A total of 15 complications (5.3%, 15/285) were observed, including 3 hematomas, 2 numbness, 2 contact dermatitis, and 1 superficial infection in the harvest site and 4 mild and moderate swelling and 3 severe swelling and pain in the injection site. BMAC is a reliable and effective treatment for patients with K–L grades II–III knee OA, but the orthopedic surgeon should consider that bleeding tendency by heparin causes severe joint swelling and pain after intra-articular knee injection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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15 pages, 2556 KiB  
Article
Clinical Impact of Thermotherapy and Spinal Twisting Massage on Chronic Non-Specific Spinal Pain
by Syung Hyun Cho, Un Mo Jeong and Sung Hoon Kim
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060976 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 221
Abstract
As the prevalence of chronic non-specific spinal pain rises, the utilization of diverse massage devices for therapeutic intervention increases rapidly. However, research on their mechanisms, particularly those involving spinal twisting, is limited. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of heat application [...] Read more.
As the prevalence of chronic non-specific spinal pain rises, the utilization of diverse massage devices for therapeutic intervention increases rapidly. However, research on their mechanisms, particularly those involving spinal twisting, is limited. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of heat application and spinal twisting massage techniques on individuals suffering from chronic non-specific spinal pain. A total of 36 individuals were divided into two groups: a control group (18 participants) and an experimental group (18 participants). The experimental group received heat treatment plus spinal twisting massage twice a week for four weeks, while the control group received heat therapy plus traditional vibration massage techniques. Effectiveness was measured using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT), the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (K-WOMAC) Index, spine tilt, and Cobb angle. VAS, K-WOMAC, and PPT significantly improved in both groups at all three time points. VAS notably decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group (p-value: 0.0369). Despite improvements in K-WOMAC and PPT scores within the experimental group, statistical significance remained elusive. Furthermore, spine tilt and Cobb angle showed no significant differences from baseline to the 6th week. In conclusion, the application of thermotherapy coupled with twisting massage demonstrates significant efficacy in mitigating chronic non-specific spinal pain, surpassing the pain-relief outcomes achieved through heat therapy in combination with standard vibration massage techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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10 pages, 1227 KiB  
Article
Temporary Ureter Occlusion with Simultaneous Urinary Diversion via a Single-Access Route Using a 4-French Balloon Catheter and a Pigtail Nephrostomy Drainage Catheter
by Chang Hoon Oh, Soo Buem Cho, Sang Lim Choi, Sungwon Kim and Hyeyoung Kwon
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060975 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of temporary ureteral occlusion combined with urinary diversion using a single-access route created by inserting a balloon catheter through a pigtail nephrostomy drainage catheter. With this approach, we aimed to offer an [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of temporary ureteral occlusion combined with urinary diversion using a single-access route created by inserting a balloon catheter through a pigtail nephrostomy drainage catheter. With this approach, we aimed to offer an alternative for patients with ureteral leaks who are suboptimal surgical candidates. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included nine patients (eight of which were bilateral cases and one was unilateral, totaling seventeen cases) who underwent the surgery between September 2023 and March 2024. The method involved gaining percutaneous access to the pelvicalyceal system, inserting a 4-French Fogarty balloon catheter through a pigtail nephrostomy catheter, and inflating the balloon at the proximal or mid-ureter. Results: All 17 cases achieved technical successful with no major complications. The procedure effectively relieved symptoms associated with urinary leakage in most patients. However, the significant deflation of the balloon catheter occurred in five cases (29.4%), with three (17.6%) experiencing complete deflation. In these five cases, the final balloon size was 5.81 mm (range: 0–8.9 mm), confirming a 25.0% decrease in size from pre- to post-procedure. Ureteral occlusion was 28.3 d long on average (range: 8–57 d). All patients experienced symptom relief during temporary ureteral occlusion. Except for two patients lost to follow-up, three patients showed symptom improvement with only PCN and four patients underwent surgical closure of the fistula tract before or after balloon catheter removal. Conclusions: This study confirms that this approach is safe and effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urology & Nephrology)
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7 pages, 760 KiB  
Case Report
The Association of a Single Nucleotide Variant in COL5A1 to Early Onset Keratoconus and Pectus Excavatum—Convergence of Extracellular Matrix Pathologies
by Griffin Bryant, Peyton Moore and Mohanakrishnan Sathyamoorthy
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060974 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Keratoconus is a bilateral ocular condition characterized by irregularities and the thinning of the cornea. Decreased central corneal thickness is a hallmark of the condition, and numerous genes have played a role in altering corneal thickness and the subsequent development of keratoconus. Variants [...] Read more.
Keratoconus is a bilateral ocular condition characterized by irregularities and the thinning of the cornea. Decreased central corneal thickness is a hallmark of the condition, and numerous genes have played a role in altering corneal thickness and the subsequent development of keratoconus. Variants in the structural and regulatory genes of the extracellular matrix have been highly associated with keratoconus, as well as with pectus excavatum, a chest wall deformity commonly seen in connective tissue disorders. This report describes a patient with a c.1720-11T>A intronic variant in the collagen-encoding gene, COL5A1, who was diagnosed with early-onset keratoconus and demonstrated a significant pectus excavatum. This report associates a COL5A1 variant with these seemingly unrelated phenotypic associations, further advancing the literature on the topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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11 pages, 609 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Iodinated Contrast Media Sensitivity on the Prognosis of Patients with STEMI
by Alon L. Roguin, Edo Y. Birati and Ofer M. Kobo
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060973 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 207
Abstract
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM) is used daily in many imaging departments worldwide. The main risk associated with ICM is hypersensitivity. When a severe hypersensitivity reaction is not properly managed and treated swiftly, it may be fatal. Currently, [...] Read more.
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM) is used daily in many imaging departments worldwide. The main risk associated with ICM is hypersensitivity. When a severe hypersensitivity reaction is not properly managed and treated swiftly, it may be fatal. Currently, there is no data to demonstrate how ICM sensitivity affects the prognosis of cardiac patients, especially those diagnosed with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom urgent coronary angiography is indicated. This study aimed to identify and characterize this relationship. Materials and Methods: We included patients hospitalized with STEMI between 2016 and 2019 from the National Inpatient Sample. The population was compared based on ICM sensitivity status, sensitive vs. non-sensitive. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, with additional endpoints: length of stay and in-hospital complications. Results: The study included 664,620 STEMI patients, of whom 4905 (0.7%) were diagnosed with ICM sensitivity. ICM-sensitive patients were older, more often white, females, and had more comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Both groups show similarities in management but are slightly less probable to undergo PCI or CABG. Multivariable logistic regression models found that the ICM-sensitive population had similar odds of in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.89–1.16) and MACCE (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95–1.16), and less major bleeding (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60–0.87). Conclusions: Our study found that ICM sensitivity status was not a significant factor for worse prognosis in patients hospitalized with STEMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Acute Coronary Syndrome Diagnosis and Management)
18 pages, 2278 KiB  
Review
Bridging the Diagnostic Gap between Histopathologic and Hysteroscopic Chronic Endometritis with Deep Learning Models
by Kotaro Kitaya, Tadahiro Yasuo and Takeshi Yamaguchi
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060972 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Chronic endometritis (CE) is an inflammatory pathologic condition of the uterine mucosa characterized by unusual infiltration of CD138(+) endometrial stromal plasmacytes (ESPCs). CE is often identified in infertile women with unexplained etiology, tubal factors, endometriosis, repeated implantation failure, and recurrent pregnancy loss. Diagnosis [...] Read more.
Chronic endometritis (CE) is an inflammatory pathologic condition of the uterine mucosa characterized by unusual infiltration of CD138(+) endometrial stromal plasmacytes (ESPCs). CE is often identified in infertile women with unexplained etiology, tubal factors, endometriosis, repeated implantation failure, and recurrent pregnancy loss. Diagnosis of CE has traditionally relied on endometrial biopsy and histopathologic/immunohistochemistrical detection of ESPCs. Endometrial biopsy, however, is a somewhat painful procedure for the subjects and does not allow us to grasp the whole picture of this mucosal tissue. Meanwhile, fluid hysteroscopy has been recently adopted as a less-invasive diagnostic modality for CE. We launched the ARCHIPELAGO (ARChival Hysteroscopic Image-based Prediction for histopathologic chronic Endometritis in infertile women using deep LeArninG mOdel) study to construct the hysteroscopic CE finding-based prediction tools for histopathologic CE. The development of these deep learning-based novel models and computer-aided detection/diagnosis systems potentially benefits infertile women suffering from this elusive disease. Full article
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