Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Dentistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 July 2024 | Viewed by 22871

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few years, dentistry has expanded its research aspects and its cooperation with other disciplines.

The development of new technologies, materials, and methods has created collaboration and union between dentistry and medicine. This has occurred in all branches of dentistry: conservative, endodontics, periodontics, implantology, oral surgery, and orthodontics. Therefore, this Special Issue demonstrates the new discoveries in dentistry with the scientific evidence of medicine. The relationship between medicine and dentistry also affects periodontal diseases. Therefore, papers on the correlation between various medical specialties are accepted. In addition, with increasing age and disease, the dentist must know how to treat patients with comorbidities.

Authors conducting studies on these topics are welcome to submit original research articles, reviews, short communications, case series, and case reports.

Dr. Stefano Rizza
Dr. Rocco Franco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral health
  • new materials
  • medical approach
  • periodontal disease
  • bruxism
  • oral surgery

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1502 KiB  
Article
Lichen Planus of the Lip—Case Series and Review of the Literature
by Corina Andreea Marcu (Selaru), Ioanina Parlatescu, Serban Tovaru, Carmen Larisa Nicolae, Mariana Costache and Mihaela Tovaru
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060987 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Lichen planus of the lip (LPL) is a chronic inflammatory condition that resembles actinic cheilitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, graft-versus-host disease, and lichenoid reaction to dental materials or drugs. The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Lichen planus of the lip (LPL) is a chronic inflammatory condition that resembles actinic cheilitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, graft-versus-host disease, and lichenoid reaction to dental materials or drugs. The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review on lichen planus lip involvement and to report a retrospective observational study that characterises and explores the clinical, histopathological, and evolution of the lesions in a group of patients with unique involvement of LPL. Materials and Methods: Clinical data of patients diagnosed with LPL was retrieved from the medical charts of the patients referred to the Oral Pathology Department of the “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy. A concurrent electronic literature research was carried out using PubMed and Web of Science from 2003 to 2023. Results: Eleven patients diagnosed with unique LPL were analysed (male/female ratio was 1.75, mean age 63.64 years ± 12.52). All patients presented lesions of the lower lip; the clinical forms were atrophic (six cases) and erosive (five cases), and the histopathological exam confirmed the diagnosis. After topical treatment with corticosteroids, most of the patients had complete remission. The literature review revealed 24 studies (sixteen case reports and eight case series) which comprised 84 patients. Isolated lip involvement was reported in 17 studies, and five articles with concomitant oral lichen planus, while two articles did not mention this criterion. Conclusions: Our study brings new data on isolated lichen planus of the lip that primarily affects the lower lip with predominance in male patients. It was reported worldwide in patients between 22 and 75 years old. Topical corticosteroids were the main treatment prescribed and they usually brought remission of the lesions. Lichen planus of the lip is a challenging diagnosis for oral health practitioner providers as well as for dermatologists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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10 pages, 1952 KiB  
Article
Laser Forced Dehydration of Benign Vascular Lesions of the Oral Cavity: A Valid Alternative to Surgical Techniques
by Margherita Gobbo and Luca Guarda-Nardini
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050822 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Low-flow vascular lesions are commonly encountered in the oral cavity and may require removal due to aesthetic concerns, repeated bleeding or a cluttering sensation. Laser devices represent an excellent aid due to their affinity with blood and to their [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Low-flow vascular lesions are commonly encountered in the oral cavity and may require removal due to aesthetic concerns, repeated bleeding or a cluttering sensation. Laser devices represent an excellent aid due to their affinity with blood and to their biostimulating properties and have been substituting traditional excision in selected cases. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 patients presenting with low-flow oral vascular lesions were included. The lesions were clinically evaluated as follows: lesion’s site, reason for treatment, lesion’s dimensions, confirmation of positive diascopy via compression with a glass slide and photograph. The lesions were treated with laser forced dehydration (LFD) and then followed-up after 3 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. The laser source was a K-Laser Blu Derma (Eltech, K-Laser S.r.l., Via Castagnole, 20/H, Treviso, Italy). In the case of incomplete healing, a further protocol was performed at the three-week follow-up, and a further follow-up was scheduled for three weeks after. The following aspects were evaluated at each appointment: pain, using a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) from 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain ever); the need to take painkillers (day of intervention and during follow-up); bleeding (yes/no); scar formation. Results: Complete regression was obtained in all patients, with no side effects. Only one patient required a second LFD protocol. NRS was 0 for all patients for the whole duration of the follow-up. None of the patients took painkillers on the day of the intervention and during the follow-up. One patient declared slight bleeding the day of the intervention, which she easily managed at home. One patient showed a small non-retracting and non-painful scar at the three-week follow-up. No recurrences were found after six months and one year. Conclusions: LFD targets endogenous chromophores, minimizing damage to adjacent tissue and limiting side effects. LFD is effective and could be considered a conservative alternative to traditional excision in low-flow lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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12 pages, 2507 KiB  
Article
Dental Treatment in Special Needs Patients and Uncooperative Young Children: A Retrospective Study
by Matteo Biasotto, Augusto Poropat, Davide Porrelli, Giulia Ottaviani, Katia Rupel, Magdalena Theodora Bogdan Preda, Roberto Di Lenarda and Margherita Gobbo
Medicina 2024, 60(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60010091 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Special Needs Patients (SNPs) and young non-collaborative children are more predisposed to develop oral pathologies due to poor collaboration and scarce access to dental treatment. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze a sample of SNPs who received [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Special Needs Patients (SNPs) and young non-collaborative children are more predisposed to develop oral pathologies due to poor collaboration and scarce access to dental treatment. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze a sample of SNPs who received dental treatments either under general anesthesia (GA) or deep sedation (DS) over a period of 6 years. The number and type of procedure were analyzed. Materials and Methods: In total, 131 patients were included and mostly (>90%) treated under GA. Patients were either uncooperative and phobic (Group 1) or affected by mental, behavioral, and neurological disorders (Group 2), diseases of the nervous system (Group 3), or developmental anomalies (Group 4). Results: Patients in Group 2 required more invasive dental treatments than those in the other groups. Therapies were mainly preventive and restorative, except in Groups 3 and 4, where extractions were more frequent. The type of dental treatment significantly varied according to age and systemic condition. Only 5.3% of the patients needed a second intervention, despite only 17.6% of patients respecting the scheduled follow-up. Conclusions: Treatment under GA is effective, but the poor adherence to follow-ups and the risk of reintervention should be contrasted by improving the perception by parents/guardians of the importance of oral hygiene and periodic visits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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10 pages, 1499 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Crataegi fructus Extract Used for Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases
by Seoul-Hee Nam
Medicina 2024, 60(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60010013 - 21 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect and cytotoxic potential of the natural Crataegi fructus extract against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the causative agent of dental caries, which is a typical oral disease, and Candida albicans (C. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect and cytotoxic potential of the natural Crataegi fructus extract against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the causative agent of dental caries, which is a typical oral disease, and Candida albicans (C. albicans), which causes oral candidiasis. Materials and Methods: Crataegi fructus was shaken in 70% ethanol for 12 h to obtain samples through enrichment and lyophilization. Then, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/mL of the Crataegi fructus extract were applied to S. mutans and C. albicans to demonstrate its antimicrobial effect after 24 h. The stability of Crataegi fructus extract on the survival rate of human keratinocytes (HaCaT) was confirmed using water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) analysis. A one-way ANOVA determined the difference between each group. A Tukey HSD test was performed as a post-hoc analysis at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Crataegi fructus extract showed antimicrobial effects against S. mutans and C. albicans that increased in a concentration-dependent manner. However, high concentrations affected cell growth and lowered cell survival. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of Crataegi fructus extract showed a survival rate of 53.04% at a concentration of 30 mg/mL, which was found to be applicable. Conclusions: Thus, Crataegi fructus extract may be used as a natural material for the prevention and treatment of oral diseases. Crataegi fructus demonstrates optimal antimicrobial effects without affecting cell proliferation and growth at 30 mg/mL concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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13 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Caries Lesion Assessment Using 3D Virtual Models by Examiners with Different Degrees of Clinical Experience
by Ioana Porumb (Chifor), Daniel-Corneliu Leucuta, Marion Nigoghossian, Bogdan Culic, Patricia Ondine Lucaciu, Carina Culic, Iulia Clara Badea, Alexa-Nicole Leghezeu, Andra Gabriela Nicoara and Meda-Romana Simu
Medicina 2023, 59(12), 2157; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59122157 - 13 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Dental caries is a preventable, reversible disease in its early stages. This study evaluated the intra-rater agreement of International Caries Assessment and Detection System (ICDAS) scores with Medit i500® and Omnicam® scanners versus traditional clinical examinations and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Dental caries is a preventable, reversible disease in its early stages. This study evaluated the intra-rater agreement of International Caries Assessment and Detection System (ICDAS) scores with Medit i500® and Omnicam® scanners versus traditional clinical examinations and the inter-rater agreement using the Omnicam® among senior dentists and dental students and between these two groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients aged between 21 and 34 years, randomly selected from dental students and interns, underwent four examinations (three intraoral scans and one clinical examination), and the corresponding ICDAS scores were recorded by a randomly selected rater out of the 31 available examiners. The examination team consisted of dental students, dentists with less than 3 years, and dentists with more than 5 years of clinical experience. The following inter- and intra-rater agreement tests for the ordinal data were chosen: Fleiss’ kappa coefficient, Cohen’s weighted kappa, and inter-class correlations. Results: For all examination techniques, there was statistically significant agreement for the experienced raters (p < 0.05). The highest positive interclass correlation was obtained for inter-rater agreement tests of 288 observations recorded by senior dentists: ICC = 0.969 (95% CI 0.949–0.981). Conclusions: Intra-rater reliability was excellent for Omnicam compared to clinical exams conducted by senior dentists but moderate for Medit i500. Although inter-rater agreement using Omnicam was poor between students and between senior dentists and students, it was excellent among senior dentists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
10 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
Non-Communicable Diseases and Associated Risk Factors in Burning Mouth Syndrome Patients
by Ioanina Parlatescu, Cosmin Dugan, Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu, Serban Tovaru, Maria Dobre and Elena Milanesi
Medicina 2023, 59(12), 2085; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59122085 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a group of non-transmissible conditions that tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental, and behavioral factors. Although an association between oral disorders and NCDs has [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a group of non-transmissible conditions that tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental, and behavioral factors. Although an association between oral disorders and NCDs has been suggested, the relationship between Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) and NCDs and their associated risk factors has not been deeply investigated. In this study, we aim to identify associations between BMS and NCDs in the Romanian population. Materials and Methods: Ninety-nine BMS patients and 88 age-matched controls (aged 50 and over) were clinically evaluated for the presence of eight noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their most common risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, and obesity. Results: The results of our study showed that the BMS in the Romanian population seems to be significantly associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) (p < 0.001) and two of their risk factors, hypertension (p < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (p < 0.001). Moreover, evaluating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in the individuals not affected by CVDs (73 CTRL and 38 BMS), we found that 13.2% of BMS patients reported a moderate risk of developing CVDs in ten years, compared to the controls, all of whom presented a low risk (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a multidisciplinary clinical approach, which also includes a cardiovascular evaluation, is essential for the successful management of BMS. Moreover, these data highlighted the importance of introducing an integrated strategy for the prevention and care of NCDs in BMS patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
8 pages, 2496 KiB  
Article
Accelerated Oral Healing by Angelica gigas Nakai from Hot Melt Extrusion Technology: An In Vitro Study
by Ju Ri Ye, Ha Yeon Lee, Yea-Jin Park, Yong Kwon Chae, Hyo-Jin An, Jong-Suep Baek and Ok Hyung Nam
Medicina 2023, 59(12), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59122066 - 23 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
Background and Objectives: In spite of the oral environment being healing-prone, its dynamic changes may affect wound healing. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral wound healing effect of Angelica gigas Nakai (AG) prepared by hot-melt extrusion. Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: In spite of the oral environment being healing-prone, its dynamic changes may affect wound healing. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral wound healing effect of Angelica gigas Nakai (AG) prepared by hot-melt extrusion. Materials and Methods: Human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells were treated with AG or AG via hot-melt extrusion (AGH) for 24 h to determine the optimal concentration. For evaluating the anti-inflammatory effect of AG and AGH, a nitric oxide assay was performed under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The wound-healing effects of AG and AGH were evaluated using cell proliferation/migration assays and wound-healing marker expression through qRT-PCR. Results: Both AG and AGH showed no cytotoxicity on HGH cells. Regarding nitric oxide production, AGH significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide production (p < 0.05). AGH showed a significantly positive result in the cell proliferation/cell migration assay compared with that in AG and the control. Regarding wound healing marker expression, AGH showed significantly greater VEGF and COL1α1 expression levels than those in the others (p < 0.05), whereas α-SMA expression was significantly different among the groups. Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, AGH accelerated oral wound healing in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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11 pages, 1803 KiB  
Article
Orthodontic Implementation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Predicting Some Linear Dental Arch Measurements and Preventing Anterior Segment Malocclusion: A Prospective Study
by Aras Maruf Rauf, Trefa Mohammed Ali Mahmood, Miran Hikmat Mohammed, Zana Qadir Omer and Fadil Abdullah Kareem
Medicina 2023, 59(11), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59111973 - 9 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Orthodontics is a field that has seen significant advancements in recent years, with technology playing a crucial role in improving diagnosis and treatment planning. The study aimed to implement artificial intelligence to predict the arch width as a preventive [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Orthodontics is a field that has seen significant advancements in recent years, with technology playing a crucial role in improving diagnosis and treatment planning. The study aimed to implement artificial intelligence to predict the arch width as a preventive measure to avoid future crowding in growing patients or even in adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment as a tool for orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and fifty intraoral scan (IOS) images were selected from orthodontic patients seeking treatment in private orthodontic centers. Real inter-canine, inter-premolar, and inter-molar widths were measured digitally. Two of the main machine learning models were used: the Python programming language and machine learning algorithms, implementing the data on k-nearest neighbor and linear regression. Results: After the dataset had been implemented on the two ML algorithms, linear regression and k-nearest neighbor, the evaluation metric shows that KNN gives better prediction accuracy than LR does. The resulting accuracy was around 99%. Conclusions: it is possible to leverage machine learning to enhance orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning by predicting linear dental arch measurements and preventing anterior segment malocclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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16 pages, 7940 KiB  
Article
Effects of Increasing the Orthodontic Forces over Cortical and Trabecular Bone during Periodontal Breakdown—A Finite Elements Analysis
by Radu-Andrei Moga, Cristian Doru Olteanu, Mircea Daniel Botez, Stefan Marius Buru and Ada Gabriela Delean
Medicina 2023, 59(11), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59111964 - 7 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Herein we used numerical analysis to study different biomechanical behaviors of mandibular bone subjected to 0.6 N, 1.2 N, and 2.4 N orthodontic loads during 0–8 mm periodontal breakdown using the Tresca failure criterion. Additionally, correlations with earlier FEA reports [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Herein we used numerical analysis to study different biomechanical behaviors of mandibular bone subjected to 0.6 N, 1.2 N, and 2.4 N orthodontic loads during 0–8 mm periodontal breakdown using the Tresca failure criterion. Additionally, correlations with earlier FEA reports found potential ischemic and resorptive risks. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one models (nine patients) and 243 simulations (intrusion, extrusion, rotation, tipping, and translation) were analyzed. Results: Intrusion and extrusion displayed after 4 mm bone loss showed extended stress display in the apical and middle third alveolar sockets, showing higher ischemic and resorptive risks for 0.6 N. Rotation, translation, and tipping displayed the highest stress amounts, and cervical-third stress with higher ischemic and resorptive risks after 4 mm loss for 0.6 N. Conclusions: Quantitatively, rotation, translation, and tipping are the most stressful movements. All three applied forces produced similar stress-display areas for all movements and bone levels. The stress doubled for 1.2 N and quadrupled for 2.4 N when compared with 0.6 N. The differences between the three loads consisted of the stress amounts displayed in color-coded areas, while their location and extension remained constant. Since the MHP was exceeded, a reduction in the applied force to under 0.6 N (after 4 mm of bone loss) is recommended for reducing ischemic and resorptive risks. The stress-display pattern correlated with horizontal periodontal-breakdown simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

17 pages, 630 KiB  
Review
Effect of Treating Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Women to Reduce the Risk of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight: An Umbrella Review
by Heber Isac Arbildo-Vega, Tania Padilla-Cáceres, Luz Caballero-Apaza, Fredy Hugo Cruzado-Oliva, Vilma Mamani-Cori, Sheyla Cervantes-Alagón, Hernán Vásquez-Rodrigo, Franz Tito Coronel-Zubiate, Rubén Aguirre-Ipenza, Joan Manuel Meza-Málaga, Sara Antonieta Luján-Valencia, Tania Belú Castillo-Cornock and Katherine Serquen-Olano
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060943 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Background: The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of periodontal disease (PD) treatment in pregnant women to reduce the risk of preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW) by conducting an umbrella review. Methods: A comprehensive search [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of periodontal disease (PD) treatment in pregnant women to reduce the risk of preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW) by conducting an umbrella review. Methods: A comprehensive search for the literature up to April 2024 was conducted across multiple databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, Scielo, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, and OpenGrey. We specifically targeted systematic reviews (SRs) with or without meta-analyses, irrespective of language or time constraints, focusing on primary studies examining the effect of PD treatment in pregnant women to reduce the risk of PB and LBW. Various types of non-systematic reviews, intervention studies, observational studies, preclinical and basic research, summaries, comments, case reports, protocols, personal opinions, letters, and posters were excluded from consideration. The quality and overall confidence of the included studies were assessed using the AMSTAR–2 tool. Results: After the initial search, 232 articles were identified, of which only 24 met the selection criteria after exclusion. The majority of these studies indicated that periodontal treatment reduces the risk of PB and LBW. Conclusions: According to the findings and conclusions drawn from the SRs with a high overall confidence level, PD treatment in pregnant women reduces the risk of PB and LBW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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12 pages, 2614 KiB  
Review
Association of Entamoeba gingivalis with Periodontal Disease—Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Alexandru Vlasa, Anamaria Bud, Luminita Lazar, Ana Petra Lazar, Alexander Herbert and Eugen Bud
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050736 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 868
Abstract
The oral cavity is a habitat to a diverse range of organisms that make up an essential element of the human microbiota. There are up to 1000 species of micro-organisms capable of colonizing the mouth. Thirty percent of them are uncultivable. The genus [...] Read more.
The oral cavity is a habitat to a diverse range of organisms that make up an essential element of the human microbiota. There are up to 1000 species of micro-organisms capable of colonizing the mouth. Thirty percent of them are uncultivable. The genus Entamoeba includes several species, out of which at least seven of them are able to inhabit the human body (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba hartmann, Entamoeba gingivalis). It was shown that only E. gingivalis is able to colonize the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association and prevalence of E. gingivalis in periodontal disease using two electronic database search engines. In order to have a broader view of the subject, a comprehensive manual search was conducted between 15th February 2023 and 1 April 2023 on these content aggregators and the initial search resulted in 277 articles using the keywords “E. gingivalis”, “periodontitis”, “E. gingivalis”, “periodontal disease”, “prevalence”, and “incidence”, in different combinations. The results showed that 755 patients were infected with E. gingivalis out of a total number of 1729 patients diagnosed with periodontal disease, indicating a global prevalence of 43% in the set of patients analyzed. E. gingivalis was prevalent in 58% of the patients that had gingivitis and in 44% of the patients with periodontitis. Prevalence of E. gingivalis based on gender was 43% in female patients and 47% in male patients. The results indicate that the higher incidence of E. gingivalis in people with periodontal disease compared to healthy people is more than just a sign of the disease; it could also be linked to the severity of the condition and the disease propensity to progress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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15 pages, 318 KiB  
Review
Introduction to Amniotic Membranes in Maxillofacial Surgery—A Scoping Review
by Grzegorz Dawiec, Wojciech Niemczyk, Rafał Wiench, Stanisław Niemczyk and Dariusz Skaba
Medicina 2024, 60(4), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60040663 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Background: Amniotic membrane (AM) holds significant promise in various medical fields due to its unique properties and minimal ethical concerns. This study aims to explore the diverse applications of the human amniotic membrane (HAM) in maxillofacial surgery. Methodology: A comprehensive search was conducted [...] Read more.
Background: Amniotic membrane (AM) holds significant promise in various medical fields due to its unique properties and minimal ethical concerns. This study aims to explore the diverse applications of the human amniotic membrane (HAM) in maxillofacial surgery. Methodology: A comprehensive search was conducted on databases, namely Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus, from January 1985 to March 2024. Articles in English, Polish, and Spanish were included, focusing on keywords related to amniotic membrane and oral surgery. Results: Various preservation methods for HAM were identified, namely fresh, decellularized, cryopreserved, lyophilized, and air-dried formats. Clinical studies demonstrated the efficacy of HAM in repairing oral mucosal defects, vestibuloplasty, oronasal fistula closure, cleft palate treatment, bone defect repair, and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Surgeon evaluations highlighted the ease of handling but noted challenges in suturing and stability during application. Conclusions: Amniotic membranes offer a versatile and effective option in maxillofacial surgery, promoting wound healing, reducing inflammation, and providing a scaffold for tissue regeneration. Further research, including randomized trials and comparative studies, is warranted to validate the efficacy and optimize the utilization of HAM in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
25 pages, 796 KiB  
Review
Association between Periodontal Disease and Obesity: Umbrella Review
by Heber Isac Arbildo-Vega, Fredy Hugo Cruzado-Oliva, Franz Tito Coronel-Zubiate, Rubén Aguirre-Ipenza, Joan Manuel Meza-Málaga, Sara Antonieta Luján-Valencia, Eduardo Luján-Urviola and Carlos Alberto Farje-Gallardo
Medicina 2024, 60(4), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60040621 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 937
Abstract
Objective: Determine the association between periodontal disease (PD) and obesity through an umbrella review. Materials and Methods: A search for information until March 2024 was carried out in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane library, Scopus, SciELO, Web of Science, Google [...] Read more.
Objective: Determine the association between periodontal disease (PD) and obesity through an umbrella review. Materials and Methods: A search for information until March 2024 was carried out in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane library, Scopus, SciELO, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, and OpenGrey. We included studies that were systematic reviews (SR) with or without meta-analysis, without time or language restrictions, that evaluated primary studies that associated PD with obesity. Literary or narrative reviews, rapid reviews, intervention studies, observational studies, preclinical and basic research, summaries, comments, case reports, protocols, personal opinions, letters, and posters were excluded. The AMSTAR-2 tool was used to determine the quality and overall confidence of the included studies. Results: The preliminary search yielded a total of 419 articles, discarding those that did not meet the selection criteria, leaving only 14 articles. All studies reported that PD was associated with obesity, with an OR and RR ranging from 1.1 to 1.46 and 1.64 to 2.21, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the results and conclusions of the SR with a high overall confidence level, PD is associated with obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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17 pages, 30088 KiB  
Review
New Perspectives in Third Molar Auto-Transplantation: Literature Review and a Case Report of Clinical, Financial and Forensic Implications
by Alessandra Putrino, Enrico Marinelli, Alessandro Agrillo and Simona Zaami
Medicina 2024, 60(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60030473 - 13 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Third molar extraction is the most common procedure in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Third molars are considered less functional than other teeth and are often extracted. Sometimes, they are also used for auto-transplantation for the benefit of oral rehabilitation. Since many biological factors [...] Read more.
Third molar extraction is the most common procedure in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Third molars are considered less functional than other teeth and are often extracted. Sometimes, they are also used for auto-transplantation for the benefit of oral rehabilitation. Since many biological factors are involved in this surgical approach, herein, we outline a review of the biological characteristics of medico-legal/forensic interest, in addition to presenting a successful clinical case. A scoping review of currently available research data (following the principles of PRISMA-ScR or the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews) on third molar auto-transplantation was conducted by drawing upon the main databases (Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar and LILACS) to evaluate biological and clinical characteristics possibly relatable to forensic issues. All the collected data were summarized and elaborated on for the purpose of this article. A patient underwent extraction of the right upper first molar and auto-transplantation of the unerupted ipsilateral third molar. Many biologic and clinical factors are involved in the success of this clinical procedure. Knowledge of third molar anatomy, of its development and viable surgical approaches are all essential elements; just as important are the treatment of the tooth before and after transplantation and the integrity of the periodontal ligament. Follow-up of the clinical case for 5 years made it possible to verify the stability of the procedure over time. Third molar auto-transplantation is feasible and cost-effective. However, the use of third molars as donor teeth in auto-transplantation may have medico-legal implications. The lack of official protocols and consistent evidence-based guidelines for operators still prevent such a procedure from becoming mainstream; therefore, it is viewed with suspicion by clinicians and patients, even though the biological factors herein detected point to a reasonably high degree of safety. The understanding of many specific biological and clinical factors involved in the stability of third molar auto-transplantation allows for a thorough understanding of the forensic implications relevant to clinical practice. Effective communication and information provision are therefore of utmost importance, in the interest of both patients and doctors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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18 pages, 15766 KiB  
Review
Infraocclusion in the Primary and Permanent Dentition—A Narrative Review
by Paulina Adamska, Hanna Sobczak-Zagalska, Marcin Stasiak, Łukasz Jan Adamski, Dorota Pylińska-Dąbrowska, Sandra Barkowska, Adam Zedler and Michał Studniarek
Medicina 2024, 60(3), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60030423 - 1 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
The gradual movement of a tooth away from the occlusal plane is called infraocclusion or reinclusion. Reincluded teeth are most often deciduous molars, and permanent teeth are less frequently affected. Depending on the level of the infraocclusion, the severity of the disorder is [...] Read more.
The gradual movement of a tooth away from the occlusal plane is called infraocclusion or reinclusion. Reincluded teeth are most often deciduous molars, and permanent teeth are less frequently affected. Depending on the level of the infraocclusion, the severity of the disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The etiology of the phenomenon is not fully known. Tooth submerging can lead to serious complications, such as abnormal position of adjacent teeth, displacement of the bud of the permanent successor, shortening of the dental arch, or developmental disturbances of alveolar process. Early diagnosis of the tooth infraocclusion and regular monitoring of its progression help to avoid serious permanent sequelae. The treatment of reinclusion often involves only observation. However, in some cases, the therapeutic procedure requires interdisciplinary treatment by specialists from various fields of dentistry. This study presents current methods of diagnosis and treatment of patients with submerged teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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19 pages, 4588 KiB  
Case Report
Local Oxygen-Based Therapy (blue®m) for Treatment of Peri-Implant Disease: Clinical Case Presentation and Review of Literature about Conventional Local Adjunct Therapies
by Marwa Y. Shaheen, Irfan Abas, Amani M. Basudan and Hamdan S. Alghamdi
Medicina 2024, 60(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60030447 - 8 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Peri-implant diseases including peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis are among the major causes of failure of implant-supported dental restorations. They are characterized by progressive inflammation of the peri-implant mucosa, extending to the surrounding connective tissues and leading to bone loss and implant failure. Although [...] Read more.
Peri-implant diseases including peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis are among the major causes of failure of implant-supported dental restorations. They are characterized by progressive inflammation of the peri-implant mucosa, extending to the surrounding connective tissues and leading to bone loss and implant failure. Although strict oral hygiene practices help in preventing peri-implant diseases, plaque buildup around the implant restoration leads to chronic inflammation, due to the adherent bacterial biofilm. While mechanical debridement and non-surgical therapy to remove inflamed connective tissue (ICT) form the mainstay of treatment, additional local adjunctive therapies enhance clinical outcomes. Topical oxygen therapy is known to reduce inflammation, increase vascularity, and act as a bacteriostatic measure. The use of oxygen-based therapy (blue®m) products as a local adjunctive therapy for peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis can result in clinical outcomes similar to that of conventional local adjuncts such as chlorhexidine, antibiotics, and antibacterial agents. This report aims to present the clinical findings of patients with peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, who were managed using local oxygen-based therapy as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. In addition, a review of the literature about commonly used local adjuncts for peri-implant diseases has been included in the report to provide a means of comparison between conventional local adjunct therapy and topical oxygen-based therapy. Based on the reported findings and reviewed literature, local oxygen-based adjunct therapy was equally effective as conventionally used local adjuncts such as antibiotics, antibacterials, and probiotics, in treating patients with peri-implant diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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10 pages, 14468 KiB  
Case Report
Expediting the Rehabilitation of Severely Resorbed Ridges Using a Combination of CAD-CAM and Analog Techniques: A Case Report
by Carlos A. Jurado, Francisco X. Azpiazu-Flores, Chin-Chuan Fu, Silvia Rojas-Rueda, Gerardo Guzman-Perez and Franciele Floriani
Medicina 2024, 60(2), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60020260 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1066
Abstract
With the life expectancy increasing, there is a growing need for prosthetic dental treatments to restore the oral health, function, and quality of life of edentulous patients. Presently, only a few articles are available describing the oral rehabilitation of patients with severely resorbed [...] Read more.
With the life expectancy increasing, there is a growing need for prosthetic dental treatments to restore the oral health, function, and quality of life of edentulous patients. Presently, only a few articles are available describing the oral rehabilitation of patients with severely resorbed ridges with milled complete dentures. This clinical case report provides a straightforward protocol consisting of a combination of analog and digital techniques for the rehabilitation of edentulous patients with severely resorbed ridges with milled fixed and removable complete dentures. This technique permits the minimization of the number of appointments, improves patient comfort, allows for the digital archiving of important clinical data, and permits the manufacture of prostheses with improved mechanical properties. These favorable outcomes were achieved by using the patient’s existing PMMA complete denture as a custom tray for a final impression with light-bodied Polyvinylsiloxane. Subsequently, the resulting models were digitized, and a digital complete denture was designed and manufactured in an expedited manner using CAD-CAM techniques. Therefore, this case report highlights the potential of CAD/CAM technology to predictably restabilize oral functions and improve patients’ quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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20 pages, 17257 KiB  
Case Report
Orthodontic Treatment of Palatally Impacted Canines in Severe Non-Syndromic Oligodontia with the Use of Mini-Implants: A Case Report
by Marcin Stasiak, Aleksandra Kołodziejska and Bogna Racka-Pilszak
Medicina 2023, 59(11), 2032; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59112032 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
Background: The risk of palatally displaced canines (PDCs) rises in patients with tooth agenesis. The orthodontic extrusion and alignment of PDCs require adequate anchorage to enable tooth movement and control the side effects. There is no paper presenting treatment in the case [...] Read more.
Background: The risk of palatally displaced canines (PDCs) rises in patients with tooth agenesis. The orthodontic extrusion and alignment of PDCs require adequate anchorage to enable tooth movement and control the side effects. There is no paper presenting treatment in the case of severe oligodontia with simultaneous PDCs and the use of mini-implants (MIs) for their orthodontic extrusion. Case presentation: A 15-year-old patient presented with non-syndromic oligodontia and bilateral PDCs. Cone beam computed tomography revealed that both PDCs were in proximity to the upper incisors’ roots. There was no evident external root resorption of the incisors. The “canines first” approach was chosen. MIs were used both as direct and indirect anchorage. First, the extrusive forces of cantilevers were directed both occlusally and distally. Next, the buccal directions of forces were implemented. Finally, fixed appliances were used. PDCs were extruded, aligned, and torqued. Proper alignment and occlusion were achieved to enable further prosthodontic restorations. Conclusions: The use of MIs made it possible to avoid collateral effects, reduce the risk of complications, and treat the patient effectively. MIs provide adequate anchorage in demanding cases. The use of MIs for the extrusion of PDCs made it possible to offer this treatment option to patients with severe oligodontia. The presented protocol was effective and served to circumvent treatment limitations associated with an inadequate amount of dental anchorage and a high risk of root resorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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13 pages, 5474 KiB  
Case Report
Type I Dentin Dysplasia: The Literature Review and Case Report of a Family Affected by Misrecognition and Late Diagnosis
by Alessandra Putrino, Martina Caputo, Angela Galeotti, Enrico Marinelli and Simona Zaami
Medicina 2023, 59(8), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59081477 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Type I dentin dysplasia (DD-I) is a rare genetic disorder with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance at risk of late or long-misunderstood diagnosis because the teeth, compared to other degenerative dentin diseases, do not have coronal defects and/or alterations [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Type I dentin dysplasia (DD-I) is a rare genetic disorder with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance at risk of late or long-misunderstood diagnosis because the teeth, compared to other degenerative dentin diseases, do not have coronal defects and/or alterations but only at the root level (absent, conical, pointed roots, and obliterated pulp canals). The first radiographic suspicion often occurs only in case of sudden mobility and/or abscesses of the permanent teeth. Genetic tests confirm the diagnosis. Case Presentation: This case report describes the oral and radiographic characteristics of two siblings, 12 and 10 years old, a male and a female, at an early age affected by DD-I, whose diagnosis was made for a first orthodontic visit. The father and the older child had already undergone dental and orthodontic treatments, respectively, without the disease being suspected by the dentist. Results: Genetic tests support the diagnosis of DD-I. Following the diagnosis, the patients began a process of close periodic checks every 3–4 months to monitor their situation. The male child lost upper lateral incisors, which were then replaced with a light nylon removable prosthesis. Conclusions: The ability to recognize the radiographic features characteristic of DD-I is very important to avoid prejudicial diagnostic delays and to be able to plan the long-term treatment of these patients better, especially when the pathology was primarily misrecognized in the family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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