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Sensors, Volume 2, Issue 5 (May 2002) – 3 articles , Pages 164-194

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1583 KiB  
Article
Conducting Polymers Functionalized with Phthalocyanine as Nitrogen Dioxide Sensors
by S. Radhakrishnan and S. D. Deshpande
Sensors 2002, 2(5), 185-194; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20500185 - 15 May 2002
Cited by 75 | Viewed by 8424
Abstract
The conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene were functionalized with copper phthalocyanine using chemical oxidation method. The obtained polymers viz. PANI-CuPc, PPy-CuPc and PT-CuPc were studied as chemical sensors by their response characteristics after exposure to various chemical vapors such as [...] Read more.
The conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene were functionalized with copper phthalocyanine using chemical oxidation method. The obtained polymers viz. PANI-CuPc, PPy-CuPc and PT-CuPc were studied as chemical sensors by their response characteristics after exposure to various chemical vapors such as methanol, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The results obtained showed that these polymers have moderate sensitivity towards the methanol as well as ammonia vapors whereas they show tremendous sensitivity towards nitrogen dioxide vapors. The sensitivity factor of as high as 50,000 was obtained for PT-CuPc polymers in nitrogen dioxide. In comparison to this, the sensitivity factors of about 100 and 40 were obtained, when these polymers were exposed to ammonia and methanol vapors. The very high selectivity towards the nitrogen dioxide was explained on the basis of charge transfer complex formed between, the phthalocyanine donor and nitrogen dioxide acceptor molecules. On the other hand, ammonia becomes a competing electron donor in CuPc containing conducting polymers. The very low response towards the methanol may be explained on the basis very little charge transfer / interaction between CuPc containing polymers and methanol. Thus, CuPc incorporated conducting polymers have much higher selectivity than their original homopolymer. Full article
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177 KiB  
Article
γ-radiation Sensor Using Optical and Electrical Properties of Manganese Phthalocyanine (MnPc) Thick Film
by A. Arshak, S. Zleetni and K. Arshak
Sensors 2002, 2(5), 174-184; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20500174 - 12 May 2002
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 8367
Abstract
Manganese phthaloyanine polymer thick films were fabricated using screenprinting techniques. The optical parameters were obtained from the analysis of the absorption spectra over a wavelength range of 385-900nm. The d.c. electrical measurements were carried out in a range of 0-30 volts. The effects [...] Read more.
Manganese phthaloyanine polymer thick films were fabricated using screenprinting techniques. The optical parameters were obtained from the analysis of the absorption spectra over a wavelength range of 385-900nm. The d.c. electrical measurements were carried out in a range of 0-30 volts. The effects of γ-radiation on the optical and the electrical properties were investigated for dosimetry applications. The optical energy band gaps of these films showed a decrease in their values with the increase in the radiation dose. The electronic transition has changed from direct allowed for the as-printed films (unexposed to γ-rays) to indirect allowed for the irradiated samples. Both the as-printed and irradiated Ag/MnPc/Ag devices demonstrated a Schottky conduction mechanism. Both the absorbance and the capacitance of the MnPc thick films displayed a highly consistent linear response to γ-ray exposure. Full article
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155 KiB  
Article
Membranes of 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-Methoxyphenyl) Porphyrinatocobalt (TMOPP-Co) (I) as MoO42- - Selective Sensors
by Vinod K. Gupta, S. Chandra, D. K. Chauhan and R. Mangla
Sensors 2002, 2(5), 164-173; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20500164 - 12 May 2002
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 8058
Abstract
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes based on porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4methoxyphenyl)porphyrinatocobalt (TMOPP-Co) (I) incorporating sodium tetra phenyl borate (NaTPB) as anion excluder and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared [...] Read more.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes based on porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4methoxyphenyl)porphyrinatocobalt (TMOPP-Co) (I) incorporating sodium tetra phenyl borate (NaTPB) as anion excluder and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and tested for selective detection of molybdate ions. The membrane having anion excluder, NaTPB and DBP as plasticizer (membrane no. 2) proved to be best in terms of working concentration range 5.0×10-5 – 1.0×10-1M with a near – Nernstian slope of 32.0±1.0 mV/decade of activity over the pH range 5.4- 10.5. The response time of this sensor is 18s with a lifetime of about 4 months. The sensor can be used in non-aqueous medium with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range for the estimation of MoO42- in solutions having up to 25% (v/v) non-aqueous fraction. Full article
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